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国外钻井公共操作规程

(2011-01-11 19:44:59)
标签:

涉外钻井管理

杂谈

国外钻井公共操作规程

Common Operation Regulation For Drilling a Well

                  崔智德

一、General requirement 基本要求

1. At the start of each tour call the crew together for a short safety talk. Your firm position on crew safety must be demonstrated each tour.

每天坚持班前安全会,每班必须把安全工作放在首位。

2. Point out unsafe methods or practices by your crew members and show them the correct and safe way to handle their duties.

指出职工不安全的做法和方法,并告诉他们安全的做法和方法。

3. Before performing an out of the ordinary operation(one not done every day) call the crew together to review any hazards and be sure each member understand his duties.

在进行非日常的特殊作业之前,要召集全队人员开会,查找任何危险因素,并使每个人都明确自己的责任。

4. Visually observe crew member for proper safety clothes and for signs of drug or alcohol use.

检查职工劳保是否穿戴合适,是否有饮酒及用其他麻醉剂的行为。

5. Enforce use of safety goggles by any crew members performing work that is apt to produce hazards to the eyes, such as: ① hammering; ② chipping③ scraping; ④ grinding; ⑤ wire brushing; ⑥ cutting; ⑦ pouring molten metal; ⑧ mixing mud or chemicals, and ⑨ spray painting.

在进行:① 打锤;② 刨削;③ 刮削;④ 打磨;⑤ 刷擦;⑥ 切割;⑦ 倒融化铁水;⑧ 配钻井液;⑨ 喷漆等对眼睛容易造成危险的作业之前,必须戴上防护镜。

6. Be certain that earmuffs are located on the rig, and instruct crew members on their proper use.

井场上必须备有护耳罩,并指导职工正确使用。

7. Train crew members to always lift loads with help and tag line. Caution the crew member to avoid lifting and carrying objects greater than 50 percent of body weight, or odd shaped objects, and to use help rather than risk injury.

培训职工起吊重物的合理做法是:坚持使用游绳或配助手,提醒职工不要搬运超过自身体重百分之五十的重物或不规则形状的物件,宁可找人帮助也不能出危险。

8. When handling loads with cranes or trucks, caution crew members to stand clear of any overhead loads and boom.

用吊车或卡车装卸货物时,货物和起重臂下不许站人。

9. Instruct crew members on the hazards of electrical power and always have them obtain proper help in handling an electrical problem.

要使职工知道有关电的危险,排除电路故障要方法得当。

10. While on a rig location, wear safety toe footwear and hardhats at all times.

在井场上任何时候都要穿硬头工鞋和戴安全帽。

11. Wear earmuffs in designated areas of high noise levels on the rig site.

在井场上的高噪音区要戴护耳罩。

12. When pressure testing any lines, vessels or assemblies, all rig personnel must be removed away to a safe area until pressure is released.

对任何管线和容器试压时,所有的井队人员都必须远离高压区,直到试压结束。

13. A safety meeting should be held before unusual or temporary jobs begin.

在做非日常的或者临时的工作之前,要先召开一个安全会。

 

二、Enforcing regulation 强制规程

1. Do not use open-flame vessels for heating or thawing on the rig floor.

钻台上不能用任何明火器具取暖或解冻。

2. Do not jump from elevations, such as pipe racks, cat-walks, etc.

不允许从高处往下跳,如钻杆架、锚道等。

3. Do not wear loose clothing or jewelery when working on moving machinery.

不允许在运转的设备附近穿宽松的衣服或戴珠宝首饰。

4. Do not use gasoline as a cleaning agent or as a paint thinner.

不允许用汽油做清洗剂或喷漆的稀释剂。

5. Do not use water hoses to wash down floors in the vicinity of electrical equipment or electrical switch gear.

不允许用水管线在电器设备或开关附近做冲洗工作。

6. Do not remove guards on running machinery.

不允许把运转的设备护罩取掉。

7. Do not walk under any pipe resting on the V-door ramp.

不允许在放有钻杆的大门坡道下边通行。

8. Stay clear of any overhead loads handled with cranes or trucks, or any overhead repair work being done in the mast or derrick.

用吊车或卡车装卸货物时下边不许站人,井架上进行高空维修作业时,下边也不许站人。

9. Do not slide down pipe, rotary hose, V-door ramp, or cables. Do not ride with the cat-line or air hoist. The air hoist may be used to hoist a workman (other than derrick-man) when a bosom chair with safety belt or derrick climbing belt is used to hoist the workman. Additionally, the air hoist must be powered up and powered down and the hoist operator must remain at the hoist controls with visual contact with the workman at all times during the operation.

不允许从钻杆、水龙带、大门坡道、电缆、锚头绳或气动绞车绳子上往下滑。可以使用配了安全带或助爬带的工作吊椅进行高空作业。另外,作业时气动绞车不许离人,保持上下联系,配合起放。

10. Do not smoke anywhere except in designated areas.

除了指定的地点外,其他任何场所不许吸烟。

11. Do not use or possess drugs or alcohol at rig location (medication prescribed by a licenced medical doctor taken in prescribed dosages excepted).

钻井现场禁酒及禁用任何麻醉剂,(如医疗需要,应当由具有处方权的医生按药方的用量批准)。

12. Do not work under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

酒后不许工作。

13. Do not engage in horseplay or practical jokes at rig site.

井场上不允许胡闹或搞恶作剧。

14. Do not throw objects off the floor, mast or derrick.

不允许从钻台上或井架上,往下乱扔东西。

15. When air pressure is not available at location, do not allow to use propane or gas substitute for air, for blowing out lines or for spray painting or for air hoists.

当井场无充气条件时,不能使用丙烷或天然气代替空气进行扫线、喷漆或启动气动绞车。

16. Do not let unauthorized personnel on rig floor or in operating area. Visitors should be cleared by the company representative and/ or rig superintendent and should be provided with a safety hat.

不能让未经许可的人上钻台或进入工作区。参观者应当由甲方代表或总监批准进入,并提供安全帽。

17. Do not pressure test with air, gas or steam. Always pressure test with water or other nonflamable liquids, and be sure any trapped air or gas is properly bled-off prior to the pressure test.

不要用空气、天然气或蒸气试压。试压必须用水或其他不可燃液体。试压之前一定要把空气或天然气放尽。

18. Do not clamp cat-line or anything to the fast line.

不许用卡子把锚头绳或其他东西卡在快绳上。

19. Do not leave pipe or collars that are not in use standing in mast or derrick.

不许在井架上排放用不着的钻杆和钻铤。

20. Do not drop or kick the master rotary bushings into position. Always use insert tools and hoist them into place.

不要投放或踢放大方瓦,应当用专用工具提着放入。

21. Do not let slips ride drill pipe.

不许把卡瓦卡在钻杆上转。

22. Do not let tongs ride the drill pipe.

不许把钳子打在钻杆上转。

23. Do not leave clamp on stand of drill collars or other pipe racked in mast/ derrick.

不允许把戴着安全卡瓦的钻铤立柱或其他管具竖到井架上。

24. Do not tighten a connection that is under tensile load or pressure.

不允许在拉伸或带压力的情况下紧扣。

25. Do not allow anyone other than a driller or tool-pusher to run the drawworks.

除了司钻和带班队长外,任何人不准启动钻机。

26. Do not dump mud tanks without company man approval.

不经甲方人员同意,不许清理泥浆罐。

 

三、Standard operation 标准化操作

1. All machinery in the rig site must be run within the operating limits given by the equipment manual.

井场上的所有设备都必须遵照设备使用说明书所要求的使用范围进行操作。

2. When picking up drill pipe, visually check each joint of pipe picked up to be sure it is in proper sequence according to weight, grade and class as designed.

串接钻具时,要按照设计逐根检查,以便确认每个单根的重量、钢级和下井顺序准确无误。

3. When drill string is in open hole always keep the pipe moving, either up, or down, or rotating. Pipe should never be allowed to stand still for longer than a minute or two at a time, this helps avoid stuck pipe.

当钻柱处在裸眼井段时,要注意勤活动钻具,活动钻具一定要上提、下放与转动相结合。每次活动间隔不能超过1-2分钟,这样可以防止卡钻。

4. Do not take the risk of machinery failure. When any noise, vibration, or overheating develops, shut down the machinery as soon as practical, and get help and advice from the rig mechanic for eliminating the trouble.

不许冒险作业。当出现异常声音、震动或过热,应当立即停止作业,并找机械师来帮助排除故障。

5. Do not take short cuts of company procedure that could endanger you or your crews. Do not try to be a hero and do not allow crew members to be heroes or short cut any safety rules to save time.

不允许简化甲方作业程序而导致人员危险。不许为了省事而简化任何安全作业程序。不许任何人盲目逞能耍个人英雄。

6. Hot air, hot water or steam should be used to thaw mud lines or other equipment essential, and do not thaw by fire or flame.

应当用热空气、蒸气或热水使钻井液管线和其他类似设备解冻,不能用明火烤或烟熏。

7. After dropping survey instrument, pipe should be moved until about three minutes before the survey goes off.

投测斜仪后要活动钻具,在测斜仪开始工作前的3分钟停止活动钻具。

8. Before working on equipment, disconnect air lines to pump or engine clutches. For electric driven equipment, disconnect power to the motors connected to the equipment. Make sure the equipment is in a safe condition before reconnecting power.

在检修设备之前,首先要卸掉通往泥浆泵或柴油机离合器的气管线。如果是电驱动设备,要切断驱动电机的电源。在重新接通电源之前,一定要保证设备安全。

9. Before starting a major piece of machinery into operation, know the whereabouts of all crew and service personnel.

在启动主体设备投入运转之前,要注意设备附近的有关人员所处位置是否适当。

10. Shut off power before working and servicing on electrical equipment or circuits.

在维修保养电器设备之前,必须先切断电源。

11. When releasing chain binders, stand to safety side and not in front of the handle (rope tied to the handle for releasing providers some additional safety).

当释放拉紧的梱装器材时,要站在安全的一边,不能站在手柄前边,最好用绳子把手柄绑上,以便保证安全释放。

12. Do not use oxygen as a substitute for compressed air for such used as paint sprayers, mud filter loss tests, engine air starters, air pumps, etc. In conclusion, it should not be used for any air operated machinery.

不能用氧气代替压缩空气进行喷漆、做钻井液失水试验、启动柴油机、打气泵等。总之,不能用它启动任何用空气发动的机器。

13. When the V-door is not being used, keep the safety chain attached across the V-door opening.

如果不用大门坡道,应当用链子把大门拦上。

14. Keep the number of joints of drill pipe or drill colars resting on the V-door ramp to the minimum required for the operation in progress and secure such joints at the pin end by means of a pipe stop.

根据钻进的需要,至少要在大门坡道上放几根钻杆或钻铤,公接头一端戳在坡道挡杆上。

15. Do not cut drilling line while out of hole. Run back to bottom of casing befor cutting line. Keep line off ground and protected.

不允许空井倒大绳,必须先把钻具下到套管鞋处再倒大绳,并注意不要让大绳落到地上。

16. Do not pick up the entire BOP stack by the ears on annular preventers.

不允许只挂环形防喷器的提环起吊全套防喷器。

17. During tests for BOP flange leaks, do not plug off the ring gaskets with bentonite or lost circulation materials to stop leaks.

对防喷器法兰进行试压时,不允许用膨润土或堵漏材料填堵密封槽来制止滴漏。

18. When out-of-hole, either a bit breaker or hole cover must be in place in the rotary table at all times.

空井时,一定要用钻头盒或井口盖子把井口盖好。

 

四、Electrical equipment and illumination 电器与照明

1. Do not experiment again if any electrical equipment fails to operate. You should contact authorized personnel immediately.

任何电器如果出了故障,不允许再试,应当立即去找授权的专业人员。

2. Splicing or cutting of electrical wire by unauthorized personnel should not be permitted.

不允许未经授权的人接电线或剪断电线。

3. The breaker switch for any electric equipment should be locked and tagged out before conducting any repairs.

在维修任何电器之前,都应当先把开关锁住,并做上标志。

4. When using electrical equipment and tools, you should not exceed qualification of manufacturer’s recommendations.

使用电器设备及工具,不能超出生产厂家推荐的范围。

5. All electrical wall outlets, hand tools, extension cords, etc., should be provided with proper grounds.

所有的墙壁电插座,手工具和延长接线等,都应当安装接地线。

6. Cords and plugs should be protected from being damaged.

要防止插头插座受到损坏。

7. Electrical power tools should not be used in gaseous or explosive atmospheres, unless approved for such use.

不经批准,不允许在高温易爆气体环境中使用电动工具。

8. The switches of all electrical power tools should be turned off before connecting or disconnecting power supply.

所有的电动工具在连接或拆卸电源之前,都应当把开关关掉。

9. Water or other cleaning agents should be used carefully near electrical devices.

在电器设备附近,用水或其他清洁剂一定要小心。

10. Electrical devices should not be used when water hazards are present.

在具有含水危险的情况下,不能操作电器。

11. Water or any substance and tools containing water should not be used to extinguish an electrical fire.

不能用水或任何含水的材料和工具来灭电火。

12. Water, dirt, oil, or excessive dust should not be allowed to accumulate around electrical equipment.

在电器设备的周围不能积存水、油、脏物或灰尘。

13. All extension cords should be checked regularly and kept in good condition. Cord should be disconnected from power source before coiling for storage.

按规定检查所有的延长线,使其处于良好的状况。在缠绕存放电线之前,应当先切断电源。

14. All guards on electrical equipment should be kept in place and in good repair.

电器设备上的任何护罩,都应当保持完好,或及时维修。

15. Explosion proof lighting fixtures should be used to illuminate all over rig site.

全井场都应当使用防爆灯照明。

16. All overhead lights should be equipped with safety fasteners.

所有的高空照明灯,都应当装上安全吊索。

17. SCR units, motors and auxiliary AC light plants should be grounded.

可控硅房、电动机和其他交流照明设备,都应当装接地线。

18. Explosion proof equipment should be returned to its explosion proof condition when repaired.

防爆设备维修后,应当仍然具有防爆功能。

19. Non-conductive mats should be placed in front of the switchboards and maintained in a clean condition.

闸刀盒前边要放绝缘垫,并保持干净。

20. All high voltage panels should be clearly marked “DANGER-HIGH VOLTAGE”.

所有的高压配电盘,都应当清楚地标明“高压-危险”。

21. Never assume low voltage cannot be dangerous.

决不能认为低压电没危险。

22. Never assume electrical wiring is harmless. Check the source to insure it has been cut off, even if only changing a light bulb.

决不能认为电线没危险,要检查电源,确认停电。就是换个灯泡也要这样做。

23. Any defective or unsafe electrical equipment should be reported to your supervisor and its use disconnected.

任何损坏的或不安全的电动设备,都应当上报给监督,并断开电源。

24. Personnel rescuing a victim of electrical shock should first switch off the power causing the shock. If this is not possible, attempt to pull the victim away from the live conductor by using a dry stick, a dry rope, or other non-conductive material. First Aid for electrical shock victims should be given by the rig medic or the procedures followed as outlined in a First Aid book.

营救被电击伤的人时,要首先切断引发击伤的电源。如果无法切断电源,要用干木棍、干绳子、或其他绝缘工具,尽力把受伤者从有电的地方拉出来。要由井队的医生对电击受伤者进行急救。或者按照急救手册的说明进行急救。

 

五、Hand tools 手工具

1. Do not use broken, damaged, or defective hand tools.

不允许使用任何有伤痕或损坏的手工具。

2. Frequent inspection of all hand tools should be made to ensure that they are in safe operating condition.

 要经常检查所有的手工具,确保安全使用。

3. Sharp hand tools should not be carried in pockets.

锋利的手工具不能放到口袋里。

4. Hand tools should be returned to their proper storage place after using.

手工具用后,要放回它原来适当的地方保存。

5. Use the right tool for the job. Hammer handles should not be used as pry-bars, nor should a wrench be used as a hammer.

 要用恰当的工具干活,不能用鎯头把当撬杠,同样,也不能用扳手当鎯头。

6. Driving faces of hammers, chisels, drift pins, bars, and similar tools should be inspected to eliminate mushroomed heads, broken faces and other defects.

要经常检查锤子、凿子、打孔杆、棒、和其他类似工具的锤击面,以免产生蘑菇帽、受损面和其他伤痕。

7. Cheaters should be used only if absolutely necessary.

只有在绝对需要的情况下,才能使用加力杠。

8. Pipe wrenches should not be used to bend, raise or lift pipe.

管钳不能用于蹩、撬或台管子。

9. Pipe wrenches should be inspected regularly. Replace the heel and jaw section if found to be defective or worn out.

应当定期检查管钳,更换已磨损或有伤痕的钳牙及牙床。

10. Wood handles should be sound and securely wedged or fastened to the tools. Tape should not be used to cover defects such as cracks.

木头把(柄)应当完好无损,要做楔形头牢固地镶在工具上,不能用带子捆绑裂缝之类的伤痕。

11. Tools carried into the derrick or mast should be secured to the body.

带到井架上的工具应当绑在身上。

12. When hand tools are being used overhead, those working or standing below should be notified.

在高空使用手工具作业时,要通知在下边干活的或站着的人。

13. When using a hammer wrench, attach a piece of rope to the handle to apply tension on the wrench to hold it in place.

使用锤击扳手时,要用一根绳子绑在扳手把上,把扳手拉紧,控制住扳手。

14. When using hand tools around the rotary table or the wellbore, be sure to cover the hole.

在转盘或井口周围使用手工具,一定要把井口盖上。

15. When using clamps, make sure you have the proper type. C-clamps should not be used for hoisting.

要用适当类型的绳卡,C形绳卡不能用于提升。

16. Insulated hand tools should be used when working on or around electrical equipment.

操作电器或在电器周围工作,应当使用绝缘的手工具。

 

六、Equipment guarding 设备护罩

1. Lockout and tagout procedures should be used before removing guards.

在拆卸护罩之前,要先执行上锁挂牌程序。

2. Any removed guard should be replaced before the machinery is returned to operation.

在设备恢复运转之前,要把所有卸下来的护罩都装好。

3. All discharge piping that could cause burns should be insulated or guarded.

能引起燃烧的任何管线,都应当是绝缘的,或者装上护罩。

4. All portable tools with exposed moving parts shoul be equipped with proper guards.

带有裸露转动部件的手提式工具,都应当装上护罩。

 

七、High pressure lines 高压管线

1. High pressure release valves of pipe or lines should be checked periodically according

to manufacturer’s recommendation.

要遵照生产厂家的说明,定期检查管线的高压保险阀。

2. All rig personnel should familiarize themselves with the location of high pressure lines.

所有井队人员,都应当熟悉他们自己与高压管线的定位。

3. Lines or piping systems that may kick under pressure should be secured.

在带压的情况下,有可能跳动的管汇系统要固定牢靠。

4. All rig personnel should not attempt to tighten or loosen unions or other connections of pipe under pressure.

任何井队人员都不能在带压力的情况下松紧由壬或其他管线的连接。

5. Any lines or pipe under pressure should not be hammered on.

不能用鎯头砸带压力的任何管线。

6. Chiksan sections in high pressure lines should be watched for leaks.

要注意观察高压管线的活动弯头是否有滴漏。

7. All rig personnel should stand clear of high pressure lines being used during cementing, acidizing, well testing procedures, etc.

在进行固井、压裂、试油等作业时,所有的井队人员都不能靠近高压管线。

 

八、Ladders, stairs and handrail 梯子、台阶与扶手

1. Portable ladders should be inspected prior to each use for cracks,splits, loose rungs,

etc.

每次使用轻便梯子之前,都应当检查是否有裂缝、开裂、横凳松动等。

2. Personnel should not climb higher than the third rung from the top on extesion ladders or on the second rung on step ladders.

使用伸缩式梯子时,上爬不能超过从上往下数的第三个横凳;一体式梯子不能超过第二个横凳。

3. Aluminum ladders should not be used around electrical equipment.

在电器周围不能用铝制梯子。

4. Ladders should not be used in a horizontal position as a scaffold.

不能把梯子放平当脚手架。

5. Portable metal or aluminium ladders should be equipped with non-skid feet.

金属或铝制的轻便梯子应当装防滑凳。

6. Wooden portable ladders should not be pained.

木制的轻便梯子不应当喷漆。

7. When in use, portable ladders should be secured at the top. If not, it should be held by another person.

使用轻便梯子时,要把顶部拴住,否则,就由另一个人扶着。

8. Personnel should not use boxes, chairs, sawhorses, tables, etc., to improvise a ladder.

不能把箱子、椅子、锯木架、桌子等,改成临时梯子。

9. The side rails should be held by two hands when climbing a fixed ladder.

爬固定梯子时,要双手握住两边的扶手。

10. Personnel should face a ladder when climbing up or down.

上下梯子时,要面对梯子。

11. Heavy, bulky tools should be hoisted when used on a ladder. Light tools should be attached to one’s person.

在梯子上使用重型工具时,应当用绞车提住;使用轻便工具时,应当把工具绑在身上。

12. All stairways should be maintained in a clean, dry condition.

所有的楼梯都应当保持干净、干爽。

13. Standard handrails should be provided for walkways, platforms and stairways where necessary.

在架空走道、平台或梯子上,凡是需要的地方都应当装标准的扶手(栏杆)。

14. Stair treads should be slip resistant.

楼梯的台阶应当防滑。

15. Toeboards should be installed whenever tools, machine parts, materials or supplies are to be used or stored on a walkway or platform.

在架空走道或平台上,都应当装挡脚板,以防所用的工具、配件或材料滑下去。

 

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