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地球科学大学巡礼NO.6(University of California, Berkeley)

(2011-10-02 19:13:04)
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地球科学大学

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  伯克利加州大学                                   

地球科学大学巡礼NO.6(University <wbr>of <wbr>California, <wbr>Berkeley) 伯克利加州大学,全称伯克利加利福尼亚大学(University of California, Berkeley)也缩写为伯克利加大(UC Berkeley、Berkeley或Cal),也常译为伯克利大学或加州大学伯克利分校,是美国最负盛名的一所公立研究型大学,位于旧金山东湾伯克利市的山丘上。校训是“Let There Be Light.(让此地闪耀)”。校长是Robert J.Birgeneau(罗伯特柏吉诺。有教师1900人,学生约33000人。伯克利加大是加利福尼亚大学中资历最深的一所。它也是美国大学协会(Association of American Universities)的创始会员之一。

      1868年由加利福尼亚学院以及农业、矿业和机械学院合并而成,1873年迁至圣弗朗西斯科(旧金山)附近的伯克利市。学校实行1学年分3学期制,本科4年,修满180学分可获学士学位。1982年,美国联合科研委员会会议理事会评定该校的研究生教育为美国第一,学校有30个学科名列前10名,其中人类学、化学、工程、历史、音乐、统计和生物统计等学科名列第一。  

  地球科学大学巡礼NO.6(University <wbr>of <wbr>California, <wbr>Berkeley)
地球科学特色简介

   在地球科学领域,加州大学伯克利分校的地球与行星科学科学占有极其重要的地位,在地质学、地球物理学、地球化学、行星地质学、大气科学和地球环境科学六大领域都拥有顶尖的科学技术。

    About The Geophysics Major  关于地球物理学专业

    Geophysics seeks to understand the vast and complicated body that is the earth.  Because most of the earth's interior is inaccessible to direct observation, the geophysicist uses the basic principles of physics to devise indirect methods of exploring those parts of the earth that cannot be reached by shovel or drill bit.

    地球物理学探索和研究的对象是庞大复杂的地球。由于大多数情况下地球内部的结构是难以直接观测的,地球物理运用物理的基本原理设计出简洁的方法去探测地球中无法用铲和钻头达到的地方。

    These problems require an interdisciplinary approach that links the disciplines of mathematics, physics, geology, and chemistry.

    解决这些问题就需要一个联系数学、物理、地理和化学的的跨学科的方法。

    Moreover, your study here will encompass theoretical and experimental science as well as fieldwork to study geodynamic processes and the structure of the Earth and other planets.

    另外,你的学习将会包含理论的和应用的科学例如野外的实习以学习地球动力过程和地球及其他行星的结构。

   About the Planetary science Major  关于行星科学专业

   Planetary science encompasses the study of the physical and chemical nature of planetary bodies, both in the Solar System and in extrasolar systems.

   行星科学包含对行星的物理和化学性质的学习,包括在太阳系和太阳系外的范围内。

   The formation of planets, the forces that sculpted their orbits, the processes that shaped their interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres, and the development of life all fall under its rubric. Understanding these complex phenomena requires knowledge of astronomy & astrophysics, earth science, meteorology, atmospheric science, space science, plasma physics, chemistry, and biology.

   行星的组成,控制行星轨道的力,行星表面、内部。大气层的形成过程,生命的发源和隐藏在表面下的更多事实。要理解这些复杂的现象需要天文学和天体物理,地球科学,气象学,大气科学,空间科学,等离子体科学,化学和生物的知识。

   About the Geology Major  关于地质学

   Geology is a broad-based science covering a vast range of physical phenomena in both space and time.

   地质学是包括浩瀚时间和空间的物理现象的一门基础深厚的科学。

   This major affords a strong foundation in the processes that shape the earth giving a solid understanding of the physical sciences with a quantitative emphasis.

   这个专业提供在用定量描述研究地球固体形状形成过程中物理机制的强大的基础。

   About the Atmospheric Science Major  关于大气科学

   Atmospheric Science includes the physics of climate variability and climate change, changes in stratospheric ozone, coupling of atmospheric chemistry and climate, changes in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere, smog, and the impacts of atmosphere-biosphere exchange on atmospheric composition.

    大气科学包括气候的变化在大气臭氧层的变化,包括大气化学和大气气候方面,对流层中的氧化反应,烟雾,和大气形成时的大气生物圈交换的影响。

    Exploring the fundamental natural processes controlling atmospheric composition, circulation dynamics, and climate, and understanding how these processes have changed in the past and may change in the future, are among the greatest intellectual and technological challenges of our time.

    探索由大气构成控制的基本自然现象,还有大气环流动力学,气候,并且理解这些现象过去为什么会发生未来又会怎样发展这些问题是我们这个时代的的高科技的遇到的挑战。

    About The Environmental Earth Science 关于地球环境科学

    The Environmental Earth Science major focuses broadly on the natural sciences, using earth science as a base to expand outward.

    地球环境科学专业广泛的聚焦于自然科学以地球科学技术作为基础并加以延伸。

    Interrelationships are key to this course of study the emphasis is on how the physical, biological, and chemical processes at the earth's surface affect each other. The interdisciplinary nature of environmental earth science will bridge a wide range of interests by incorporating classes in biology, hydrology, hazardous waste management, ecology, and natural resources.

     事物的相互关系是学习地球表面上相互影响的物理、化学、生物过程这门课程的关键。地球环境科学将会通过对生物、水文学、危险分无处理、生态学和自然资源的合并学科的学习建立起学生的广泛兴趣。

   About  The Marine Science Major  关于海洋科学

    The Marine Science program is offered jointly through the departments of Earth and Planetary Science and Integrative Biology.

    海洋科学计划有地球和行星科学学部和交互生物学部共同提出。
    Marine Science is inherently interdisciplinary. Because the ocean plays a central role in physical, biological, chemical, and geological processes on earth, an understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere is crucial.

    海洋科学是固有的交叉学科。因为海洋在物理,生物,化学和地质学过程中扮演了重要的角色,对生物圈,水泉,岩石圈和大气圈相互作用的理解是极其重要的。

 

----相关延伸----

 

History of the Department of Geology and Geophysics
  地球科学部历史沿革

      The University of California was established in 1868 and in 1869 Joseph Le Conte, professor of geology, natural history, and botany, came to Berkeley and taught the first courses, both in geology and in the life sciences. Indeed, for several years almost every student on the Berkeley campus attended his lectures in physical geology. A Department became established and was originally housed in South Hall, described at the time as “an enduring structure of brick and stone” and it survived to this day. In 1911 the Department of Geology moved into the renovated library building called Bacon Hall, where it remained until 1961 when it moved into the new Earth Sciences Building on the N-side of Campus (now McCone Hall).

      Eugene W. Hilgard, professor of agriculture, taught a first course in mineralogy in 1872. The appointment of Andrew C. Lawson in 1890 was particularly important. While LeConte continued to teach the popular, introductory course in physical geology until 1898, Lawson taught mineralogy, crystallography, petrography, and economic geology. He is best known for his discovery of the San Andreas fault (Calif. Dept. Geology Bull. #1-4, 1893).

       By the turn of the century, the number teaching staff consisted of three regular members (A. Lawson, J. Merriam and A. Eakle). Already in 1887, the University had established the first Seismographic Stations in the Americas, one at Berkeley and the other at Lick Observatory. But the first course in seismology was not offered until 1912, by Elmer F. Davis and later by Father Macelwane. In 1925 Lawson asked Perry Byerly to join the faculty and direct the seismographic stations. In 1922, John P. Buwalda started instruction in physiography and established the summer field course in geology, later to be carried on successfully for 33 years by Professor Nicholas L. Taliaferro. This development was largely an outgrowth of the need for more geologists by the petroleum industry. In 1923 Norman Hinds joined the Department and established a program in geomorphology. Another important personality was George D. Louderback. From 1906-1944 he was a leader in the affairs of the department and of the campus as a whole; for 11 years as chairman, and for an equal span as dean of the College of Letters and Science.

       By 1945 the Department had grown to seven faculty (Byerly, Gilbert, Hinds, Louderback, Pabst, Taliaferro and Williams). Under the 1945-1949 chairmanship of volcanologist Howell Williams the Department attained international reputation by hiring petrologist Francis Turner from New Zealand and geophysicist John Verhoogen from Belgium. Traditionally, emphasis had been on the field, structural, sedimentary, stratigraphic, and historical aspects of geology but increasingly theoretical and experimental expertise was emphasized, to understand igneous and metamorphic processes, the deformation of rocks and minerals, evolution of landscapes, paleomagnetism, mineral equilibria at high pressures and temperatures. In 1963, the name of the department became “Geology and Geophysics”. The academic staff had grown to ten in geology and to four in geophysics by 1968, when the Campus celebrated its 100th anniversary.

       Since then, earth sciences transformed once more, mainly by including environmental issues, atmospheres, oceans, as well as planetary systems, which are all closely linked to solid earth processes. The name changed again in 2001 to “Earth and Planetary Science”. Adding these new fields resulted in further growth to 21 faculty. The Department is proud to rank on top of the list of earth science departments in public universities, together with the much larger Departments at MIT, Caltech and Stanford.

入学条件

平均入学成绩:SAT 1930以上分,TOEFL iBT 83分

 相关链接:http://eps.berkeley.edu                                                /郑元冬

                                 

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