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锦灰堆、现代性及工匠传统

(2014-01-06 14:13:29)
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文化

锦灰堆、现代性及工匠传统

锦灰堆、现代性及工匠传统
——邱启敬锦灰三堆玉雕作品评介

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文明是从造物开始的,然而在整个哲学与现代艺术的历史上,这个伟大的工匠传统却始终被排除在知识反思的视野之外,仅仅以无关痒痛的工艺美术之名,被安置在现代文明的集体自我意识的底层。

从现代艺术到后现代艺术的历史演进,进一步对工匠传统视如敝屣,将经验主义实践理性彻底遗弃。后现代主义的整体价值导向也在经由基于波普、极少主义、现成品而观念艺术的单向度语言逻辑和历史脉络中陷入迷茫而虚无的困境。理性与经验的分割产生无法愈合的裂痕,物质和知觉在向现实回归的精神渴求下被重新唤起。

艺术如何经由个体独有的生命体验而确认自己存在的理由和价值?这是后现代观念体系留给艺术的最大问题。传统意义上艺术的媒介藩篱被打破了,但做为一种反向的困境,对于很多人来说,走向极端理性主义的观念路线一方面不能显示出艺术的特性,一方面过于冷漠、概念、晦涩和教条。

在这一前提下,邱启敬通过对传统东方艺术中“锦灰堆”形式的再审视,从现代性与技艺传统之间发现了一种在观念上沟通和印证的路径。

“锦灰堆”,又名“八破图”,也叫“集破、”“集珍”、“打翻字纸篓”等。相传是元代画家钱选,在一次醉酒后兴起,将当天散落在饭桌上的下酒菜吃剩残物,如蟹脚、蚌壳、莲房、鸡翎、鱼刺等、信手绘制成一幅横卷,并挥笔题款“锦灰堆”。到明代,“锦灰堆”开始受到西方写实绘画的影响,非常真实地描绘了古代文人雅士书房常见的杂物。如:古旧字画、废旧拓片、青铜器拓片、瓦当拓片、虫蛀的古书、废弃的画稿以及扇面信札等。

邱启敬借“锦灰堆”之名与形式创作的“残羹系列”、“文房系列”、“文玩系列”玉雕作品,第一次用雕刻的方式再现了传统“锦灰堆”艺术的主要元素和样式。做为一种颇为生僻和已然绝迹的绘画门类,“锦灰堆”在当下文化语境中却具有重要的反观价值,“锦灰堆”琐屑世俗、无用当弃的内容,通过工匠传统极度逼真和写实的技艺打磨,在某种意义上,已然消解和颠覆了古典艺术的逻各斯中心主义立场和精英文化主导的美学范式,进而确立了现代性的表征。

Kam ash heap, Modernity, and Artisan Tradition
——Review on Qiu Qijin’s three Kam ash heap jade carving works

By Dai Zhuoqun

Human civilization started from crafting. However, within the entire philosophy world and modern art history, this great system has been only put under the name of ‘artisan’. It is excluded from the vision of intellectual reflection thus posited in the bottom of the collective self-recognition of modern civilization.

During the historical development from modern art towards postmodern art, artisan tradition is further distained while the empiricism and practical reason were abandoned drastically. The overall value orientation of postmodernism is also entrapped into the plight of confusion and emptiness through the single-dimensional linguistic logic and historical venation of pop art, minimalism, ready-made and conceptual art. The crack appeared when rationalism and empiricism were separated cannot be fixed, lead to the refreshing of the aspiration for material and sensation in the return to the reality.

How can art prove its reason and value for its existence through the individual life experience? This is the main question left by the postmodern conceptual system to art. The boundary among different media in classical art has been broken, however, as a conversed dilemma, for a lot of people the way to pursue the extreme rational concepts on the one hand is not able to reveal the characteristic of art, and on the other hand is too detached, conceptual, obscure and doctrinal.

Under such precondition, Qiu Qijin finds a means of conceptual communication and verification between the modernity and traditional skills after reviewing the traditional art form of “Kam ash heap” in eastern art.

“Kam ash heap” is also called “Bapotu”, or “Jipo”, “Jizhen”, “Dafanzizhilou”, etc. It was said to be painted for the first time by the painter Qian Xuan, in Yuan Dynasty, once when he was drunk. He depicted the leftovers like crab claw, shells, lotus seed pot, chicken plum, fishbone and so on randomly onto a handscroll, and then wrote down the title “Kam ash heap”. When it comes to Ming Dynasty, “Kam ash heap” started to be influenced by the western realistic painting style, vividly illustrated the common debris in ancient literati’s study room. For example, there are antique paintings and calligraphy, waste rubbings, bronze rubbings, eave tiles rubbings, antique books which have been partly damaged by worms, waste painting draft, fans, letters, etc.

Qiu Qijin borrows the name and form of “Kam ash heap” to create his jade carving works “Leftovers Series”, “Study Room Series”, “Antique Series”. This is the first time that the main elements and forms of “Kam ash heap” are represented through carving. As a kind of relatively uncommon painting style which has disappeared, “Kam ash heap”, however, obtains crucial value of reflection in the current culture context. The detailed yet secular and useless content in “Kam ash heap”, went through the abrasion of extreme realistic skills by traditional artisan. To some extends, it has dispelled and overthrown the logoscentrism and the aesthetic standards set by elite culture, then established a modern representation. 

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