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克里呼吁制定共同计划保护海洋

(2014-06-18 11:21:03)
标签:

基里巴斯

海洋

克里

汤安诺

分类: 环境与能源
Charlene Porter | Staff Writer | 2014.06.17
克里呼吁制定共同计划保护海洋

基里巴斯菲尼克斯群岛保护区的这类桌形珊瑚需经过几十年生成,而拖网捕捞或船锚会摧毁它们。

 

华盛顿——美国国务卿约翰·克里(John Kerry)6月16日主持召开关注海洋生态可持续性的国际会议,来自世界各地的政府官员、科学家和商界人士等出席会议。克里在开幕式讲话中向全体与会者发出挑战。

克里说:“我希望我们在离开这里时能有一项计划,一项在现有的最佳科学依据的基础之上制定新规则以制止过度捕捞的计划。”过度捕捞,连同可持续捕捞以及海洋酸化和污染是此次“我们的海洋2014”(Our Ocean 2014)大会的三项重点关注之一。

研究显示,目前世界三分之一的鱼类遭到过度捕捞,其余的捕捞量也达到无法维持不断增长的全球人口的程度。

在一定时间内禁止或限制捕捞是扭转过度捕捞后果的方法之一。太平洋群岛国家基里巴斯已经作好行动准备。基里巴斯总统汤安诺(Anote Tong)与克里一道也在开幕式上讲话。他宣布,基里巴斯将从2015年1月起,限制在其领海40万平方公里范围内进行商业捕捞。

禁捕区是在已被定为海生物保护区的基里巴斯海域内,其中包括菲尼克斯群岛保护区(Phoenix Island Protected Area)。由于这里有独特的珊瑚群岛生态系统和其他深海栖息环境,联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)于2010年将这片群岛列入世界遗产名录(World Heritage Site)。

海洋保护区有助于鱼类数量回升,同时也有利于减少污染和酸化。海洋吸收的大量二氧化碳正在使气候发生变化,使海水酸性升高,破坏海洋生物赖以生存的微妙平衡。

汤安诺说,基里巴斯作为一个大型环状珊瑚岛国家,已经感受到海平面的升高。这是预计中的气候变化的后果。基里巴斯已经在应对海岸受侵蚀、异常的大潮、村落需要搬迁以及粮食作物受损等问题。

汤安诺说,“气候变化是我们当代最大的道德挑战”。二氧化碳水平升高,洋面上升以及海洋酸性化也导致珊瑚礁死亡,在海洋中形成死区——几乎没有任何海生物能够在这种水域生存。

克里希望,通过集中关注这些威胁使全球认识到采取一致行动扭转环境恶化趋势的紧迫性。他说,“保护我们的海洋是一个极其重要的国际安全问题”。“它是一个关系到人们的活动、人们的生计、以及人们在今天居住的地方能够生存和生活下去的极其重要的安全问题。”

克里还提到,美国将宣布一些举措,将美国目前58万平方公里的海洋保护区扩大。

克里说,海洋是地球所有人的共同资源,因此保护它是所有人的共同责任。

正是基于这一信念,美国国务院将此次“我们的海洋2014”会议置于活跃的社交媒体的视线中。会议实况可通过国务院Our Ocean 2014 video stream视频流实时跟踪,也可利用推特(Twitter):#OurOcean2014。

通过Thunderclap展开的在线声势将信息传送到社交媒体网上的650万人。



Read more: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/chinese/article/2014/06/20140617301409.html#ixzz34xQ9gdDx

Kerry Calls for United Action Plan to Protect Oceans

By Charlene Porter | Staff Writer | 16 June 2014
http://photos.state.gov/libraries/amgov/3234/Week_3/06162014_AP0802140723-300.jpg

Table corals, as seen here on a reef of the Phoenix Islands of Kiribati, take decades to form. They can be destroyed by trawling fishing methods or boat anchors.

 

Washington — U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry is hosting government officials, scientists, business people and others at a two-day meeting focused on the sustainability of the global ocean. In an opening speech June 16, Kerry issued a challenge to those attending.

“I want us to walk away from here with a plan — a plan that puts an end to overfishing through new rules based on the best available science,” Kerry said, underscoring one of three focal issues — sustainable fishing, acidification and marine pollution — of the Our Ocean 2014 meeting.

One-third of the world’s fish stocks are currently overexploited, research shows, and the rest are being culled at a rate that will be unsustainable to support a growing global population.

Banning or limiting fishing for a time is one way to reverse the effects of over-harvesting, and people are ready to take that action in the Pacific Island archipelago nation of Kirabati. I-Kirabati President Anote Tong joined Kerry at the opening of the conference and told attendees that his nation will impose a ban on commercial fishing in more than 400,000 square kilometers of its territorial waters, effective January 2015.

The fishing ban is to be imposed in what is already a marine protected area in Kirabati’s waters, a zone including the Phoenix Island Protected Area. UNESCO designated this island group as a World Heritage Site in 2010 because of its unique coral archipelago ecosystem and other deep-sea habitats.

Marine protected areas can promote the recovery of fish populations, but they can also help lessen the impact of pollution and acidification. The oceans absorb huge amounts of carbon dioxide that is contributing to climate change, raising ocean acidity and disrupting the delicate balance marine life needs to survive.

As a large atoll state, Tong said, Kiribati has already experienced the rising sea levels that are predicted as a consequence of climate change. The I-Kirabati are dealing with shoreline erosion, unusually high tides, the relocation of villages and the loss of food crops.

“Climate change is the greatest moral challenge of our time,” Tong told the conference. Higher carbon dioxide levels, rising sea levels and ocean acidification also kill coral reefs and cause dead zones — areas where virtually no marine life survives — in ocean waters.

By focusing on these threats, Kerry wants to draw attention to the urgency of the need for concerted action to reverse these environmental trends.

“Protection of our oceans is a vital international security issue,” Kerry said. “It’s a vital security issue involving the movement of people, the livelihood of people, the capacity of people to exist and live where they live today.”

Kerry also hinted that the United States will announce steps to extend its marine protected areas, which presently encompass more than 580,000 square kilometers.

Kerry said the ocean is a shared resource of all of Earth’s people, and therefore it is the responsibility of all to protect it.

In keeping with that belief, the U.S. Department of State organized the Our Ocean 2014 conference to maintain a vibrant social media presence. The events can be followed live at the State Department’s Our Ocean 2014 video stream and on Twitter through the tag #OurOcean2014.

An online outreach campaign conducted via Thunderclap reached a social media network of 6.5 million.



Read more: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/article/2014/06/20140616301366.html#ixzz34xQB46GT

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