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万圣节简介

(2012-11-01 10:52:44)
标签:

基督教

面具

南瓜

深圳国交

美国万圣节

旅游

分类: 海外游学
万圣节简介

万圣节简介

万圣节简介

 1031日晚上 -- 萬聖節前夕 Halloween
11
1 -- 萬聖節 All Saints' Day
11
2 -- 墨西哥的鬼節 Day of Death

萬聖節(All Saints' Day, All Hallow's DayHallowmas) 是每年111 的歐美大節日。
Halloween
All Hallows Eve 的縮寫,萬聖節前夜的意思,指1031日的晚上。


For thousands of years people have been celebrating different holidays and festivals at the end of October. The Celts celebrated it as Samhain (pronounced "sow-in", with "sow" rhyming with cow). The Irish English dictionary published by the Irish Texts Society defines the word as follows:

"Samhain, All Hallowtide, the feast of the dead in Pagan and Christian times, signalizing the close of harvest and the initiation of the winter season, lasting till May, during which troops (esp. the Fiann) were quartered. Faeries were imagined as particularly active at this season. From it the half year is reckoned. also called Feile Moingfinne (Snow Goddess).(1) The Scottish Gaelis Dictionary defines it as "Hallowtide. The Feast of All Soula. Sam + Fuin = end of summer."(2) Contrary to the information published by many organizations, there is no archaeological or literary evidence to indicate that Samhain was a deity. The Celtic Gods of the dead were Gwynn ap Nudd for the British, and Arawn for the Welsh. The Irish did not have a "lord of death" as such.

The Celts believed that every year on the last day of October, the souls of the dead visited the earth.

When the Romans conquered the Celts in the first century A.D., they added parts of their festivals, Feralia and Pomona to the tradition. Feralia was a festival to honor the dead and Pomona was a harvest festival named after the goddess of fruit (apples) and trees.

Around the eigth century, the Christian church made November 1 All Saints' Day to honor all of the saints that didn't have a special day of their own. Over the years these festivals combined, the mass held on All Saints' Day was called Allhallowmas (the mass of all Hallows - saintly people). The night before was known as All Hallows Eve. Eventually this name became Halloween.

In the 1800s, as a lot of people emigrated to the U.S., the holidays and traditions of different cultures merged. Halloween was not always a happy time. October 31, or the night before took on other names. Some called it Devil's or Hell night, to others it was mischief night. Here in Vermont, the night before is called cabbage night. To some people this became a time to play tricks on others. Some of these tricks were not fun at all. Luckily, community groups and individuals took action and started to change Halloween into a family event. Dressing up in costumes and going "trick or treating", costume parades, community parties and Fall festivals are some of the ways that Halloween is celebrated today.

Other countries have different Fall festivals to honor the deceased.

The Festival of the Dead is one of the most important happenings in both Palermo and the rest of Sicily. The second of November is a festival day for the children of Palermo as, according to tradition,they were made to believe that their dead relatives would return the night before and leave them traditional sweets and cakes on the table (Martorana fruit, which is almond paste made into the shape of different fruit). They would also receive puppets of boiled sugar and toys. It's one way of keeping the memory of their dead relatives and loved ones alive.


一年中最鬧鬼的這天夜里,各种妖魔鬼怪、海盜、外星來客和巫婆們紛紛出動。在基督紀元以前,凱爾特人在夏未舉行儀式感激上蒼和太陽的恩惠。

當時的占卜者點燃並施巫術以驅赶据說在四周游蕩的妖魔怪。后來,羅馬人用果仁和蘋果來慶祝的豐收節與凱爾特人的1031日溶合了。

在中世紀,人們穿上動物造型的服飾、戴上可怕的面具是想在萬聖節前夜驅赶黑夜中的鬼怪。盡管後來基督教代替了凱爾特和羅馬的宗教活動,早期的習俗還是保留下來了。現在,孩子們帶著開玩笑的心理穿戴上各种服飾和面具參加萬聖節舞會,這些舞會四周的牆上往往懸挂著用紙糊的巫婆、黑貓、鬼怪和尸骨,窗前和門口則吊著齜牙裂嘴或是面目可憎的南瓜燈籠。孩子們還常常試圖咬住懸挂著的蘋果。

美國和加拿大的孩子們在這天穿戴上古怪的服飾去按鄰居家的門鈴,並按傳統發出是款待我還是要我耍花招的威脅。鄰居們不管是否被嚇著,總是準備了一些糖果、蘋果等點心,孩子們則一一收入自己的袋內。

萬聖節其實不是基督教的節日。2500年前,愛爾蘭的凱爾特人(Celts)1031日為一年的最後一日,111日是新一年的開始,也象徵冬天的來臨。

凱爾特人相信死亡之神Samhain1031日的晚上會和鬼魂一起重返人間,尋找替身。因此他們燃點火炬,焚燒動物以作為死亡之神的獻禮。還會用動物的頭或皮毛做成的服飾打扮自己,發出古怪的聲音,使死亡之神認不出自己,避過災難。這就是今天萬聖節化妝舞會的由來。過了當晚,鬼魂回到陰間,一切回復平靜。

基督教興起,教徒沿襲萬聖節傳統,萬聖節的意義慢慢改為紀念為獻身於神而死亡的人(holies)

附帶一提,112 日是墨西哥的鬼節(Los Dias de los Muertos, Day of the Dead)。當天家家戶戶都烘烤動物造型的麵包和煮雞肉等食物,並在供桌上面放置玩具,以期待早逝的孩童們回到家中玩耍。也可以陳列鮮花、水果、照片和彩繪的骷髏頭,接待仙逝長輩。

墨西哥人認為,鬼魂和人一樣需要及時行樂,所以鬼節宛若一場嘉年華會,人們帶著面具到處遊走,吃骷髏形狀的糖,麵包上還裝飾有鬼的形像。黃昏時刻,全家人一起到墓園清理墓地,婦女們或跪或坐整夜祈禱,男人們交談或唱歌,在子夜中燭光忽閃忽滅充滿了整個墓園,遊唱歌者為已逝亡者的靈魂高歌吟唱。http://baike.baidu.com/view/2532.htm

 

萬聖節 詞彙:

trick or treat
不給糖就搗蛋
broom
掃把
costume
特別的裝扮
skeleton
骷髏頭
mask
面具
a big pumpkin
一粒大南瓜
a clown
小丑
a fairy
小仙女
a princess
公主
a prince
公子
a ghost

mummy
木乃伊
a witch
巫婆
Halloween costume party.
萬聖節前夕 化裝舞會
Hang some bats.
掛幾隻蝙蝠
Make it spooky.
讓氣氛變得詭異
Carve the pumpkin.
刻南瓜

Halloween is my favorite holiday.
萬聖節前夕 是我最喜歡的節日

What pranks can you play on Halloween?
在萬聖節前夕 你有哪些捉弄人的方法?

What are you going to be?
你會打扮成什麼?

I am making my own costume.
我要自己完成我的裝扮

I dress up as a ghost.
我穿得像鬼

We can put the skeleton in the window. It will scare the kids.
我們可以在窗戶上放一個骷髏頭來嚇小朋友

It's almost Halloween.
萬聖節前夕快到了

Let's decorate the house.
我們來佈置房子

Get ready the trick or treat.
準備迎接 不給糖就搗蛋的遊戲

Halloween is a holiday on October 31st.
萬聖節前夕是在十月卅一日

Light the jack-o'-lantern.
把南瓜燈點亮

Most children dress up in costumes and go "Trick-or-Treating" by walking around to different houses and asking for candy.
大部分的小孩小孩會穿著特殊的服裝然後去不同的家裡要糖果

What are you going to dress up as for Halloween?
萬聖節前夕你要穿什麼?

My mom is making me a gorilla costume.
我媽媽會幫我做一件猩猩裝

What are you going as?
你會打扮成什麼?

I am going as a robot.
我要扮成機器人

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