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诺贝尔奖风向标-拉斯克医学奖

(2007-10-07 18:07:44)
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分类: 医事

拉斯克医学奖(Lasker Medical Research Awards)

 

拉斯克奖素有“美国的诺贝尔奖”之美誉,是美国最具声望的生物医学奖项。阿尔伯特· 拉斯克(Albert Lasker)医学研究奖是医学界仅次于诺贝尔奖的一项大奖,1946年,由被誉为“现代广告之父”的美国著名广告经理人、慈善家阿尔伯特·拉斯克(Albert Lasker)及其夫人玛丽·沃德·拉斯克(Mary Woodard Lasker)共同创立,旨在表彰医学领域作出突出贡献的科学家、医生和公共服务人员。自1962年起,获此项医学奖的科学家中有半数以上在随后的数年里又获诺贝尔奖。迄今,超过300人次获得拉斯克奖,其中至少已有68人相继获得过诺贝尔奖。

 

拉斯克奖最初设有三个奖项:基础医学研究奖(Basic Medical Research)、临床医学研究奖(Clinical Medical Research)和公共服务奖(Public Service,2000年被重新命名为玛丽·沃德·拉斯克奖,以纪念拉斯克夫人)。1997年后,又增设特殊贡献奖(Special Achievement Award)。位于美国纽约的阿尔伯特和玛丽· 拉斯克基金会(Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation)是拉斯克基金的管理机构,获奖者由25名来自世界各国的杰出科学家组成的评审委员会评选产生。

 

拉斯克奖的评选结果通常于9月公布,而诺贝尔奖通常是10月公布,因此拉斯克奖在医学界又被称作“诺贝尔奖风向标”。而且,获得基础医学研究奖后再获得诺贝尔奖的比例更高。1997年以来的诺贝尔生理学或医学奖获得者中,近一半也是拉斯克奖得主:1997年(诺贝尔奖)Stanley B. Prusiner(1994,拉斯克奖),1998年Robert F. Furchgott(1996)、Ferid Murad(1996),1999年Gunter Blobel(1993),2000年Eric R. Kandel(1983),2001年Lee Hartwell(1998)、Paul Nurse(1998),2002年Sydney Brenner(1971),2003年Paul C. Lauterbur(1984),2005年Barry J. Marshall(1995)。而近几届诺贝尔化学奖,也有多位拉斯克奖获得者:2003年Roderick MacKinnon(1999),2004年Aaron Ciechanover(2000)、Avram Hershko(2000)。

 

近年获得拉斯克奖的树突状细胞(2007)、端粒酶(2006)、干细胞(2005)、核激素受体(2004)、RNA聚合酶(2003)、泛醌(2000)等重大发现,原位杂交(2006)、Southern杂交和DNA指纹(2005)、实验鼠基因组操作(2001)等技术,以及人工心脏瓣膜(2007)、自身免疫病治疗(2003)、透析技术(2002)、ACEI类药物(1999)、癌症分子诊断(1998)等进展,无疑都将成为未来5至10年内诺贝尔生理学或医学奖的有力候选人。

 

以下为1997年以来,历届拉斯克奖获得者名单(资料来源http://www.laskerfoundation.org):

诺贝尔奖风向标-拉斯克医学奖 

2007

Basic Medical Research: For the discovery of dendritic cells—the preeminent component of the immune system that initiates and regulates the body's response to foreign antigens.(发现树突状细胞)

Ralph M. Steinman (1943-): The Rockefeller University

 

Clinical Medical Research: For the development of prosthetic mitral and aortic valves, which have prolonged and enhanced the lives of millions of people with heart disease.(人工心脏瓣膜技术)

Alain Carpentier (1933-): Hôpital Georges Pompidou

Albert Starr (1926-): Providence Health & Services

 

Public Service in Support of Medical Research and the Health Sciences: For his role as the principal architect of two major U.S. governmental programs, one aimed at AIDS and the other at biodefense.

Anthony S. Fauci (1941-): National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH

 

2006

Basic Medical Research: For the prediction and discovery of telomerase, a remarkable RNA-containing enzyme that synthesizes the ends of chromosomes, protecting them and maintaining the integrity of the genome.(发现端粒酶)

Elizabeth H. Blackburn (1949-): University of California, San Francisco

Carol W. Greider (1961-): Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Jack W. Szostak (1953-): Harvard Medical School

 

Clinical Medical Research: For the development of cognitive therapy, which has transformed the understanding and treatment of many psychiatric conditions, including depression, suicidal behavior, generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and eating disorders.(创立认知疗法)

Aaron T. Beck (1921-): University of Pennsylvania

 

Special Achievement in Medical Science: For a distinguished 57-year career - as a founder of modern cell biology and the field of chromosome structure and function; bold experimentalist; inventor of in situ hybridization; and early champion of women in science.(发明原位杂交技术)

Joseph G. Gall (1928-): Carnegie Institution

 

2005

Basic Medical Research: For ingenious experiments that first identified a stem cell - the blood-forming stem cell - which set the stage for all current research on adult and embryonic stem cells.(发现干细胞)

Ernest A. McCulloch: University of Toronto, Ontario Cancer Institute, Ontario, Canada

James E. Till: University of Toronto, Ontario Cancer Institute, Ontario, Canada

 

Clinical Medical Research: For development of two powerful technologies - Southern hybridization and DNA fingerprinting - that together revolutionized human genetics and forensic diagnostics.(Southern杂交和DNA指纹技术)

Alec John Jeffreys: University of Leicester (UK)

Edwin Southern: University of Oxford (UK)

 

Public Service: For creating one of the world's great foundations devoted to curing breast cancer and dramatically increasing public awareness about this devastating disease.

Nancy G. Brinker: Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation

 

2004

Basic Medical Research: For the discovery of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors and elucidation of a unifying mechanism that regulates embryonic development and diverse metabolic pathways.(发现核激素受体)

Pierre Chambon: Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Strasbourg, France

Ronald M. Evans: The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA

Elwood V. Jensen: University of Chicago and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

 

Clinical Medical Research: For revolutionizing the surgical removal of cataracts, turning a 10-day hospital stay into an outpatient procedure, and dramatically reducing complications.(革新白内障切除手术)

Charles Kelman (1930-2004): New York Medical College

 

Special Achievement in Medical Science: For a lifetime career that combines penetrating discovery in molecular biology with creative leadership in the public policy of chemical and biological weapons.

Matthew Meselson: Harvard University

 

2003

Basic Medical Research: For pioneering studies on eukaryotic RNA polymerases and the general transcriptional machinery, which opened gene expression in animal cells to biochemical analysis.(真核细胞RNA聚合酶的开创性研究)

Robert G. Roeder: Rockefeller University

 

Clinical Medical Research: For discovery of anti-TNF therapy as an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.(将抗TNF治疗应用于风湿性关节炎等自身免疫病)

Marc Feldmann: Imperial College, London, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology Division

Ravinder N. Maini: Imperial College, London, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology Division

 

Public Service: For perceptive, sustained, and heroic advocacy for medical research in general, and victims of disability in particular.

Christopher Reeve: The Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation

 

2002

Basic Medical Research: For discoveries revealing the universal machinery that orchestrates the budding and fusion of membrane vesicles - a process essential to organelle formation, nutrient uptake, and secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters.(揭示了细胞膜泡出芽和融合的机制)

James E. Rothman: Sloan-Kettering Institute

Randy W. Schekman: University of California, Berkeley

 

Clinical Medical Research: For the development of renal hemodialysis, which changed kidney failure from a fatal to a treatable disease, prolonging the useful lives of millions of patients.(肾透析技术)

Willem J. Kolff: University of Utah School of Medicine

Belding H. Scribner: University of Washington

 

Special Achievement in Medical Science: For an exceptional career in biomedical science during which he opened two fields in biology - RNA processing and cytokine signaling - and fostered the development of many creative scientists.(RNA加工和细胞因子信号传导)

James E. Darnell: The Rockefeller University

 

2001

Basic Medical Research: For the development of a powerful technology for manipulating the mouse genome with exquisite precision, which allows the creation of animal models of human disease.(高度精确的鼠基因组操作技术)

Mario Capecchi: University of Utah, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Martin Evans: Cardiff University

Oliver Smithies: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

 

Clinical Medical Research: For the development of in vitro fertilization, a technological advance that has revolutionized the treatment of human infertility.(体外授精技术)

Robert Edwards: Cambridge University

 

Public Service: For his courageous leadership in improving worldwide public health, and his prominent role in the eradication of smallpox.

William Foege: Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health

 

2000

Basic Medical Research: For the discovery and the recognition of the significance of the ubiquitin system of regulated protein degradation, a fundamental process that influences vital cellular events, including the cell cycle, malignant transformation, and responses to inflammation and immunity.(发现泛醌系统调节蛋白质降解的重要意义)

Aaron Ciechanover: Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

Avram Hershko: Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

Alexander Varshavsky: California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA

 

Clinical Medical Research: For pioneering work leading to the discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C and the development of screening methods that reduced the risk of blood transfusion-associated hepatitis in the U.S. from 30% in 1970 to virtually zero in 2000.(发现丙型肝炎病毒并发明相关检测技术)

Harvey J. Alter: Warren Magnuson Clinical Center National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD

Michael Houghton: Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA

 

Public Service:

Betty Ford

For using her leadership and prestige to bring about lasting progress in research, medicine and health aimed at alcohol and drug addiction.

Harold P. Freeman

For enlightening scientists and the public about the relationship between race, poverty and cancer.

David Mahoney

For visionary leadership in educating the public and the donor community about the importance of brain research, and for directing funds for the support of neuroscience.

John Edward Porter

For wise and perceptive leadership on behalf of medical research funding and a deep commitment to strengthening the science enterprise.

Science Times of The New York Times

For sustained, comprehensive and high-quality coverage about science, disease and human health.

 

Special Achievement in Medical Science: For 50 years of brilliant creativity in biomedical science—exemplified by his legendary work on the genetic code; his daring introduction of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a system for tracing the birth and death of every cell in a living animal; his rational voice in the debate on recombinant DNA; and his trenchant wit.

Sydney Brenner: Molecular Sciences Institute, Inc., Berkeley, CA

 

1999

Basic Medical Research: For elucidating the functional and structural architecture of ion channel proteins, which govern the electrical potential of membranes throughout nature, thereby generating nerve impulses, and controlling muscle contraction, cardiac rhythm, and hormone secretion.(阐明离子通道蛋白的结构和功能)

Clay Armstrong: University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Bertil Hille: University of Washington, School of Medicine

Roderick MacKinnon: The Rockefeller University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

 

Clinical Medical Research: For developing an innovative approach to drug design based on protein structure and using it to create the ACE inhibitors, powerful oral agents for the treatment of high blood pressure, heart failure, and diabetic kidney disease.(开发出ACE抑制剂类药物)

David W. Cushman: Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute

Miguel A. Ondetti: Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute

 

Special Achievement in Medical Science: For a lifetime of contributions to neuroscience— including discovery of a method for measuring cerebral blood flow that led to current brain imaging techniques, adoptive studies in schizophrenia that established its genetic origin, and visionary leadership in mental health that ushered psychiatry into the molecular era.

Seymour S. Kety: Harvard Medical School

 

1998

Basic Medical Research: For pioneering genetic and molecular studies that revealed the universal machinery for regulating cell division in all eukaryotic organisms, from yeasts to frogs to human beings.(细胞分裂调控机制的开创性工作)

Lee Hartwell: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington College of Arts & Sciences, Seattle, WA

Yoshio Masui: University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Paul Nurse: Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, England

 

Clinical Medical Research: For incisive studies in patient-oriented research that paved the way for identifying genetic alterations that cause cancer in humans and that allow for cancer diagnosis in patients at the molecular level.(为研究导致人类癌症的遗传变异的开创性工作)

Alfred G. Knudson, Jr.: Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA

Peter C. Nowell: University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA

Janet D. Rowley: University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

 

Special Achievement in Medical Science: For a lifetime career devoted to elevating science to its highest level—exemplified by accomplishments on diverse fronts—as a visionary biochemist, tireless institution builder, and eloquent public communicator.

Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.: University of California, Berkeley

 

1997

Basic Medical Research: For elegant and incisive discoveries leading to the understanding of how regulatory proteins control the transcription of genes.(基因转录调控研究)

Mark Ptashne: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY

 

Clinical Medical Research: For the understanding and demonstration that low-dose vitamin A supplementation in millions of third world children can prevent death from infectious diseases as well as blindness.(为第三世界国家儿童补充低剂量维生素A有助于预防感染性疾病死亡和失明)

Alfred Sommer: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

 

Special Achievement in Medical Science: For a lifetime career as founder of the discipline of clinical genetics.(创立临床遗传学)

Victor A. McKusick: Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 

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