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时间状语和原因状语

(2010-10-24 10:35:56)
标签:

宋体

时间状语

介词短语

分词短语

独立结构

时间状语和原因状语

一、时间状语

在英语中时间状语直接与各种时态相关,通常由单词、短语和从句充当。

1、名词作时间状语

名词和名词词组在英语句子中作时间状语的情况相当普遍,例如:

He lived like that all his life. 他一生都是这样地生活着。

He goes to school by bike every day. 他每天骑自行车去上学。

He looked after me in the hospital day and night. 他日日夜夜在医院照料我。

We have been sitting here (for) hours. 我们已经在这儿坐了几个小时了。

2、副词作时间状语

afterwards, ago, always, before, daily, early, even, finally, immediately, just, late, long, now, nowadays, occasionally, often, once, presently, recently, seldom, sometime, sometimes, soon, still, suddenly, then, today, tomorrow, weekly, yesterday, etc.都可以在句子中作时间状语,例如:

They are now listening to a report in the hall. 他们正在大厅听报告。

The doctor will be here presently. 大夫一会儿就来。

Neve rbefore had she had that feeling. 她过去从来不曾有过这种感觉。

What are you going to do tomorrow? 你们明天打算做什么?

3、形容词作时间状语

Fresh from the oven, rolls are delicious. 刚出炉的小面包很好吃。

Rope, those apples are sweater. 这些苹果熟了更甜。

Windy and rainy, she always shuts the doors and windows tightly. 刮风下雨的时候,她总是把门窗关得紧紧的。

4、介词短语作时间状语

after, at, before, between, by, during, for, in, on, since, throughout, etc.介词都可以引导介词短语作时间状语,例如:

We were usually very busy shopping at Christmas. 在圣诞节期间,我们总是忙着购物。

Upon/On arrival, they were sent to the working site.他们一到就被派往工地。

With these words, he turned away. 说完这些话后,他转身走开了。

We stayed till midnight. 我们熬夜到深夜。

Not until noon did jack come back. 直到中午杰克才回来。

The soldier has been standing there for two hours. 那位士兵一直在那儿站了两个小时。

5、分词短语作时间状语

Taking a deep breath, they dived into the deep water. 深吸了一口气后,他们有潜入深水里。

Working in the factory, I learned a lot from the workers. 在工厂劳动期间,我们向工人学到了很多东西。

Criticized by her father, she always kept silent. 挨父亲批评时她总是沉默不语。

6、独立结构作状语

Spring coming on, the trees turned green. 春天来了,树上发青了。

The question settled, they went back to their posts separately. 问题解决了,他们各自回到了工作岗位。

7、常用词组作时间状语

a couple of weeks, a few days ago, ahead of time, day and night, day in and day out, dozens of years, now and then, ten minutes late, the other day, the day before yesterday, those days, year after year, etc.都可以作时间状语,例如:

The buss arrived twenty minutes late. 公共汽车晚到二十分钟。

They finished the task two days ahead of time. 他们提前两天完成了任务。

8、从句作时间状语

连词after, as, before, once, since, till, until, when, whenever, while; directly, immediately, instantly, etc.常引导时间状语从句,例如:

When I woke up, it began to rain. 我醒的时候,老天开始下雨了。

This teacher has been teaching in this school since she graduated from college. 这位老师自从大学毕业以来一直在这所学校教书。

Whenever you come, you are welcome. 无论你什么时候来都欢迎。

I’ll give you an answer immediately I’ve finished reading your report. 我一看完你的报告就给你答复。

Directly he came in, we stopped chatting. 他一进来我们就不讲话了。

另外,the moment, the first time, each time, every time, hardly…when, no sooner…than, as soon as, no matter when, etc.也可以引导时间状语从句,例如:

Stormy applause broke forth, the moment she appeared on the stage. 她一上台,就响起了雷鸣般的掌声。

Every time I have a cold, I have a pain in my back. 我每次感冒,背都痛。

Hardly had he finished reading the novel when he returned it tome. 那本小说他一看完就还给我了。

No sooner had he entered the bus than the driver closed the door. 他一进公共汽车,司机就把门关上了。

No matter when you are in trouble, don’t hesitate to tell me. 不管什么时候你有麻烦,直接告诉我。

二、原因状语

1、形容词作原因状语

Thirsty, he went to the teahouse for a drink first. 因为渴了,他先到茶社里去喝点水。

Afraid of being late, they came by taxi. 因为怕迟到,所以他们坐出租车来的。

2、  介词短语作原因状语

我们可以用at, for, from, of , with, etc.介词引导的短语作原因状语,例如:

He felt uneasy with the whole class staring at him. 全班同学瞧着他,他感到很不自在。

I was overjoyed at the news of your success. 获悉你成功的消息,我特别高兴。

Thank you for reminding me in time. 谢谢你及时提醒我。

He looked very tired from lack of sleep. 由于缺乏睡眠,他显得很疲倦。

Seeing her win the gold medal at the Olympics, we were all wild with joy. 看到他在奥运会上赢得了金牌,我们真是欣喜若狂。

He was late as a result of the traffic jam. 由于交通阻塞,他迟到了。

Out of curiosity, he unpacked the magic bag. 出与好奇,他把那个魔术盒打开了。

3、  分词短语作原因状语

Not having got enough hands, we had difficulty in completing the work in time. 由于人手不够,我们很难按时完成任务。

Excited at the moment, she went to London alone. 由于心血来潮,她独自去了伦敦。

Sent back home, the old man got to calm down. 因为被送回了家,老人才慢慢平静了下来。

4、  独立结构作状语

Her house destroyed by the rainstorm, he had to live in the cave. 由于房子被暴风雨冲毁,

That being the case, we’ll have to reconsider the whole plan. 情况就是这样,所以我们只得重新考虑整个计划。

5、  从句作原因状语

他只得住在山洞里。引导原因状语从句的连词常见的有as, because, sincenow that, considering that, seeing that, not that…but that…, etc.如:

I do it because I like it. 因为我喜欢,我就做了。

Since no one is against it, let’s make a decision. 既然没有人反对,那我们就这样定下来。

Now that everyone is here, we’d better hand up for the decision. 既然大家都在这儿,我们最好举手表决一下。

Seeing that he refused to go, let’s go without him. 既然他不愿去,咱们就不带他去了吧。

 

 

 

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