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英汉翻译教程(三)

(2009-09-19 12:11:04)
标签:

英语翻译

校园

分类: 英语翻译

第三章  词汇的翻译

课前导学与自学

一、导学内容与要求:

3.1  英汉语的词义对比  

3.2  汉英词汇的对称性和英语词汇的非对称性   

3.3  词汇的形态与翻译  

3.4  词义的准确理解 

3.5  词义的准确表达

二、教学要求:

了解英汉词语的差异(语义差别,内涵意义,情感意义)。重点是通过大量例句的讲解体会两种语言的差异,以便掌握翻译时正确的思维转向。

课前导学与自学:

一、导学内容与要求:

1、了解了解英汉词语的差异;

2、掌握翻译中英汉词汇的翻译;

二、课前自学资料:

1、《英汉汉英翻译教程》主教材

2、《翻译(1)(2)》网络课程地址:甘肃电大在线课程资源

面授课辅导内容安排与讲解方法

一、讲解和重点自学内容

3.1  英汉语的词义对比

一、词汇的语意范围(semantic hope)

比如英语中的kill和汉语中的“杀”

1)Japanese army killed millions of innocent people during the war.

在那场战争中日本军队屠杀了成百上千万无辜的平民。

2) Three men were killed in the accident.

有3个男子在事故中丧生。

3) The engine was killed by the flood.

汽车的引擎由于大水而熄了火。

4) Your joke nearly killed me.

你的笑话真是笑死了。

5) I am reading this book just to kill time.

我读这本书只是为了消磨时间。

6).日服3次,每次一片。

  To be taken three times a day , one tablet each time.

7).说的有道理,我服了。

 What you said is reasonable, I am convinced.

8).他不服指导。

 He refused to obey direction.

9).服兵役是每个青年的义务。

 It’s the duty of every young man to serve in the army.

10).那位拳击手还在服刑。

 That boxer is still serving a sentence.

二. 词的内涵意义不一样

许多词除了外延意义外还有内涵意义,既它们在人们头脑中产生的某种联想。如“春天”、“男子汉”

词的内涵不但随着时代和社会的变迁而变化,而且因历史和文化的不同而不同。

 比如“荷花”、“菊花”、“黄”

1).Don’t trust her comments on your new job; she is sort of a fox.

 别相信她说的关于你新工作的那些话,她正眼红着呢。

2).The old Blacksmith Jimmy is as good as gold.

 老铁匠吉米是个可靠的人。

3).There is no way to black out the news.

 这消息是包不住的。

三. 词的情感意义不一样

dragon --- Chinese totem

propaganda

四. 词的联想意义不一样

cock , intercourse, ejaculation, bottom up

五. 词的搭配意义不一样

Pretty Girl, boy, Woman, Flower, Garden, Color, village

handsome Boy, Man, Car, Vessel, Overcoat, Airline, typewriter

3.2 汉语词汇的对称性和英语词汇的非对称性

1. A: What date is today?

  B:It’s May 7. / It’s May 17

  甲:今天几号?

  乙:五月7日。/五月17日

2. He went to the party although it was raining.

   虽然下着雨,但是他还是参加了派对。

3. He started to do his homework as soon as he came back.

   他一回来就开始做作业。

magnificent (scenery)         美不胜收(景色)

cloudless (weather)           万里无云(天气)

towering (mountain)          高耸入云(山峰)

very rich (merchant)          腰缠万贯(商人)

interest (story)               引人入胜(故事)

4. She was eighteen and beautiful.
   她年方18,天生丽质。

5. Babies satisfactorily born.

   孩子已生,一切顺利。

3.3 词汇的形态与翻译

1.  Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

     情人眼里出西施。

2.  She is very beautiful.

     她很美。

3.  She dances beautifully.

     她舞姿很美。

4.他来了,我很高兴。

   译文一:He arrived, which delighted me.

   译文二:His arrival delighted me.

   译文三:His arriving delighted me.

3.4 词义的准确理解

1. I was shopping in a mall.

 我在一家购物中心购物。

2. I wouldn’t want my children to overhear you.

 我不想让我的孩子听到你们的(脏)话。

3. 客户至上、竭诚服务

  Putting customers first and offering whole-hearted service.

二、相关练习题:

I把下列词组译成汉语,注意汉语中词的不同搭配意义。

1. thick hair                  2. thick weather                  3. a thick puddle

4. a thick voice             5. a heavy vote                   6. heavy reading

7. a heavy vote             8. a heavy investor              9. a heavy thinker

10. a heavy schedule                                 11. close reasoning 

12. a close election                                   13. a close resemblance

14. a close mind                                       15. closed economy

16. a closed case                                      17. an open fire

18. an open question                                 19. an open drain

20. a man of an open fire                          21. an open port

22. an open winter                                   23. run into debt

24. run to seed                                         25. run the street

26. run for presidency                       27. run oil

28. sophisticated man                               29.sophisticated columnist                    30. sophisticated weapon

 

II.把下列词组译成英语,注意英汉语中词汇的意义范围不同。

  1. 开花                      2. 花领带                  3. 绣花鞋                  4. 花絮

5. 老花眼                  6. 花色                      7.上场                        8.上乘

9. 上乘                      10. 上当                    11. 上进                    12. 上宾

13. 上班                    14. 打扮                    15. 打抱不平            16. 打官司

17. 留神                    18. 留情                    19. 留学                    20. 留言

 

III.        翻译下列各句,注意斜体部分词汇的内涵意义。

1.      Don’t trust her comments on your new job; she is sort of a fox.

2.      The old Blacksmith Jimmy is as good as gold.

3.      As there is no cream, we’ll have to content ourselves with black coffee.

4.      There is no way to black out the news.

5.      I hope that the circumstance will not lead you to reject the offered olive branch.

 

IV.         翻译下列各句,注意斜体部分的意义,并根据汉语表达习做适当的处理。(必要时可用添加、省略、反译、改变语态等方法)

1.      His conduct is incongruous with his principles.

2.      Aren’t you sorry for what you’ve done?

3.      Deception is alien to me.

4.      Don’t you think terrorism is the most frustrating issue in the world politics?

5.      He once again imparted to us his great knowledge, experience and wisdom.

6.      In every city, we got into the street, shop, park, theatres and restaurants.

7.      She hadn’t been told Bette’s other name, or she’d forgotten it.

8.      There can never be too much deception in war.

9.      Under such circumstance we should play for safety against making haste.

10.   Her new dress is an absolute dream.

学习反馈

1、课后认真复习课本知识,划出重点和难点,以及自己还不懂的地方,以便下次上课向老师请教;

2、认真完成课后的练习题,进行自我检测。

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