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什么是艾杨格瑜伽What is Iyengar Yoga?

(2011-10-23 20:14:07)
标签:

艾杨格瑜伽

杂谈

分类: 瑜伽知识Yogaknowledge

什么是艾杨格瑜伽 What is Iyengar Yoga?


什么是艾杨格瑜伽What <wbr>is <wbr>Iyengar <wbr>Yoga?

 

 

练习

艾杨格瑜伽方法最初是通过深入学习体式和呼吸控制法进行练习的。艾杨格先生系统地对200个以上的传统瑜伽体式和14种呼吸控制法(其中有些许多变型)从简单到复杂进行了分类和安排,便于初学者能从基本体式开始,并随着学员在心理,身体和精神上获得柔韧性、力量和敏感性之后,进入到做非常高级的体式。

 

体式

实际上艾杨格瑜伽特别注重三个方面。正确的身体的排列,允许身体以解剖学正确的方式发展和谐,这样学生在正确练习时就不会受伤或感受到疼痛。由于各人的身体各不相同,人们弱势和优势也各不相同。艾杨格先生也开发了使用辅助工具帮助身体做所想要的正确姿势。辅助工具是一些物体,如木砖,椅子,毯子和带子,帮助你调整或支撑身体在不同的体式,这样,你就能安全有效地做一系列动作。

一个额外的好处是,虽然人们知道了有数个世纪,体式和呼吸控制法的能够治疗疾病,但艾杨格先生坚持重点按照正确的解剖学身体位置和作用方法,改良了瑜伽的治疗方面。因此,练习艾杨格瑜伽,常常能消除病痛,改进体式等。但是艾杨格瑜伽能在有相当经验的老师的督导下,用于治疗许多疾病,包括极其严重的医学情况。艾杨格体系体式练习的其他两个关键方面是:正确的顺序,其中通过按照特定的顺序练习体式,能够取得强有力的积累效果;时间的概念是指体式保持一个很长的时间,使得体式的效果渗透你体内更深的层面。

 

呼吸控制法

一旦学员在体式上建立了一个坚实的基础后,就是在身体上在学员所需用的身体结构、柔韧性、肺功能并培养好了练习时所需的坐立和呼吸,就可以开始练习呼吸控制法了。呼吸控制法给身体无数的好处,包括调节循环、消化、神经和呼吸系统,激活体内器官,产生对能量和平静的感觉。同样重要的是,它也能使心灵和感官得到控制,使我们适于经历冥想过程。

 

阿斯汤加瑜伽

如上所述,你可能会得到这样的印象,艾杨格瑜伽仅仅是体操和深呼吸或只是体式和呼吸控制法。这是错误的。

体式和呼吸控制法仅仅是用作工具,用这些工具掌握帕坦伽利阿斯汤加瑜伽的八个方面。掌握身体是掌控心灵的途径。考虑下面的情形:整个人类从最外层皮肤到最内层灵魂是相互联系的。例如,如果身体病了,心态也会变得消沉,没精打采,脾气坏,如果心里受压力,身体变得紧张。艾杨格瑜伽练习的强度和深度,在身体层面也会影响和改变思想和精神。

在做瑜伽体式时,整个身体和头脑必须学会变得投入。你必须将你的意识同时散布到身体的各个最小的部分,这样思维变得敏捷,专心和机警。一个人要学会呼吸平稳、深沉和均衡,这样你的能量就能没有障碍地流动,你学会让心态平静,消极和善于接受,因此促使头脑进入冥想状态。使身体适合于呼吸控制法。

通过体式你也能学会觉知和应用道德规范-制戒和遵行。例如,遵行的一个方面是纯洁。例如:因为瑜伽建立一个非常清晰的觉知身体和心里状态,一个人对自己的健康状态非常清楚,开始培养它。因此,在吃喝太多之后,身体遭受很多,头脑变得迟钝。如果你花越来越多的时间练习瑜伽,日益明显的矛盾和自我障碍更加难于和谐,因此,人们开始调整自己的饮食,导致一种更加纯洁的生活方式。这里的另一个例子是制戒中的非暴力。虽然制戒表面上是社会伦理道德,遵行是个人的纪律修养。两者都可以用于任何情形,社会的或身体的。实际上艾杨格先生已经用体式说明这些纪律修养的复杂性。因此,例如在做战士式时,你可能在前膝上的疼痛,假如你做的是错误的,引起你不舒适的感觉。但是实际上,是因为大腿和臀部的动作没有做到位,使得膝盖被迫放在一个不自然的位置而引起疼痛。因此是大腿和臀部懒惰的暴力,我们却指责膝盖。纠正的办法时让臀部和大腿正确工作,然后膝盖就能正常发挥作用,不舒适感便消失。由于人对这个体式的敏感度增加,人也会认识到不仅是臀部和大腿,身体的各个部分都或多或少地都对于膝盖的扮演了施加暴力的角色。这个想法可以应用于社会,在那里容易找到暴力的根源,如不幸福家庭,孩童时代被忽视和缺少教育。

呼吸控制法是达到正确的真正冥想的基本前提条件。艾杨格先生指出,虽然仅仅通过坐立和关注要达到大脑的冥想状态在理论上是可能的,但是实际上,99%的人不可能做到。在冥想状态,头脑是绝对的寂静状态,但是极其敏锐。许多人上冥想课,学了很多年,但是很少人达到这种意识状态。艾杨格先生说,对于平常人,心理有太多的“入口”。就像是一个装满水的漏勺。不管你堵住哪个洞,水会继续从其它的孔中漏出来。心里是太微妙、太精巧和不安宁的,不容易得到控制和达到静止状态。因此,推荐你使用呼吸控制法使心理得到静止。平稳、微细地控制呼吸,远比控制心理容易做到,当呼吸变得平稳和稳定,心理也变得平稳。因此,人学会将感官从外部物体撤回,培养一种心态,真正感受让冥想的经历。

 

冥想

正如已经说明了的,冥想是一种心理状态,不能通过学习达到,因此,练习坐立,试着去冥想不能保证自身会有效果。相反,自我的文化基础必须通过练习瑜伽的前五个纪律修养建立。当学生准备好了,冥想的经历就会到来。

这导致艾杨格的另一个主题:在动作中冥想。如果你能对一个火焰,一个米粒或者其它物质进行冥想,为什么不能在你正在做的一个体式冥想呢?因此,当学生做瑜伽体式的时候,心理学会变得意识到身体的不同部位。首先,心理从一个部分移动到另一个部分,但是,经过训练后,学会变得同时被身体的各个部分均匀的吸引。你学习提炼你的觉知,穿透到身体的更深的部分,以便取得更精确的因而更有效的,和舒适的体式。因为,通过心理训练达到对自身的冥想状态。虽然呼吸控制法是准备冥想真正的关键,这个进步也可以用于体式,体式能够练习到这样精细的地步,你对体式进行冥想。

 

艾杨格瑜伽与其它风格瑜伽的区别

总之,艾杨格瑜伽方法可以定义其区别与其它种类瑜伽的三个关键因素,即技巧,顺序和时间:

技巧是指在练习中,你学会最精确地调整你练习体式和呼吸控制法的排列。顺序是指体式和呼吸控制法练习的顺序。例如,通过改变一个体式练习在某个体式之后的顺序,练习的心理的和情感的效果可以以某种方式得到加强,而不可能是别的,为了带给对整个人,包括他的精神演变在内的变化。时间是指在体式或呼吸控制法所花的时间长度。体式不能迅速做,不然就没有觉知。要花时间进入一个体式并处于稳定状态。如果能做到这样,然后你保持稳定一段时间,以加强这个体式的强度和深度,这样取得它的益处。不然,潜在的效果和益处就很小,达不到它的可能。

这样,你就开始看到艾杨格瑜伽培养瑜伽的八个纪律远远超出仅仅是“体操和深呼吸”。随着练习和理解,你会认识到体式时不同于伸展或体操,正如呼吸控制法不用于仅仅是深呼吸,冥想不同于自我感知的昏睡。

延长练习体式和呼吸控制法,会在身体、生理器官上、思想上和精神上影响一个人。

 

The Practice

The Iyengar method of Yoga is initially learnt through the in-depth study of asanas (posture) and pranayama (breath control).

Mr Iyengar has systematised over 200 classical yoga Asanas and 14 different types of Pranayamas (with variations of many of them) from the simple to the incredibly difficult. These have been structured and categorised so as to allow a beginner to progress surely and safely from basic postures to the most advanced as they gain flexibility, strength and sensitivity in mind, body and spirit.

Asana

In practice Iyengar yoga focuses particularly on three aspects. Correct body alignment allows the body to develop harmoniously in an anatomically correct way so that the student suffers no injury or pain when practising correctly. As all bodies are different and people have different weaknesses and strengths. Mr Iyengar has also developed the use of props to help the body into the correct positions required. Props are objects like wooden blocks, chairs, blankets and belts that help one adjust or support oneself in the different postures so that one can work in a range of motion that is safe and effective.

An added benefit is that although the therapeutic aspects of asanas and pranayama have been known for centuries, Mr Iyengar's unrelenting emphasis on correct anatomical alignment and methods of working have refined the therapeutic aspects of Yoga. Thus practice of Iyengar yoga will often result in eliminating aches and pains, improve posture etc. but Iyengar Yoga can also be used to treat many ailments, including extremely serious medical conditions, under the supervision of a suitably experienced teacher. The other two key aspects of asana practice in the Iyengar system are correct sequencing in which there is a powerful cumulative effect achieved by practicing asanas in particular sequences. The concept of timings means postures are held for considerable lengths of time to let the effects of the poses penetrate deeper within the individual

Pranayama

Pranayama is started once a firm foundation in asana has been established as physically the student requires the alignment, flexibility, lung capacity and training necessary to sit and breathe correctly while practicing. Pranayama gives numerous physical benefits including toning the circulatory, digestive, nervous and respiratory systems, activating the internal organs and creating a feeling of energy and calmness. Equally importantly it also brings the mind and senses under control and make the individual fit for the experience of meditation.

Astanga Yoga

One may, from the above, gain the impression that Iyengar yoga is therefore just gymnastics and deep breathing or only Asana and Pranayama. This is incorrect.

Asanas and Pranayama are merely used as the tools with which to master all 8 aspects of Patanjali's Astanga yoga. Mastery of the body is the gateway to mastery of the mind. Consider the following: The whole human being from the outermost skin to the innermost being (or soul) is interconnected. For example, if the body is ill, the mind also becomes depressed, lethargic and bad tempered and if the mind is stressed the body becomes tense. The intensity and depth to which Iyengar yoga is practiced on the physical level does affect and change the mind and spirit.

In doing yoga asanas the whole body and mind must learn to become involved. One has to spread one's awareness to the smallest parts of the body simultaneously so the mind becomes alert, attentive and sharp. One learns to breathe smoothly deeply and evenly so one's energy (prana) can flow without obstruction and one learns to make the mind quiet, passive and receptive thus promoting a meditative state of mind. This makes the body fit for Pranayama.

Through asanas one also learns an awareness and application of ethics - Yama and Niyama. For example one of the Niyamas is sauca (Purity). An example: Because yoga builds up a very sharp awareness of the state of the body and mind, one becomes very aware of ones state of health and begins to nurture it. So after too much eating and drinking, the body suffers and the mind becomes dull. As one spends more and more time practicing yoga, the obvious contradiction and self destructiveness becomes more difficult to reconcile and one begins to moderate ones eating and drinking, leading to a more pure lifestyle. Another example of this is the Yama of non-violence. Although superficially Yamas are social ethics and Niyama personal disciplines, both can be applied equally to any situation such as society or the physical body. Indeed Mr Iyengar has used asanas as a way of illustrating the complexities of these disciplines. So for example, while doing Parsvakonasana one may experience pain in the front knee and assume it is at fault for causing one discomfort. But in reality the knee is causing pain because it is forced into an unnatural position by the thigh and buttock working lazily. So the buttock and thigh do the violence by being lazy but we blame the knee. The remedy is to make the buttock and thigh work correctly then the knee can function properly and the discomfort disappear. As one's sensitivity in the postures increases one also realises that not only the buttock and thigh but all parts of the body to a greater or lesser extent have had their role in the violence to the knee. This thinking can be applied to society where it is easy to find the roots of violence in unhappy homes, childhood neglect and poor education.

Pranayama is the essential prerequisite for correct true meditation. Mr Iyengar states that though it is theoretically possible to achieve a meditative state of mind by merely sitting and concentrating, in practice it is not possible for 99% of people. In meditation the mind is absolutely silent but razor sharp. Many people go to meditation classes, for many years even. But few achieve this state of consciousness. Mr Iyengar says that for normal people, the mind has too many "portals." It is like a sieve full of water. Whichever hole you block, water continues to pour out of the rest. The mind is too subtle, cunning and restless to be controlled and made still. Therefore Pranayama is recommended as the breath is used to still the mind. Smooth subtle and controlled breathing is far easier to master than the mind and when the breath becomes smooth and steady so does the mind. Then one can learn to withdraw the senses from external objects and cultivate the state of mind where the experience of meditation can come.

Meditation

As indicated, meditation is a state of mind that cannot be learnt and thus the practice of sitting and attempting to meditate is not a guarantee of results in itself. Rather the foundations of self culture have to be built through practicing the first five disciplines of yoga. The experience of meditation comes when the student is ready.

This leads to another keynote of Iyengar yoga: meditation in action. If one can meditate on a flame, grain of rice or other subject, why not meditate on the posture one is performing? So, as a student does yoga postures the mind learns to become aware of the different parts of the body. At first the mind moves from part to part but with training learns to become absorbed in all parts of the body evenly at the same time. One learns to refine one's awareness and penetrate deeper into the body in order to achieve more accurate and thus effective and comfortable postures. So the mind is trained to achieve a meditative state of being. Although pranayama is the real key to preparation for meditation, the progress made is applicable to asanas which can be practiced to such a degree of refinement that one meditates in the posture.

What distinguishes Iyengar Yoga from other styles o f yoga

In summary, the Iyengar method of Yoga may be said to define itself as different from other styles of Yoga by 3 key elements, namely technique, sequence and timing:

Technique means that in practice one learns ever finer adjustments in the alignment of how one performs one's asana and pranayama. Sequence refers to the sequences in which asana and pranayama are practiced. For example, by varying which postures are practiced after which, the mental and emotional effects of the practice can be intensified in a manner not otherwise possible in order to bring about changes to the whole being including ones spiritual evolution. Timing refers to the length of time spent in postures or pranayama. Postures cannot be done swiftly or without awareness. It takes time to move into a posture and become stable. When this has been achieved then one remains stably for some time to intensify the depth of the posture and so extract its benefit. Otherwise the potential effects and benefits remain small compared to what is possible.

So one can begin to see how Iyengar yoga cultivates all 8 disciplines of yoga and is far from merely "gymnastics and deep breathing." With practice and understanding, one realises that Asana (posture) is as different from stretching or gymnastics just as Pranayama (Breath control) is different from merely deep breathing and meditation is different from self-induced trance.

The prolonged practice of asana and pranayama affects the individual on an organic (physiological), mental and spiritually level as well as just physically.

(By weyoga Ashish)

 

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