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《周文疲弊与诸子起源——论牟宗三的诸子起源说》

(2022-04-04 12:38:07)
标签:

程志华

河北大学

儒学

诸子起源

周文疲弊

分类: 学者

程志华*

 

摘要:在现代化语境下,“轴心时代”诸子起源是神秘且有趣的问题。就已有两次思潮形成的观点讲,“六经说”“救弊说”“王官说”“职业说”具有典型性。不过,牟宗三不赞成“王官说”“职业说”,认为它们仅为“缘”,而不属于“因”;真正的“因”是“周文疲弊”,即对“周文疲弊”的不同理解和“对付”方案。他以儒、墨、道、法、名、阴、阳六家为代表,具体分析了各家对“周文疲弊”的态度和“对付”方案,展现了诸子形成的主要脉络。此番论说实际上消解了“六经说”,支持了“救弊说”。牟宗三的诸子起源说乃第五种典型观点,它可给我们思考“第二个轴心时代”一些启示:第一,“因”与“缘”之区分非常必要;第二,思想家个体对于一种思想形成非常关键;第三,一种思想的形成不是一蹴而就,往往是一种过程展现。

关键词周文疲弊;诸子起源;因;缘;牟宗三

 

Weakness of Zhou Dynasty’s System and the Origin of Hundred Schools of Thought

--on Mou Zongsan’s theory of origin of hundred Schools of Thought

 

Abstract: In the context of "The Axial Age", the origin of Hundred Schools of Thought is mysterious and interesting. In history, the theories of “Six Classics” “Saving Disadvantage” “King officials” “Profession” are typical. However, Mou Zong-san does not agree with the theories because they are only "conditions" and not “causes”. The real “cause” is “Weakness of Zhou Dynasty’s System”, which is understood and dealt with differently, causes Hundred Schools of Thought. Then, taking Confucianism, Mohism, Taoism, Legalism, Ming School, School of Yin and Yang as representatives, he analyzes the attitude and the resolving way of each school towards “Weakness of Zhou Dynasty”. In fact, this argument dispels the theory of “Six Classics” supporting the theory of “Saving Disadvantage”. Mou Zong-san's theory is actually the fifth typical point of view, which can give us some enlightenments for thinking about “The Second Axial Age”: first, it is necessary to distinguish “cause” and “condition”; Second, the individual thinker is the key to the formation of an idea; Third, the formation of an idea is not achieved overnight, it is often a process to show.

Key words: weakness of Zhou Dynasty’s system; origin of Hundred Schools of Thought; cause; condition; Mou Zong-san


(因有“敏感词”,无法上传全文。若想阅读全文,请检索《社会科学战线》2022年第4期)


* 程志华(1965-),男,哲学博士,教授、博士生导师,河北大学哲学与社会学院院长,为国家万人计划哲学社会科学领军人才,研究领域为现代新儒学、儒家哲学。

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