加载中…
个人资料
宾致葡萄酒俱乐部
宾致葡萄酒俱乐部 新浪机构认证
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:78,384
  • 关注人气:240
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
正文 字体大小:

Hedonism and claret 享乐主义与波尔多红酒

(2011-07-25 11:25:17)
标签:

波尔多

伦敦

波特酒

佩皮斯

红酒

南非葡萄酒

宾致红酒俱乐部

杂谈

分类: 转载

How the rise of the British middle classes in the 18th and 19th centuries shaped the wine industry
18和19世纪英国中产阶级的崛起如何塑造了葡萄酒产业



THE birth of the cult of fine wine can be dated precisely. On April 10th 1663, Samuel Pepys, diarist and man-about-London, noted that he had enjoyed “a sort of French wine called Ho Bryan that hath a good and most particular taste that I never met with”.

对名酒佳酿的狂热,可以精确地追溯其诞生的日期。1663年4月10日,赛缪尔•佩皮斯(Samuel Pepys),日记作家和伦敦社交场上的花花公子,记录道他品尝了“一种叫做奥布莱恩(Ho Bryan)的法国葡萄酒,有着我从未体验过的美妙绝伦的口味”。

He drank what is now called Chateau Haut Brion at the Royall Oak Tavern in the heart of London, one of many such establishments that had sprung up after the return from exile of King Charles II three years earlier and which offered such new delicacies as tea, coffee and classy wines. The hedonistic atmosphere of the times was responsible for the introduction not only of “Ho Bryan” and the other great wines of Bordeaux, but also of port from the Douro Valley in Portugal, the sparkling wines of Champagne and the brandy from a little town called Cognac, north of Bordeaux.

佩皮斯喝的是如今被称作奥比昂(Chateau Haut Brion)的葡萄酒,他是在伦敦中心地区的罗亚尔橡树酒馆(Royall Oak Tavern)喝到的。这家酒馆是三年前国王查理二世(Charles II)结束流放回国后迅速涌现的众多酒馆之一,提供茶、咖啡、上等葡萄酒等诸如此类的美食。当时的享乐主义氛围,不仅是 “奥布莱恩”和其他波尔多好酒,也是葡萄牙杜罗河谷的波特酒(port)、香槟(Champagne)的汽酒、波尔多北部小镇干邑(Cognac)的白兰地被引进英国的原因。

As Pepys was savouring his tipple, big economic shifts were under way. London was on the rise, starting to replace Amsterdam as the hub of world trade. Its merchants were growing in power, wealth and appetite—for, amongst other luxuries, claret. By the 18th century Londoners were the world’s biggest consumers of good claret.

佩皮斯品味美酒的同时,巨大的经济变化也正在发生。伦敦正在崛起,开始取代阿姆斯特丹成为世界贸易的中心。那里的商人阶层的权力、财富和对奢侈品——包括波尔多红酒——的胃口正在逐渐增长。到了18世纪伦敦人已经是全世界最大的优质波尔多红酒的消费群体了。

Previously drinks became famous and popular because of their royal connections. The court of France’s King Louis XIV, who himself drank Burgundy and the still wines of Champagne, was the arbiter of most alcoholic taste. Now, for the first time, a wider social group, including both aristocrats and commoners such as Pepys with fashionable aspirations, set the tone.

此前有些酒举世闻名又广受欢迎是因为它们与皇家的联系。法国国王路易十四(Louis XIV)爱喝勃艮第红酒和香槟的无气泡酒,他的宫廷是大多数酒类品评的权威场所。现在,第一次,一个更广泛的社会群体,包括贵族和佩皮斯这类追逐时尚的平民,有了发言权。

The English had been drinking claret for five centuries before Pepys’s time; but it was poor stuff, shipped immediately after the harvest and drunk quickly before it turned to vinegar the following spring. As late as the end of the 17th century it continued to be drunk mostly by those who wanted “claret to cool their port” in the words of one observer. Much of it was fake. A poet calling himself Satyrical Dick wrote how a “jolly wine-cooper” could combine a “pint of old port” with some rough Spanish wine and thus “could counterfeit claret the best of the sort”.

早在佩皮斯所处时代的五个世纪之前,英国人就已经在喝波尔多红酒了;但酒的品质较差,都是在收获后立刻上市,在第二年春天变成“醋”之前赶快喝掉了。直到17世纪末,在观察家的笔下,红酒仍主要是被想要“用红酒冲淡浓烈的波特酒”的人饮用的。有很多波尔多红酒是假货。一个自称讽刺的迪克的诗人就写过一个“快乐的箍桶匠”是如何在“一品脱陈年波特酒”里混入些粗制的西班牙葡萄酒,从而“炮制出极品波尔多红酒”的。

The owners of Ho Bryan were the Pontacs. They were the top winemaking family of their day, and founded a fashionable restaurant, called Pontack’s Head, in London, in 1663. John Locke, the philosopher whose theory of the social contract inspired America’s revolutionaries, but who had worldlier interests too, spotted the reasons for the superiority of Ho Bryan on a visit to the vineyard in 1667. He found “a little rise of ground...white sand mixed with a little gravel; scarce fit to bear anything.” He added that “they say the wine in the next vineyard to it, tho’ seeming equal to me, is not so good.” Today that vineyard is still rated just below its neighbour.

奥比昂酒过去的所有人是彭塔克家族(the Pontacs)。他们是当时最优秀的酿酒之家,1663年在伦敦开了一家时髦的餐馆,名叫“彭塔克总店”(Pontack’s Head)。约翰•洛克(John Locke),这位提出社会契约理论并因此鼓舞美国独立革命的思想家,同样有更为世俗的兴趣,1667年造访奥比昂的葡萄园时,他敏锐地注意到了奥比昂酒胜人一筹的原因所在。他发现“小小的一块山岗地……白色沙土中混着一点沙砾;几乎种不活任何东西。”他还写道:“尽管对我来说都一样,但据说紧邻这里的另一片葡萄园的酒就没那么好。”直到今天那片葡萄园所产酒的评级仍旧低于它的邻居。

Locke had seized on the essential concept of terroir, the combination of soil, subsoil, drainage and microclimate which provide the conditions for the production of fine wine. Another connoisseur, the 18th-century economist Adam Smith, noted that “the vine is more affected by the difference of soils than any other fruit tree. From some it derives a flavour which no culture or management can equal.”

洛克抓住了“风土”的核心概念,它综合了土壤、底土、透水性以及为生产优质葡萄酒提供条件的微气候。另一位鉴赏家,18世纪的经济学家亚当•斯密(Adam Smith),注意到“葡萄树比任何其他果树更易受到土壤差异的影响。从某些土壤中它能获取一种风味,那是无法通过培育和管理达到的。”

Claret was getting more popular partly because it was getting better. The craft of claret-making had developed. By the early 18th century, the wine was designed to be kept for years not months, notably by being carefully stored in oak casks. Better corks allowed wine to be stored longer and more safely. Bottles were produced that could be “binned”—laid down on their sides to mature.

波尔多红酒日益流行的一部分原因是品质越来越好。红酒的酿造工艺更先进了。到了18世纪早期,葡萄酒可以保存数年而不是几个月,尤其是被精心地储存在橡木桶中。更好的软木塞使得葡萄酒可以储存得更长久、更安全。可以平放从而有利发酵成熟的玻璃酒瓶也被制造出来。

By Smith’s time the shape of the industry was established for centuries to come. Advertisements in the London Gazette at the time noted the sale of wines from four chateaux: Haut Brion, today a green oasis in Bordeaux’s suburbs, and Latour, Lafite and Margaux, all on the gravel banks above the Gironde estuary in the Médoc, the peninsula north of Bordeaux. The four estates remain the greatest brands in wine. Their main competitors, then as now, are a handful of tiny vineyards in Burgundy.

斯密的时代已经确立了葡萄酒行业未来几个世纪的发展趋势。当时《伦敦公报》(London Gazette)上的广告提到了四个酒庄的葡萄酒销售情况:奥比昂酒庄(Haut Brion)——今日波尔多郊外的一片绿洲,还有拉图酒庄(Latour)、拉菲酒庄(Lafite)、玛歌酒庄(Margaux),都位于波尔多北部梅多克半岛(Médoc)吉伦特河口的沙砾河岸上。这四个酒庄如今依旧是葡萄酒中的顶级品牌。它们的主要竞争对手——和现在一样——是勃艮第的少数小酒庄。

British appetite for their produce was growing; but so, too, were the obstacles to getting hold of it. Britain, Portugal and their allies were at war with France and Spain. Port (from Portugal) was therefore considered the patriotic drink. In a comedy called “The Winder”, staged in 1714, one character protested that “I have been drinking Claret and Champaign and Burgundy and other French wines, Sir, but I love my country for all that.” The vendors in the 1707 sales, and many others, claimed that their supplies were captured by British ships in the fighting; but they probably weren’t.

英国人对这些酒庄酒的需求不断增长,但是获得这些酒的障碍同样不断增加。英国、葡萄牙及其盟友正与法国和西班牙开战。波特酒(来自葡萄牙)于是被认为是爱国饮料。在1714年上演的名为“The Winder”的喜剧中,一个角色抗议道:“尽管我喝过波尔多、香槟、勃艮第和其他法国葡萄酒,但是先生,我依然爱我的祖国。”1707年波尔多红酒交易的供应商和不少其他商人声称他们运送的酒在战争中被英国战船掠夺,但事实很可能并非如此。

  
    Claret helped the rich to distinguish themselves from the port-sodden squirearchy
    波尔多红酒使有钱人得以将自己和那些终日饱饮波特酒的乡绅阶层区别开来


In the 18th century drinking claret helped the rich to distinguish themselves from England’s port-sodden squirearchy. Port was not only the more traditional drink, but also—because it attracted much lower duties—far cheaper. John Hervey, the first Earl of Bristol, spent four times as much on claret as on port, whereas the lusty trenchermen who gathered in the Barbers Hall in the City of London spent a mere £2 on claret as against £850 on port.

18世纪,喝波尔多红酒使有钱人得以将自己和英格兰那些终日饱饮波特酒的乡绅阶层区别开来。波特酒不仅是更传统的饮料,而且——因为课税更低——也更加廉价。约翰•赫维(John Hervey),第一代布里斯托伯爵,购买波尔多红酒花费的钱是波特酒的四倍,而伦敦城Barbers Hall里聚集的快活的食客们花在波尔多红酒上仅仅2英镑,而波特酒却有850英镑。

When Britain made peace with France in 1713, claret became more accessible and the wine trade flourished. Claret was pricey but rich Londoners, who were also by then big spenders on theatres, spas and music produced by fashionable immigrants, such as Handel, consumed conspicuous quantities. Sir Robert Walpole, Britain’s first prime minister, used navy ships to smuggle his favourite wines from France. The most expensive one he bought was old burgundy, but that—as now—was available only in tiny quantities. So he relied largely on claret, buying four hogsheads of 24 dozen bottles of Margaux and one hogshead of Lafite every three months. In a single year his wine bill amounted to over £1,200 (£100,000 today). British consumers bought the best stuff and paid top prices. By the time of the French revolution, the British were paying five times as much for their claret as the wine’s other main customers, the notoriously parsimonious Dutch, who preferred the cheaper, lower-grade stuff.

1713年英国与法国停战言和后,波尔多红酒变得更容易获得,葡萄酒贸易也繁荣起来。波尔多红酒价格昂贵,但是富有的伦敦人,就是那些在剧院、温泉、和象亨德尔这样侨居英国的上流移民所作的音乐上花大钱的人,波尔多红酒消费之多令人乍舌。罗伯特•华尔波尔爵士(Sir Robert Walpole),英国第一任首相,曾利用海军战舰从法国偷运他最喜爱的葡萄酒。他买的最贵的一种是勃艮第陈酒,但和今天一样,这种酒只有极少量的供货。所以他主要购买大量波尔多红酒,每三个月买入四大桶24打的瓶装玛歌酒和一大桶拉菲酒。仅一年他的葡萄酒帐单就共计超过1200英镑(相当于今天的100000英镑)。英国消费者买的是最好的酒,出的是最高的价。到法国大革命时,英国人为波尔多红酒花费的钱是葡萄酒另一主要消费者的五倍,那就是出了名地吝啬的荷兰人,他们更偏爱价低质次的货色。

The wines were no longer drunk, or even bought, when young: in 1714 Walpole was buying bottles of the 1706 vintage of the classier wines. His sophistication was echoed by that of his clerk, who was notable at the time for his ability to spell all four estates correctly. In the 18th-century accounts Lafite rarely had only a single f and t, Margaux was spelt Margoose, Margose, and Margon, and the O’Brian variation on Haut Brion led to constant speculation over the years that the owner was Irish.

葡萄酒初酿之时,不再马上饮用,甚至也不拿来买卖:1714年华尔波尔就买了多瓶1706年份的上等葡萄酒。他高妙老到的品位得到了手下一位职员的共鸣,此人因能正确地拼写出四个酒庄的名字而颇为引人注意。在18世纪,Lafite很少拼成单个f和有字母t的,Margaux被拼成Margoose或Margose或者Margon,而Haut Brion 的变体O’Brian导致人们多年来都猜测其所有者是爱尔兰人。

Claret was still largely for the prosperous well into the 19th century. In “Every Man His Own Butler,” published in 1839, Cyrus Redding, a wine merchant and author, wrote “claret for a bishop, port for a rector, currant for a curate and gin for the clerk”. The fine-wine merchant was an unusually respectable figure—for a tradesman. In a newspaper article Anthony Trollope described one of them, “Mr Prettyman”, as “a handsome old gentleman with grey hair, always well-dressed”. Three of his contemporaries survive today—Corney & Barrow in the City of London, Justerini & Brooks and Berry Bros & Rudd in St James’s Street, just down the road from The Economist.

进入19世纪后很多年,波尔多红酒还是主要为富有阶层所享用。在1839年出版的《人人都是大管家》一书中,葡萄酒商兼作者赛勒斯•雷丁(Cyrus Redding)写道:“主教配酌波尔多,牧师配啜波特酒,助牧可饮醋栗酒,执事只配喝杜松。”。在生意人里,买卖上等葡萄酒的商人风光体面, 不同寻常。在一篇报章上,安东尼•特罗洛普(Anthony Trollope)形容其中一人为“优雅先生”,像“一位灰白头发、始终衣着得体的英俊老绅士”。有三家那个时代的葡萄酒商店幸存至今——伦敦城的Corney & Barrow,圣詹姆斯街的Justerini & Brooks和Berry Bros & Rudd,从《经济学人》杂志社沿街而下就是。



But claret was beginning to flow down the social hierarchy. A free-trade treaty between Britain and France in 1860 drastically reduced the duty on French wines, thus encouraging the British middle classes to ape their social superiors; and in that year the chancellor of the exchequer, William Gladstone, keen to stiffen the nation’s moral spine, cut the duty on table wines to 40% of that on more intoxicating fortified wines such as port and sherry.

不过红酒开始沿着社会等级向下流动了。1860年英法两国的自由贸易协定大幅降低了法国葡萄酒的关税,因而刺激了英国中产阶级向社会高层精英效仿;那一年,财政大臣威廉•格拉德斯通(William Gladstone)热切地想要塑造国家坚强的精神脊梁,便将日常餐酒的关税削减至更易醉人的强化葡萄酒(如波特酒和雪莉酒)的40%。

The following year came the Single Bottle Act, allowing grocers to sell wine by the bottle. A much-despised, enormously popular drink called “grocers’ claret” was born, with the result that, between 1859 and 1878, sales of French wines, largely from Bordeaux, rose sixfold to 36m bottles. The Gilbey family, one of the most remarkable commercial dynasties of Victorian England, franchised 2,000 grocers licensed to sell wine, largely claret. Their business grew so fast that by 1875 they were able to buy Chateau Loudenne in the Médoc to hold their gigantic stocks of claret. As the middle classes turned to claret, so the upper classes abandoned this increasingly common tipple in favour of hock and champagne.

随后的一年《单瓶酒法案》出台,允许零售商销售瓶装的葡萄酒。一种倍受蔑视、又极其大众化的饮料“零售红酒”诞生了,随之而来的结果是:1859到1878年间,法国葡萄酒(主要来自波尔多)的销量增长了六倍,达3600万瓶之多。吉尔比(Gilbey)家族,维多利亚时代英国最杰出的商业王朝之一,向2000家零售商授予了葡萄酒(主要是波尔多红酒)的特许经销权。他们的生意增长迅速,以至到1875年已能买下梅多克的罗蒂尼酒庄(Chateau Loudenne),用于存放他们庞大的波尔多红酒存货。当中产阶级的口味转向波尔多红酒之后,上流社会就抛弃了这种日渐寻常的饮料,转而青睐白葡萄酒和香槟酒了。

Then the fortunes of the claret business turned. In the late 1870s and 1880s an attack of mildew tainted the wines: the reputation of Lafite, for instance, was ruined when the 1884 vintage turned mouldy after only a couple of years in bottle. At the same time, the phylloxera bug began to devastate Bordeaux’s vineyards.

此后波尔多红葡萄酒产业的命运急转直下。19世纪70年代和80年代晚期,突发的霉菌腐坏了葡萄酒:例如拉菲酒的声誉就因为1884年份酒在装瓶后仅仅几年就发霉变质而严重受损。与此同时,根瘤虫也开始摧毁波尔多的葡萄园。

Claret came back into its own in 1960 when the splendid 1959 vintage coincided with the arrival of big American buyers. Its popularity has risen steadily since. London remains at the centre of the fine-wine business—home of organisations such as the Institute of Masters of Wine, of Decanter and World of Fine Wine magazines, and of most of the world’s biggest wine auctions. Liv-Ex, the world’s first stockmarket for fine wine, is based in London; and its figures show that nine-tenths of the wine trade is still in “classed growth” (leading) clarets. Newcomers from vineyards in a dozen countries trying to launch their finest wines on the world market come to London first for validation. Yet though London may still have much of the knowledge and the market, as consumers the British may be past their best. This year, 57% of the fine wine that Sotheby’s sold globally, by value, was bought by Asians; four-fifths of those buyers were from China and Hong Kong.

当绝佳的1959年份酒恰好遇上慷慨的美国买家时,1960年波尔多红酒再度回复了生机。它的受欢迎程度从此稳步上升。伦敦仍然位居高级葡萄酒产业的中心——它是葡萄酒大师协会(Institute of Masters of Wine)、《品醇客》杂志社(Decanter)、《高级葡萄酒世界》杂志社(World of Fine Wine)的总部所在地,也是大多数世界大宗葡萄酒拍卖的发生地。Liv-Ex,世界上第一个高级葡萄酒交易所,就设在伦敦;其数据表明十分之九的葡萄酒交易对象仍是“列级酒庄”(顶级)的波尔多红葡萄酒。来自十几个国家葡萄园的新酒商,要想把他们最顶级的葡萄酒推向世界市场,都会先到伦敦获取交易认证。不过尽管伦敦可能仍然占有葡萄酒的大量咨讯和市场,但英国消费者的黄金年代也许已经过去。今年,苏富比拍卖行在全球售出的高级葡萄酒中有57%(以价值计)为亚洲人购买;其中五分之四的买家来自中国和中国香港。

 

 

 

 

本文来自于:http://club.topsage.com/thread-1451891-1-1.html

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有