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翻译第一课概述

(2010-03-18 14:56:45)
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教育

 

           

Chapter One General Principles

翻译的定义:

      贾公彦(唐朝618—907)在《义疏》中对翻译做了明确的界定:“译即易, 谓换易言语使相解也。”

      法云(1088)(宋代960—1279)在其所编《翻译名义集》自序中进一步指出:“夫翻译者, 谓翻梵天之语转成汉地之言。音虽似别, 义则大同。”

      翻译即将一种语言——派出语(the source language)转换成另一种语言——目的语(the target language)或接受语(the receptor language), 而意义保持或大抵不变。

What is translation?

      Dr. Samuel Johnson(1709—1784): To translate is “to change into another language, retaining the sense”.

      Eugene A. Nida: Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.

Nida’s Interpretation

奈达对此做了说明: (1)再现原文的信息(message)而不是保留原文的结构形式(formal structure);(2)对等(equivalence)不是同一(identity);(3)对等是最贴切 ﹑自然的对等; (4)意义是优先考虑的因素; (5)文体成分虽居其次, 但也十分重要。

Tyeler’s principle

      泰特勒的三原则:18世纪末, 爱丁堡大学的Alexander Fraser Tyeler, 1749—1814)在《翻译的原则》一书中系统地提出了进行翻译和评判翻译的三条基本原则。

       (1)A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work

       (2)The style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original.

       (3) A translation should have all the ease of the original composition.

Triple Principle of Translation

       严复在《天演论﹒译例言》(1898)中, 提出了信  ﹑达  ﹑雅”(faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance三字标准: “译事三难:信  ﹑达  ﹑雅。求其信已大难矣,顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也, 则达商焉。”

Other principles

       Lu Xun: 信(faithfulness)、顺(smoothness)

       林语堂:忠实(faithfulness)、通顺(smoothness)、美(beautifulness)

       傅雷:神似(resemblance in spirit)

       钱钟书:化境(reaching the acme of perfection)

       刘重德:信(faithfulness) 、达(expressiveness)、切(closeness)

翻译必须兼顾两面-----忠实和通顺

Jane does not work hard because she wants to earn money.

       因为简想赚钱, 所以才不下力。

       简并不是因为想赚钱才下力干的。

 

The president stands there, hat in hand, begging Congress for their votes.

       总统站在那里, 手里拿着礼帽, 乞求国会投他的票。

       总统站在那里, 必恭必敬地请求国会议员们投赞成票。

Legislators often respond to the quiet and professional pressure of lobbyists.

       议员们无时无刻不屈从游说者的压力。

 

       议员们常常为游说者老谋深算的压力所左右。

Pindus Road was a long, wide, straight street that ran parallel with Bread Road.

       原译: 平得斯路是一条与布莱德路平行的 长长的 宽宽的 笔直的大街。

       推荐译文:平得斯路与布莱德路平行, 是一条又长又宽又直的大街。

She not only laughs a lot but has a heart of gold.

       原译:她不仅常常大笑, 而且还有一颗黄金之心。

       推荐译文:她不仅笑口常开, 而且还有一颗金子般的心。

忠实与通顺既对立又统一

       Another star in the show industry fell yesterday.

       A:又一颗明星昨天在娱乐业落了下来。(看似忠实, 可读性欠佳)

       B:昨天, 又一艺人香消玉陨。(符合汉语习惯, 可读性较强, 但形式上与原文有差距。)

Jack is a fair-weather friend.

       A: 杰克是一个好天气时的朋友。(强调字字对应, 译文的可读性欠佳)

       B: 你与杰克只能同欢乐而不能共患难。(文从字顺, 但与原句形式似有一定距离)

This will go a long way towards overcoming the difficulty.

       这对克服困难很有帮助。

      (go a long way towards something/doing something=help greatly in achieving something

Go it while you are young.

       趁你还年轻的时候,加油吧! /青春不再,趁早努力。

       (go it = act in a manner that is quicker, more lively, impatient, etc., than is usual)

I could do with more leisure time.

       我需要更多空闲的时间。

       (could do with something = need or want something)

This failure was the making of him.

       这次失败促使他成功。

       (the making of = a means of gaining great improvement or success)

I wish peace could be saved at the eleventh hour.

       我盼望在最后一刻可以挽救和平。 

      (the eleventh hour= the very last moment.)

She knew a thing or two about it.

      她对此事很了解。

  (know a thing or two about somebody/something = know a lot about somebody/something)

She is too ready to speak.

      她真是爱说话。 她太喜欢说话了。

      (ready=willing to do)

News came through on the wireless of a rich oil field district.

      无线电传来了该地区发现大油田的消息。

      (of –短语修饰news,也可修饰wireless)

 

He was convinced on the basis of what had by then appeared that there would be a long and a difficult struggle.

      他根据当时已出现的情况,深信以后会有一场漫长而艰难的斗争。

What are the perspectives of the national liberation movement and the relations between China and the Third World countries?

     民族解放运动的前景以及中国同第三世界国家之间的关系的前景是怎样的呢?

      民族解放运动以及中国同第三世界国家之间的关系,其前景是怎样的呢?

     (perspectives 是复数形式,被两个修饰语修饰)

 

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