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美国选举:初选

(2012-08-24 13:09:13)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 政治与经济
2012.08.16

美国选举:初选

活页资料照片显示2012年大选初期的竞选人。


 

美国有哪些类型的选举?

大选(general election)中,选民从竞选联邦、州和地方公职的候选人中选出当选者。大选的正式总统候选人由其所属政党提名或者作为无党派人士(即不属于两党中任何一党的候选人)参选。选民也可在选票上填入自己支持的候选人。

大选投票由各州举行,但大选的日期由联邦法律确定在11月第一个星期一之后的星期二。

付诸公民投票表决的还可以有各种立法措施,如立法提案(公民复决)、债券发行(为公共项目借款)和其他政府动议等。对于何类措施可被放在选票上由选民投票决定,各州有自行规定。

何谓初选?

初选(primary election)是政党为选出其参加大选的总统候选人而进行的选举,由登记选民在地方投票站投票决定结果。

在提名总统候选人的初选中,选民投票选出的是代表他们在党全国代表大会上投票选举总统候选人的代表。但在所有其他目的的初选中,选民直接投票产生最后结果。

有些初选,被称作非开放式初选(closed primary),只限于政党的注册党员参加投票。例如,只有共和党的注册党员才可在选择共和党总统候选人的一些初选中参加投票。在开放式初选(open primary)中,任何登记选民,无论所属党派为何,均可投票。

同大选一样,初选也由各州举办。但与大选不同的是,初选日期由各州自行决定。

何谓预选会议?

预选会议(caucus)是一个政党在市、镇或者郡县中的注册党员表达他们支持哪位候选人的地方级会议。在全州范围或联邦职位的竞选中,一个政党通过汇总全州各地预选会议的意见,确定该州提名的候选人。

与党代表大会不同的是,预选会议在多个地点同时举行。民主党和共和党分别有各自的预选规则,而且这些规则因州而异。



Read more: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/chinese/article/2012/08/20120816134732.html#ixzz24RC5XxCw

U.S. Elections: Primary Elections

14 May 2012

 

WHAT TYPES OF ELECTIONS ARE HELD IN THE UNITED STATES?

In a general election, voters make their final choice among candidates for federal, state and local offices. Candidates in the general election are nominated by their political parties or run as independents (not affiliated with a major political party). Voters also can write in the name of a candidate they support.

General elections are run by the states, but the date for the general election is set by federal law as the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

Measures such as proposed legislation (referendums), bond issues (borrowing money for public projects) and other government actions also may be placed on the ballot. Each state has its own rules about what measures can be placed on the ballot.

WHAT IS A PRIMARY?

A primary election is a contest in which a political party selects its candidates to run in the general election. The outcome is determined by the registered voters who cast their ballots at their local polling places. For the presidential nomination only, voters select delegates to cast their ballots for a candidate at the party’s national convention. For all other primary races, voters vote directly for a candidate.

Some primaries, called closed, are restricted to voters who have registered their political party affiliations. In other words, only registered Republications will be allowed to vote in some primaries to select the Republican candidate for president. Open primaries allow any registered voter to cast a ballot regardless of party affiliation. Like the general election, primaries are conducted by the states. Unlike general elections, states set the schedule for primaries.

WHAT IS A CAUCUS?

A caucus is a local meeting at which registered members of a political party in a city, town or county gather to express support for a candidate. The combined recommendations of a political party’s state caucuses determine its nominees for statewide or national offices.

Caucuses, unlike conventions, involve many separate meetings held at the same time at multiple locations. Both the Democratic and Republican parties have their own rules governing caucuses. Those rules vary from state to state.



Read more: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/pamphlet/2012/05/201205105463.html#ixzz24RC9kIfl

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