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如何正确使用钻杆大钳

(2011-01-11 20:01:23)
标签:

国外钻井好做法

杂谈

                                  如何正确使用钻杆大钳

                                         崔智德

一、钻杆大钳的使用与维护

Use and maintenance of pipe tongs

1. For safety, lead and backup tongs should be provided with snub lines of sufficient size and length.

为了安全,内外大钳都要装配够粗、够长的钳尾绳。

2. Tongs should be provided with sharp dies at all times and properly pinned in slots. Die drivers should be used to remove tong dies. Proper personal protective equipment should be worn when changing tong dies.

任何时候,大钳牙床上都要装锋利的钳牙和匹配的保险销。要用钳牙装卸器卸钳牙。换钳牙时,操作人员应当穿戴适当防护用品。

3. Tong die slots should be properly maintained.

要适当保养大钳牙床。

4. All pins used to secure the chain or jaws should be kept in place with safety pins or cotter pins.

固定链子或钳头的所有销子都应当装到位,并穿上安全销或开口销。

5. Makeshift weights such as tools, pipe protectors, bits, etc. should not be added to the counterbalance weights.

工具、护丝和钻头等,都不能用来增加大钳平衡铊的重量。

6. The rotary table should not be used for final making up or initial breaking out of a pipe connection. The correct method is: Two tongs should be used during makeup and breakout.

丝扣上到位,不能用转盘紧扣,卸扣时不能用转盘绷扣。正确的方法是:上卸扣都应当用双大钳。

7. Lead and backup tong-men should not stand between the two pipe tongs while the driller is making up or breaking out pipe or collars.

当司钻正在上卸钻杆和钻铤时,内外钳工不要站在两个大钳之间。

8. When the pull force is needed more to break a tight joint, all floor men should move away from the rotary table and out of the path of the tongs before torque is applied.

在卸比较紧的丝扣时,大钳的拉力会很大。在给大钳施加拉力之前,所有的钻工都要离开转盘和大钳转动涉及的危险区。

9. Hydraulic tong should be operated by designated personnel.

液压大钳要由指定的人来操作。

10. Tong counterbalance and parts thereof should be restrained, guarded, or located so as to prevent them from falling on or striking crew members.

    大钳平衡铊及其附件应当沿轨道上下移动,并装护罩以防伤人。

11. The rig tongs must be kept clean at all times and kept well lubricated.

任何时候钻具大钳都应该保持干净和良好的保养。

12. The rig tong counter-balance line must be inspected at a regular interval.

必须定期检查大钳平衡铊的吊绳。

13. Rig tong counter-balance should be kept at a weight where one man can move rig tong up and down with minimal.

大钳平衡铊的重量应当是一个人毫不费力的就能上下移动大钳。

14. The rig tong arms should be kept in level at all times.

任何时候大钳柄都要保持水平。

15. The rig tongs hinge pin, latch lock and springs must be inspected at regular intervals and changed out if excessive wear is encountered.

必须定期检查大钳的折页销子,扣合头和弹簧,如果出现磨损超标,就更换。

16. When changing out tong dies, the tongs must be tied back well away from the rotary table and secured.

更换钳牙时,必须远离转盘把大钳绑好。

17. While removing tong die retaining equipment, (bolts or pins), for safety reasons, except for the person striking the die driver, all personnel should keep a safe distance in case of the tong die splinters.

在卸钳牙的固定部件(栓或销钉)时,为了安全,除了卸钳牙的人之外,其他的人都要保持一个安全的距离,以防溅出钳牙毛刺。

18. While removing the tong die with a tong die driver. It is better to hold the die driver with a pair of pliers for striking with the hammer.

用钳牙铳子往下卸钳牙时,最好用一把手钳子把铳子夹住,以便锤击。

 

 

二、用钻杆大钳上扣与卸扣

          Make-up and break-out procedures using Rig tongs

AOperational requirement操作要求

1. The driller must ensure that the floor men stand outside the area of the tongs before pulling tight on the tongs, if an abnormal amount of torque must be applied during make up or break out.

上扣或卸扣时,如果必须加很大的扭矩,司钻在拉紧大钳之前,必须让钻工们站到大钳之外。

2. Snub lines for the rig tongs must be inspected at regular intervals and be in good working condition.

必须定期检查大钳尾绳,使其处于良好的备用状态。

3. Hanging lines for the rig tongs must be inspected at regular intervals and be in good working condition.

必须定期检查大钳悬吊绳,使其处于良好的备用状态。

4. The floormen must be instructed on proper placement of hands while operating the rig tongs.

操作大钳时,必须告诉钻工把手放到适当的位置。

5. Two sets of rig tongs of the proper size must be used to break out or make up connections.

上扣或卸扣时,必须用两把适当尺寸的大钳。

6. The floor men must lubricate rig tongs before and after each trip.

每次起下钻前后,钻工们必须保养大钳。

7. Rig tongs must be kept clean to ensure proper operation.

大钳必须保持干净,确保使用方便。

8. Rig tong dies must be kept clean and inspected regularly and must be replaced if worn or damaged. The tong dies must be secured with safety pins. 大钳牙必须保持干净,并经常检查。如果有磨损或损伤,必须更换。必须使用安全销把钳牙固定好。

9. Rig tong line pulley and counterbalances must be inspected at regular intervals.

必须定期检查大钳吊绳的滑轮和平衡铊。

10. Rig tong safety pins and hinges must be inspected regularly for wear and replaced as quickly as possible if any wear is observed.

要经常检查大钳的安全销和折页销是否有磨损,如发现磨损,要尽快更换。

11. Rig tong pins, shackle pins and bolts must be secured with the proper size of split pins.

大钳销子,尾绳销子和螺栓都必须用适当尺寸的开口销加以固定。

 

BBreaking out connections with the rig tongs. 用大钳卸扣

1. The floormen remove the safe latch spring and the tong pins and change the tong jaws to match the size of the pipe or tubular to be broken out.

钻工们卸掉安全扣合弹簧和大钳销子。换上与要卸扣的钻具或管具相匹配的钳头。

2. The driller ensures that the safety latch springs are replaced on the tong pins.

司钻确认换到大钳上的安全扣合弹簧。

3. The floor men set slips, or where applicable, the driller sets the automatic slips.

钻工们把卡瓦坐上,或者是司钻把自动卡瓦坐上。

4. The floormen engage the rig tongs on the drill pipe or tubular tool joint. The break-out tong is placed on the top tool joint and the make-up tong is placed on the bottom tool joint.

钻工们把大钳打在钻杆或管具的接头上,内钳打在上边的接头上,外钳打在下边的接头上。

5. Special attention must be paid to ensure the rig tongs are not placed on the hard banding of the tool joint.

要特别注意,不能把钳子打在接头的耐磨带上。

6. The floormen make the rig tongs bite the pipe by pulling on the tong jaw and pushing on the tong arm. The floormen must properly place their hands on the rig tongs to prevent injury.

钻工们拉钳子头,推钳子把(柄),使大钳咬住钻杆。钻工们要把手放在大钳的适当部位,以防受伤。

7. The driller engages the break out cathead and pulls on the break-out tong. This will cause the break-out to bite on the upper tool joint. At the same time, the make-up tong bites on the bottom tool joint. The connection is then broken.

司钻启动卸扣锚头,拉紧内钳,使内钳咬住上边的接头,同时,外钳咬住下边的接头,这样扣就被卸开了。

8. The driller should ensure that the cathead line is at right angle (90 degrees) to the tong arm. The driller must note the breakout torque and mark the joints for further inspection if the breakout torque is not equal to or less than 10% of the make-up torque.

司钻应当确保钳尾绳与钳柄成90度夹角,司钻必须注意卸扣扭矩,如果卸扣扭矩不等于或小于上扣扭矩百分之十,必须给该接头做上记号,以便进一步检查。

9. The floormen spin out the connection using the air spinner, or if applicable, the driller utilizes the top drive to spin out the connection.

钻工们用气动旋扣器把扣卸开,或者是司钻用顶驱把扣卸开。

10. The floormen apply proper pipe dope into the thread box of the pipe joint.

钻工们在钻杆母扣上涂上适当的丝扣油。

11. The floormen remove the rig tongs and tie them back safety out of the way. 钻工们把大钳拉到安全的位置绑好。

 

CMaking up connections with the rig tongs. 用大钳上扣。

1. The floormen remove the safety latch spring and the tong pins and change the tong jaws to match the size of the pipe or tubular to be made up.

钻工们卸掉安全扣合弹簧和大钳销子,换上与要上扣的钻具或管具相匹配的钳头。

2. The driller ensures that the safety latch springs are replaced on the tong pins.

司钻确认换到大钳上的安全扣合弹簧。

3. The floormen set the slips and driller picks up a joint or a stand of drill pipe.

钻工们把卡瓦坐上,司钻提起一个单根或是一个钻杆立柱。

4. The pipe dope should be applied to the box and pin end of the connection thoroughly.

在公母扣上涂好丝扣油。

5. The floormen stab the pin end of the joint into the box of the joint in the rotary table.

钻工们把公接头对到母接头上。

6. The floormen rotate the pipe into the box utilizing the air spinner or when applicable, the driller utilizes the top-drive or the Kelly spinner.

钻工们用气动旋扣器,把扣上到位。或者是由司钻用顶驱和方钻杆旋扣器把扣上到位。

7. The floormen engage the rig tongs onto the drill pipe or other tubular tool joint. The make-up tong is placed on the top tool joint and the break-out tong is placed on the bottom tool joint. The floormen make the rig tongs bite on the joints by pulling on the tong jaws and pushing on the tong arm. The floormen must properly place their hands on the rig tongs to prevent injury.

钻工们把大钳打在钻杆或其他管具的接头上。外钳打在上边的接头上,内钳打在下边的接头上。钻工们拉钳头,推钳柄让大钳咬住接头。钻工们必须把手放到大钳的适当部位,以防受伤。

8. The driller engages the make-up cathead, pulls on the make-up tong causing the make up tong to bite on the top tool joint. At the same time, the break-out tong bites on the bottom tool joint. The driller continues to pull on the make-up tong until proper torque is applied to the connection.

司钻启动上扣锚头,拉紧大钳,使外钳咬住上边的接头,内钳咬住下边的接头,司钻继续施加扭矩,达到适当的上扣扭矩为止。

9. After the connection has been tightened to proper torque, the floormen remove the rig tongs and tie them back safely out of the way.

用适当的扭矩把扣上紧后,钻工们把大钳拉回到安全的位置。

 

 

三、钻杆大钳配液压锚头的操作

Operating rig tongs with EZY-torque

AOperational requirement 操作要求

1. Some models of EZY-torque are designed for up to 3000psi working pressures in the high pressure port. Note: do not connect the high pressure hose to the low pressure port.

有些液压锚头设计高压出口的工作压力是3000psi。注意:不能把高压管线接到低压的出口上。

2. Safe load capacity, strengths and application limits of accessories and components of the EZY-torque must be carefully verified.

液压锚头的部件、配件的安全载荷、强度和适用范围,必须认真核实。

3. Ensure the floormen only place hands on protective hand grip areas. The floormen are not allowed to place their hands, fingers and especially thumbs between the tongs.

钻工们一定要把手放到安全抓手的位置。不能把手、手指,特别是大拇指放到大钳之间。

4. When breaking out drill pipe, ensure that the tong dies grip the tool joint. Do not grip on the hard banding or on the shoulder areas.

卸钻杆扣时,一定要把大钳咬在接头上,不能咬在接头的耐磨带或者是台肩上。

5. Ensure that tongs, which are not in use, are hung (tied back) at the side of the floor.

大钳不用时,一定要把它们绑到钻台边上。

6. Suspension lines, pull lines, backup lines and snub lines must be inspected weekly and before every job for specifications (job load ratings), wear limits, damage, or improper installation.

每周和每次使用之前,都必须检查悬吊绳、锚头绳、回绳和钳尾绳的承载范围,磨损情况,以及安装是否恰当。

7. Ensure that the work force have been fully instructed on installation, function, operation, maintenance and safety procedures/ precautions.

要确保职工在安装、试运转、操作、保养、安全程序和注意事项方面都已经受到了充分地培训。

8. Do not stand behind rig tongs while they are in use.

上卸扣时,不能站在大钳的后边。

9. Any safety deficiencies or violations must be corrected immediately before proceeding with operations.

任何安全方面的缺陷或违规现象,必须在开始作业之前,立即整改。

10. Fit the rig tongs with the correct jaws for the drill pipe tool joint or the drill collar. Re-install the safety lock springs.

给大钳装上与钻杆接头或钻铤相匹配的钳头,再装上安全锁簧。

11. Ensure that the counter-weights are in balance with the tongs.

确保平衡铊与大钳平衡。

12. The tong counter-weights must not rest on derrick sub-floor, derrick substructure sills. The counter-weights should be shielded to prevent crew member from accidental contact with the hanging lines or weights.

不能让大钳平衡铊靠到钻台下边或井架底座上不起作用。为了防止平衡铊或吊绳伤人,应当给平衡铊装上防护拦杆。

13. Check all wire ropes on the back-up and make-up lines from the EZY-torque for frayed ends. Ensure the wire rope clips or sockets have been correctly applied as per specifications /regulations.

检查装在液压锚头与内外钳之间的所有钢丝绳的绳头是否有损伤。按照技术规范和要求确认绳卡和锁套的用法是否正确。

14. Check operation of the power unit for the EZY-torque and for compliance with engine/motor safety regulations and codes. Check for function controls, hydraulic leaks and all safety shut down controls.

按照柴油机或电动机的安全规程和标准,检查液压锚头动力箱的运转情况。检查控制功能、滴漏和所有的安全停机装置。

15. When tightening joints, ensure that the backup tongs (on the lower tool joint) are placed perpendicular (at 90 degree angle) to the snub line and to the load  cell/ torque meter.

紧扣时,要保证打在下边接头上的內钳与钳尾绳和扭矩仪之间成直角。

16. Install the make-up line(s) and snub line to the rig tongs. The snub line should be at least twice the size of the tong line.

装上大钳锚头绳和钳尾绳,钳尾绳的外径至少是大钳锚头绳的两倍。

17. Remove the locking pin from the rotary table so that it rotates freely.

打开转盘制动锁,以便转盘自由转动。

18. Clean the dies in the jaws or change them if they are worn or rounded.

清洗钳牙,如果已磨平了,就把它们换掉。

19. The breakout tong should be snubbed, preferably to an anchor post.

內钳必须装钳尾绳,最好装在尾绳锚(柱)上。

20. Sometimes the tongs are snubbed to the derrick leg. This method should not be used.

有时候会把钳尾绳装在井架大腿上,这种方法不可取。

21. The backup tong should be snubbed to the derrick substructure or to an anchor post attached to the substructure.

外钳尾绳应当装在井架底座上,或者装在固定在底座上的尾绳锚(柱)上。

 

BMaking up (tightening) joints 上扣与紧扣

1. Screw the properly cleaned and doped threads of the drill pipe to a snug condition using pipe spinner and/or chain tongs.

用钻杆旋扣器或旋链把刷干净涂上丝扣油的钻杆丝扣上到位。

2. Latch the backup tong, with the snub line load cell/torque meter, on to the bottom tool joint. Since a bending force is exerted on the pipe during make up, the tool joint connection must be set in the slips as low as possible.

把装了扭矩仪的內钳打在下边的接头上。由于上扣时钻杆受力会产生弯曲,,因此,钻具接头要尽可能低些坐在卡瓦上。

3. Fit the make up tong which is connected to the EZY-torque on the top tool joint. The floormen pull the tongs around the pipe until the lines are firm.

把连接液压锚头的外钳打在上边的接头上。钻工们围绕钻具拉大钳,直到绷紧。

4. The driller now operates the EZY-torque. The hydraulic cylinder slides out (up) causing the jack line to be pulled by the rig tong. The torque meter will indicate the torque line pull force.

此时司钻操作液压锚头,伸出液压缸拉紧大钳,扭矩表显示液压锚头绳的拉力。

5. If the correct torque has not yet been obtained, the hydraulic cylinder must be pushed in (down) and step repeated.

如果达不到适当的扭矩,必须退回液压缸,重复上一步操作。

6. When finished, the floormen remove the pull lines from the tongs and hang the tongs (tie back) at the side of the rig floor.

上扣结束,钻工们卸掉液压锚头绳,把大钳吊回到钻台边上。

 

CBreaking joints 卸扣

1. Since a bending force is exerted on the pipe during break out, the tool joint connection must be set in the slips as low as possible.

由于卸扣会使钻具产生弯曲力,因此,钻具接头必须尽可能低些坐在卡瓦上。

2. The driller operates the EZY-torque and pulls until the two cables on the tong are firm.

司钻操作液压锚头,直到把大钳拉紧为止。

3. The floormen now move back and away from the rig tongs until the connection has been broken.

此时,钻工们应当离开大钳,直到把扣卸松。

4. Warning: The floormen should always be aware of the tremendous force that can be applied and that the tongs could fly off suddenly, causing serious injury or fatality.

警告:钻工们要特别注意,加在大钳上的巨大力量可能会使大钳突然飞出,造成严重伤害的恶果。

5. When the connection is broken, unlatch tongs and unscrew the pipe using chain tongs or pipe spinner.

扣被卸松后,打开大钳,用链钳或钻杆旋扣器把扣卸开。

6. Hold or tie-back the tongs so that they do not swing toward the pipe during unscrewing.

卸扣时,要把大钳拉开或绑住,以防摆动。

 

 

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