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常见的特殊句式【正义反译】【比较结构】

(2010-05-13 21:30:27)
标签:

杂谈

分类: NETEM

一、“正话反说”常用句式
1.not...without

1)They never meet without quarrelling.
他们每次见面必吵架。

2)There is no general rule without some exception.
所有的普遍规律都有例外。

3)One cannot think of Africa without thinking of Egypt,the cradle of ancient civilization,nor of

Egypt without the Nile.
每当人们想起非洲,就必然会想到作为古代文明发祥地的埃及,而一想到埃及,就会想到尼罗河。

另外,人们在出版一本书时,总要在前言里对给予帮助的有关人员表示感谢,在这种情况下,汉语一般是

正面提,而英语从反面说,常用此结构。

4)This book could not have been written or published without the help of dozens of people, and I

am deeply grateful to all of them.
本书得以编写和出版,还由于很多人的大力协助,我对他们深表谢意。

 

2.cannot...too

英语中的“cannot...too”是一种常见的用否定形式表达肯定意义的结构,它相当于“it is impossible too

overdo...”(无论怎样也不为过)。

1)I cannot be too grateful for his help.
对于他给予的帮助,我非常感激。(我无论怎样感激也不为过)

2)The value of the information he has provided cannot be overestimated.
他提供的信息非常宝贵。(其价值无论怎样估计也不为过)

3)A book may be compared to your neighbor:if it be good,it cannot last too long;if bad,you

cannot get rid of it too early.
一本书好比你的邻居:如果是本好书,保持的时间越长越好;如果是本坏书,处理得越早越好。

 

3.直接式的双重否定

这种句式通常由no,not,never等否定词与not,but,for nothing等连用。

1)There is no one that does not want to help you.
每个人都愿意帮助你。

2)There is no surgical patient I cannot treat competently,treat just as well or better than any

other surgeon.
任何外科病人我都能治,我的治疗与其他外科医生一样高明,甚至高出一筹。

3)We would,however,not be getting something for nothing.
然而,我们要有所作为,就得付出代价。

 

4.can't help but,can't help doing sth.

这两种句式较常见,但它们表示的双重

否定并不是很直接,因而易引起理解上的失误。

1)When the streets are full of melting-snow,you can't help but get your shoes wet.
当街上满是融雪时,你的鞋子肯定要被弄湿。

2)When I heard the sad story,I could not help shedding tears.
听到那个伤心的故事,我不禁掉泪了。

 

5.Nothing is more...than...

1)Nothing is more valuable than health.
世界万物健康最宝贵。

在这个句式中,nothing可由其他否定词来替代,如no,not,nobody,nowhere等。

2)No one is more foolish than he is.
他是最愚笨的一个人。

3)No other animal is larger than a whale.
鲸是最大的动物。

4)Nowhere is more beautiful than his hometown.
他的家乡是最美的地方。

 

6.not...until

“not...until”是一个非常典型的英语表达方式,中国学生理解起来很容易,但在实际运用中却很难想到

,主要原因还是不太习惯以否定的形式来表达肯定的意义。

1)The value of health is not esteemed until it is lost.
人们只有在失去健康时,才知道它的可贵。

2)Nobody knows what he can do until he has tried.
任何人都要试一试,才知道他能做什么。

3)They did not meet again until the be- ginning of 1951.
他们直到1951年初才再度会面。

 

7.not to mention,not to speak of

1)Dave is handsome and smart,not to mention being a good athlete.
戴夫英俊、聪明,还是个出色的运动员。

2)He has a big house and an expensive car,not to speak of a villa in France.
他有一所大房子和一辆昂贵的汽车,此外在法国还有一所别墅。

8.There is nothing like...

1)There is nothing like jogging as a means of exercise.
锻炼身体的最好方法是慢跑。

2)In my life,there is nothing like my father's influence for changing my beliefs.
在我的生命中,父亲对我信仰的改变影响最大。


二、“比较对比”常用句式

1. not so much as ……

  He cannot so much as write his own name. (=He cannot even write his own name.)

  他甚至连自己的名字都不会写。

  He did not so much as thank me.  他甚至都没谢我。

  He is so stupid that he can't so much as eat.  他蠢得甚至连吃饭都不会。

 

2. the more ……, the more ……

  The more you soften a request, the more polite it becomes.

  你愈使请求柔婉,请求就愈变为客气。

  The longer you stay here, the more you will like the place.

  你在这里待得愈久,你愈会喜欢这个地方。

  The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you will make.

  你愈小心,你犯错就会愈少。

  The more I learn, the less I feel I know.
      学而后知不足。

  The closer you stay to nature, the more you will appreciate her beauty.

  你愈接近大自然,就愈能了解它的美。

      以下是一些常用到的the more..., the more...结构的谚语

  The more haste, the less speed.  欲速则不达。

  More profit and less honor.  舍名逐利。

  The sooner the better.  事不宜迟。

  The more you have, the more you want.  拥有愈多,欲望愈高。

  The more you beat iron the harder it grows.  铁不炼不成钢,玉不琢不成器。

  more and more ……

 

3. …… more …… than ……

  You may also find that reading has become more fun than work!

  你或许也会发现阅读已经变成是有趣的事,而不是工作。

  It is more a made-up story than a real occurrence.那是杜撰的故事,而不是真实发生的事情。

  I was more disappointed than discouraged. 我是失望,而不是泄气。

  He is more a sprinter than a swimmer.  他是短跑健将,而不是游泳选手。

  I am more frightened than hurt. 我吓坏了而没有受伤。

  Sue is more beautiful than Jane. 苏比珍较美。

  The computer is more expensive than the typewriter. 这部计算机比这部打字机更贵。

  People in the country are happier than people in the city.乡下的人们比城市的人们更快乐。

 

4.   N1 more …… than N2

  People have to live on something more nourishing than hope.

  人们必须依赖比希望更滋养的东西来过活。

  I have never seen a girl more beautiful than Mary. 我从未见过比玛丽更为美丽的女孩子。

  I want some persons more experienced than Tom. 我要一些比汤姆更有经验的人。

 

5.   more N than + ADJ/V-ed

  Some people give higher priced gifts than necessary for the situation.

  有些人给了比情况所必要来得更高价的礼物。

  I did more work than required. 我做了比所被要求的来得更多的工作。

  We were given more money than necessary for the project.

  我们被给了比计划所要求来得更多的钱。

 

6.   It is better to V1 than V2

  It is better to laugh than (to) weep.  笑比哭好。

  It is more comfortable to lie on a lawn than (to) sit in the office.

  躺在草坪上比坐在办公室里舒服。

  It is harder to teach than (to) study.  教书比读书辛苦。

 

7.   make …… more …… of ……

  Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight.  黑暗会使他更加珍惜视力。

  Their sudden attack made us more aware of the danger around us.

  他们突然的攻击使我们更加注意我们周围的危险。

  Your encouragement made me more confident of my future.

  你的鼓励使我对我的未来更加有信心。

 

8.   …… as …… as …… can be

  His failure is as plain as plain can be.  他的失败是再明白不过了。

  He is as handsome as (handsome) can be.  他潇洒极了。

  She is as kind as can be.  她极为和颜悦色。

  Mary is as hardworking as can be.  玛丽在班上之用功不输任何人。

  He may not be so clever as Peter, but he is as industrious as can be.

  他也许不如彼得聪明,但却用功极了。

 

9.   as …… as ever

  He seems to be as busy as ever.  他似乎和往常一样忙碌。

  He works as hard as ever. 他和往常一样努力工作。

  She was as beautiful as ever after so many years.  过了那么多年,她美丽如故。

 

10. …… times as …… as ……

  I am twice as old as he.  我的年纪是他的两倍。

  She studies three times as hard as I.  她用功的程度是我的三倍。

  He earns twice as much as he used to.  他比往常多赚二倍的钱。

  She spent half as much money as you.  她花掉的钱只有你花掉的一半。

  

11. …… times the/my N ………

  It was over twice the distance of the earth from the sun. 那是地球到太阳的距离的两倍多。

  Line A is four times the length of line B.  线条 A 是线条 B 的四倍长。

  I have five times the number of Tom's books.  我有五倍于汤姆的书。

  He has three times my money.  他的钱是我的三倍。

  He has more than three times my money.  他的钱是我的三倍还不止。

 

12.  more than …… as …… as

  He is more than three times as rich as I. (=He is three times richer than I.)

  他的财富是我的三倍还不止。

  He studies more than three times as hard as I. 他用功的程度是我的三倍还不止。

  I am more than twice as old as he. 我的年龄是他的两倍还不止。

  He has collected more than three times as many stamps as I (have)。

  他搜集的邮票是我的三倍还不止。

 

13.  …… times ……er than ……

  We now know that X-ray waves are 2,000 to 10,000 times shorter than light waves.

  我们现在知道X光波比光波短二千到一万倍。

  This street is four times shorter than that one.  这条街道比那条短四倍。

  The mother elephant is one hundred times heavier than the baby elephant.

  这只母象比小象重一百倍。

  It is ten times louder than another.  它比另外一个的声音大十倍。

  This street is three times wider than that one.  这条街比那条街宽三倍。

  I am twice older than he.  我的年纪比他大两倍。

 

14.  not so adj. as adj.

  She is not so beautiful as charming. (=She is charming rather than beautiful.)

  与其说她美倒不如说她迷人。

  He is not so clever as diligent.  与其说他聪明倒不如说他勤奋。

  She is not so kind as simple.  与其说她善良不如说她单纯。

 

15.  not so much + N as + N

  He is not so much a writer as a scholar.   与其说他是作家倒不如说他是学者。

  He is not so much a genius as a hard worker.   他的努力胜于天份。

  The Apollo program was not so much a scientific achievement as a technical accomplishment. 

波罗计划与其说是一项科学成果,不如说是一项技术成就。

 

16. not so much …… as ……

  Happiness hinges not so much on wealth as on health.

  快乐与其说在于财富倒不如说在于健康。

  One's greatness lies not so much in his wealth as in his character.

  一个人的伟大与其说是由他的财富来判断,倒不如说是由他的品德来判断。

  Success lies not so much as in luck as in hard work.

  与其说成功在于运气不如说是辛勤努力。

 

17. as/so …… as ……

  He is as handsome as his brother (is)。  他和他哥哥一样英俊。

  Judy goes to the movies as often as Sara does.  朱迪像莎拉一样时常去看电影。

  Old John goes to sleep as easily as a baby does. 老约翰像婴儿一样容易入睡。

  The girls are as busy with their work as bees. 这些女孩子就跟蜜蜂一样忙着工作。

 

18.  as many/much+名词…

  He was tired enough to make ten errors in as many (=in ten) pages.

  他疲倦得十页中犯了十个错误。

  Mike read five books in as many (=in five) months.  麦克在五个月内看了五本书。

  I didn't expect that he should have committed three robberies in as many days.

  没想到(老实的)他居然在三天内犯了三次抢劫罪。

 

19. as many/much as ……

  She has as many as seven sisters.  她的姊妹有七人之多。

  As many as 100 people were killed in the air crash. 这次空难中多达一百人丧生。

  I gave the beggar as much as 1,000 yen.   我给了这乞丐整整一千元。

  Building costs ran up to as much as NT$ 20 million.  建筑费用涨到高达新台币两千万。


20. A is as much + N + as B is

  Comets are just as much members of the sun's family as (are) the other planets.

  彗星和其它的行星同样是太阳家族的成员。

  To eat too much is as much a bad thing as to eat nothing.吃太多和什么都不吃同样是坏事。

  He is as much a member of the orchestra as Tom. 他和汤姆同样是管弦乐队的成员。


21. not as/so + ADJ/ADV + as + N

  It is not as (so) popular as other foods.  它不像其它食物那样受欢迎。

  He does not study as (so) hard as John. 他不像约翰那样用功。

  I am not as (so) careful as Tom. 我不像汤姆那样细心。

 

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