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如何辨别网络信息的真伪?

(2015-10-26 11:12:00)
分类: 科学与技术
https://share.america.gov/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/woman_in_shadow-1074x483.jpg

(© AP Images)


几乎任何信息都可以通过新闻、博客和社交媒体网站发布,只需点击按键即可。但是,你读到、看到或听到的是否属实呢?以下这些免费网站和附加组件能帮你解惑答疑。

进一步了解有关网站的信息:

Whois: 此网站能提供域名注册者以及注册人或公司所在的地址。

验证照片的真伪:

FotoForensics: 在此网站上传照片,通过查看不同的压缩级别来判断照片是否被修改过。通过Error Level Analysis,图像被编辑过的部分会被显示出来。

https://share.america.gov/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/photo_edit.jpg

利用压缩检测软件对比图片 (美国国务院)

那么这幅照片中哪些部分是假的呢?只有睡莲是假的。颜色和纹理显示出不同的压缩级别。

JPEGsnoop: 这个网站能让你查看照片是在一天中什么时间拍摄的、用什么相机拍摄的以及其他一些细节。像FotoForensics一样,你也可以通过比较图像的压缩级别来判断图像是否被编辑过。

Who Stole My Pictures:用一个附加组件就可以在因特网上通过GoogleYandexBingTinEye进行搜索并找出某张照片的其他版本。这可以让你追踪此照片被使用的历史,因为照片的出处可能并不准确。【请参见英文文章

验证录像的真伪:

YouTube DataViewer只要粘贴某YouTube视频的 URL网页地址,你就可以查看该视频的上传日期和时间(它们可能与标明的日期不同)。你还可以使用得到的影像缩略图追踪它们在网络上被使用的历史。

Wolfram Alpha该网站可以验证视频或照片的真伪。其方法之一是,把影像中的天气状况与历史上的气象记录做比较。键入“天气”、位置和日期,就可以在该引擎的数据集中进行搜索。 (你也可以用它来搜索货币兑换记录。)

验证传言:

Wikipedia 维基百科:你可以用这个免费的百科全书了解一个新课题,该网站用多种语言提供主要数据。

Investigative Dashboard在这些数据库中搜索企业和个人以及他们之间的关系,也可以请求专家帮忙。

Storyful该公司创建了一张社交媒体流量的“热图”,它能发现和验证视频、音频、文字和照片的真实性。其用户涵盖各大新闻媒体——但这是一项收费服务。

需要更多的查证事实的工具吗?

Verification Handbook是一个由全世界一些顶尖记者建立的网站,它提供在紧急情况下使用的工具和技术,特别是用于验证由大众群体发布的信息、照片和视频。Verification Handbook for Investigative Reporting是它的一个指南工具,提供更多的网上调研技巧。

How do you know if what you’re seeing online is true?

Between news, blogs and social media sites, almost anything can be published online with the click of a button. But is what you’re reading, seeing or hearing real? These free websites and add-ons help clear up the confusion.

To learn more about websites:

Whois: Find out who registered a Web address and the physical address for the person or company.

To verify photos:

FotoForensics: Upload an image to see if it has been altered by examining its compression levels. With error level analysis, the edited parts of the picture will stand out.

https://share.america.gov/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/photo_edit.jpg

A side-by-side comparison of a photo using compression-detecting software. (State Dept.)

What’s fake in this picture? Only the lily pad. The compression levels are different, as the colors and textures show.

JPEGsnoop: See the time of day a photo was taken, what kind of camera was used and other details. Like FotoForensics, you can also see if the image has been edited by comparing its compression levels.

Who Stole My Pictures: Find copies of an image on the Internet with an add-on that searches Google, Yandex, Bing and TinEye. It lets you trace the image’s use over time, since photos can be improperly sourced.

To confirm video footage:

YouTube DataViewer: Paste in a YouTube URL and discover the video’s upload date and time (which can be different from its public timestamp). You’ll also receive thumbnails of the images to track how they’ve been used online.

Wolfram Alpha: Check the authenticity of a video or photo. For one, compare the weather in the footage to historical weather records. Type in “weather,” the location and the date to search this engine’s data sets. (You can also use it to search for historical currency conversions.)

To check assertions:

Wikipedia: Get started on a new subject with this free encyclopedia, available in multiple languages with primary sources.

Investigative Dashboard: Search these databases for companies, people and the relationships between them, or ask an expert for help.

Storyful: This company creates a “heat map” of social media traffic, discovering and verifying video, audio, text and photos. Its clients include major news outlets — but this service must be paid for.

Want more fact-finding tools?

Written by some of the world’s leading journalists, the Verification Handbook offers tools and techniques to use in emergencies, especially when verifying information, photos and videos generated by crowds. The Verification Handbook for Investigative Reporting, a companion piece, offers more techniques for researching online.

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