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(2011-09-02 10:15:48)







分类: 飞盒_产业信息


飞盒游戏设计培训转载 www.freeboxgame.com




So, the headlines say somebody else has died due to video game addiction. Yes, it's Korea again.
What the hell? Look, I'm not saying video games are heroin. I totally get that the victims had other shit going on in their lives. But, half of you reading this know a World of Warcraft addict and experts say video game addiction is a thing.

嗯 最近呢 报纸的头条说又有人因为沉迷游戏而死了。

So here's the big question: Are some games intentionally designed to keep you compulsively playing, even when you're not enjoying it?


Oh, hell yes. And their methods are downright creepy.


#5. Putting You in a Skinner Box

If you've ever been addicted to a game or known someone who was, this article is really freaking disturbing.

It's written by a games researcher at Microsoft on how to make video games that hook players, whether they like it or not. He has a doctorate in behavioral and brain sciences.

"Each contingency is an arrangement of time, activity, and reward, and there are an infinite number of ways these elements can be combined to produce the pattern of activity you want from your players."

Notice his article does not contain the words "fun" or "enjoyment." That's not his field. Instead it's "the pattern of activity you want."

"...at this point, younger gamers will raise their arms above their head, leaving them vulnerable."

His theories are based around the work of BF Skinner, who discovered you could control behavior by training subjects with simple stimulus and reward.

他的理论基于B. F. Skinner。这个人发现,控制生物的行为只需要用简单的赏罚措施来训练目标。

He invented the "Skinner Box," a cage containing a small animal that, for instance, presses a lever to get food pellets.

他发明的Skinner box斯金纳箱 ,用来控制小动物,比如拉一个杆或者按按钮就可以得到食物

This sort of thing caused games researcher Nick Yee to once call Everquest a "Virtual Skinner Box."
这玩意的发明导致了游戏研究者 Nick Yee 把《无尽的任务》称为Skinner虚拟实验室。

So What's The Problem?

Gaming has changed. It used to be that once they sold us a $50 game, they didn't particularly care how long we played.The big thing was making sure we liked it enough to buy the next one.

But the industry is moving toward subscription-based games like MMO's that need the subject to keep playing--and paying--until the sun goes supernova.


Now, there's no way they can create enough exploration or story to keep you playing for thousands of hours, so they had to change the mechanics of the game, so players would instead keep doing the same actions over and over and over, whether they liked it or not. So game developers turned to Skinner's techniques.


This is a big source of controversy in the world of game design right now. Braid creator Jonathan Blow said Skinnerian game mechanics are a form of "exploitation." It's not that these games can't be fun. But they're designed to keep gamers subscribing during the periods when it's not fun, locking them into a repetitive slog using Skinner's manipulative system of carefully scheduled rewards.

这个目前在游戏设计方面是一个很大的争论。《时空环境》的设计者 Jonathan Blow认为Skinner这种模式的游戏机理是一种剥削形式。它不是那种“好玩的游戏”,而是设计出来让玩家定期辛勤地劳作,通过Skinner用来控制生物的奖赏惩罚制度把他们牢牢的栓在电脑前不断的猛击鼠标键盘。

Why would this work, when the "rewards" are just digital objects that don't actually exist? Well...
你想问为什么这种方法会奏效,那些奖励都只是一些电子代码啊? 那么请看下面。

#4. Creating Virtual Food Pellets For You To Eat

Most addiction-based game elements are based on this fact:

Your brain treats items and goods in the video game world as if they are real. Because they are.



People scoff at this idea all the time ("You spent all that time working for a sword that doesn't even exist?") and those people are stupid. If it takes time, effort and skill to obtain an item, that item has value, whether it's made of diamonds, binary code or beef jerky.


I have easily 500 hours in Zelda bottles.

That's why the highest court in South Korea ruled that virtual goods are to be legally treated the same as real goods. And virtual goods are now a $5 billion industry worldwide.


There's nothing crazy about it. After all, people pay thousands of dollars for diamonds, even though diamonds do nothing but look pretty. A video game suit of armor looks pretty and protects you from video game orcs. In both cases you're paying for an idea.


Happy anniversary, honey.

So What's The Problem?

Of course, virtually every game of the last 25 years has included items you can collect in the course of defeating the game--there's nothing new or evil about that. But because gamers regard in-game items as real and valuable on their own, addiction-based games send you running around endlessly collecting them even if they have nothing to do with the game's objective.



It is very much intentional on the developers' part, an appeal to our natural hoarding and gathering instincts, collecting for the sake of collecting. It works, too, just ask the guy who kept collecting items even while naked boobies sat just feet away. Boobies.

游戏开发者明显故意利用我们贮藏和收集物品的动物本性,让我们永远刷怪刷怪刷怪。 这种方法很见效的,不信你看这儿就有一人,尽管边儿上坐着一个性感尤物却执着刷怪做任务。。 http://kotaku.com/5384643/i-kept ... my-gaming-addiction

As the article from the Microsoft guy proves, developers know they're using these objects as pellets in a Skinner box. At that point it's all about...


#3. Making You Press the Lever

So picture the rat in his box. Or, since I'm one of these gamers and don't like to think of myself as a rat, picture an adorable hamster. Maybe he can talk, and is voiced by Chris Rock.


If you want to make him press the lever as fast as possible, how would you do it? Not by giving him a pellet with every press--he'll soon relax, knowing the pellets are there when he needs them. No, the best way is to set up the machine so that it drops the pellets at random intervals of lever pressing. He'll soon start pumping that thing as fast as he can. Experiments prove it.


See? Proof.

They call these "Variable Ratio Rewards" in Skinner land and this is the reason many enemies "drop" valuable items totally at random in WoW. This is addictive in exactly the same way a slot machine is addictive. You can't quit now because the very next one could be a winner. Or the next. Or the next.

这叫“变动的暴率”,这就是为什么在魔兽世界里,怪物掉的东西都是随机的。。这就跟老虎机勾住人是一个意思。"也许再玩一次就大奖呢?=  也许下一个怪就掉我的装备了呢?"

The ** MMO ZT Online has the most devious implementation of this I've ever seen. The game is full of these treasure chests that may or may not contain a random item and to open them, you need a key. How do you get the keys? Why, you buy them with real-world money, of course. Like coins in a slot machine.


And that's hardly the most ridiculous aspect of the game.

Now, in addition to the gambling element, you have thousands of players in competition with each other, to see who can be the most obsessive about opening the chests. One woman tells of how she spent her entire evening opening chests--over a thousand--to try to win the daily prize.

She didn't. There was always someone else more obsessed.


So What's The Problem?

Are you picturing her sitting there, watching her little character in front of the chest, clicking dialogue boxes over and over, watching the same animation over and over, for hour after hour?


If you didn't know any better, you'd think she had a crippling mental illness. How could she possibly get from her rational self to that Rain Man-esque compulsion?

如果不懂她在做什么的话,你会以为她有严重的心理疾病 :“她怎么可能从一个好妹子变成了一个窝在家里的宅?”

BF Skinner knew. He called that training process "shaping." Little rewards, step by step, like links in a chain. In WoW you decide you want the super cool Tier 10 armor. You need five separate pieces. To get the full set, you need more than 400 Frost Emblems, which are earned a couple at a time, from certain enemies. Then you need to upgrade each piece of armor with Marks of Sanctification. Then again with Heroic Marks of Sanctification. To get all that you must re-run repetitive missions and sit, clicking your mouse, for days and days and days. Boobies be damned.

BF Skinner管这种过程叫塑形.用小奖励,一步一步,一环扣一环地把你控制住.
所以你又得回去原来的地方继续刷怪,日日夜夜,不停的点着鼠标. Boobies be damned(啥意思)。

Once it gets to that point, can you even call that activity a "game" anymore? It's more like scratching a rash. And it gets worse...

一旦你明白了,你还管这些叫"游戏"吗? 这更像是挠蚊子包,越挠越痒.并且还变的更恶劣了....

#2. Keeping You Pressing It... Forever

Now, the big difference between our Skinner box hamster and a real human is that we humans can get our pellets elsewhere. If a game really was just nothing but clicking a box for random rewards, we'd eventually drop it to play some other game. Humans need a long-term goal to keep us going, and the world of addictive gaming has got this down to a science. Techniques include...



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