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一位美食家心脏科医生的忠言(英汉对照)

(2008-12-11 05:38:36)
标签:

英汉对照读物

文化

分类: 美哉英语

Tips from a Heart Doctor Who Loves to Eat
一位美食家心脏科医生的忠言
By William Castelli
威廉•卡斯特利

 

本文标题中的定语从句who loves to eat颇能激发起读者的好奇心,因为它与其修饰对象a heart doctor构成了隐晦的paradox (悖论)。众所周知,心脏病患者的饮食受极大限制,而绝无可能是一个美食家。
不仅标题引人,而且作者的亲身故事也含传奇色彩,作者不无自豪地称:
Eight years ago, I passed a medical milestone. I became the first man in my family to turn 50 without having a heart attack.
但是,作者的成功又并非像常人所想象的那样谨小慎微地吃,谨小慎微地生活。他称:
Over the years, I’ve hit upon a number of solutions. I still snack on sweets. I don’t turn up my nose at red meat. And I’m always interested in finding ways to exercise less. But my cholesterol is now below 5.5.
作者虽具有心脏病的家族史,他仍不回避甜食,仍大谈牛羊肉(red meat),更有甚者,他想方设法exercise less! 然而, 他的健康指标却理想如初。   
作者确以其成功的实例向读者表明:高血压/冠心病患者可以不必throw out all the family’s favorite meals. 作者坦言:   
My powers of resolve would never survive such an upheaval, let alone my first taste of wheat—gluten roast or tofu hamburgers.
作者的经验最令人信服之处在于其辩证的目光,透过表象看实质的目光。如:
Some fast—food restaurants fry foods in highly saturated oils or beef tallow. The result is that chicken and fish get drenched in more fat than the choicest cuts of beef contain.
Most cholesterol in your body is produced by your cells. …Trim the saturated fat in your diet and you automatically cut the cholesterol in your blood.
据笔者观察,我们在细读此文,欲得其“秘诀”的同时,千万不能忽视洋溢在字里行间的那种积极主动、热情乐观的生活态度。比如:
作者会同妻子兴致勃勃地商讨改进每天的食谱:
So my wife and I combed through our oral cookbook and replaced ingredients high in saturated fat with low—fat equivalents.
作者入餐馆用膳,也会主动要求“特制”他的那一份:
 Also on the menu was a Reuben sandwich, suggesting the kitchen stocked sauerkraut,   which I got as a side dish. Finally, I asked for some plain spaghetti with tomato sauce.
作者精心“设计”,增加自己的运动量:
So I park on the far end of the car park, climb stairs instead of waiting for a lift and walk to the store to buy my newspaper.
祛病健身的根本也许就在于热爱生活、积极地生活、认真地生活。作者的另一句话也同样向我们传递了这样的信息:
Of course there’s difference between knowing something and acting on it.

EIGHT YEARS AGO, I passed a medical milestone. I became the first man in my family to turn 50 without having a heart attack. I’m living proof that you can beat the odds of heart disease—even if it runs in your family. And you can do it without subsisting on bean sprouts and mineral water and running eight kilometres a day.
八年以前,我越过了一个医疗里程碑,成为我们家族中年满50岁而没有发心脏病的第一人。我是一个活的证明:即使你有心脏病的家族史,你也能够战胜患心脏病的厄运,而且
你不必靠吃豆芽,喝矿泉水过日子,也不必每日跑上八公里。
When my father was only 48, he had a heart attack. He was a doctor, and he knew that plaques of fat had clogged the spaghetti size arteries that carried oxygen to his heart. In those days, though, no—one knew why this happened. Most doctors thought heart disease was just nature’s way of ploughing under the old crop. It was only after I joined the Framingham Heart Study, the longest—running investigation of heart disease ever conducted, did I begin to understand.
我父亲年仅48岁时就患上了心脏病。他是位医生,知道是脂肪结块堵塞了如意大利面条般细的动脉,动脉将氧气输送至心脏。可是,那时候没有人知道为什么会发生这样的事。大多数的医生认为心脏病无非是自然界一种“吐故”的方法。直到我加入了弗兰明翰地区心脏疾病研究项目,从事了对心脏疾病最长时期的调研,我才开始明白。
Every two years since 1948, more than 5000 residents of Framingham, Massachusetts have had their pulses checked, their diets monitored and their habits watched in an attempt to discover the risk factors of heart disease. Their blood is run through dozens of tests, the fat in their bodies is measured, the rhythm and structure of their hearts are charted.
1948年以来,每隔两年,医生就要检查马萨诸塞州弗兰明翰5000多居民的脉搏,监控他们的饮食,观察他们的生活习惯,目的是要发现患心脏病的危险因素。他们的血液要经过许多的检测,体内的脂肪要测量,心律和心的构造要以图表表示。
As a result, the Framingham Study has pinpointed as many as 200 factors associated with increased risk of the disease, particularly high blood pressure, high cholesterol and smoking. One statistic that just jumped off the pages of our research reports was the average cholesterol count of those who had suffered heart attacks: 6.2.The risk of coronary artery disease increased significantly when the count rose above 5.5. The numbers terrified me: my own count was 6.9.
结果,弗兰明翰研究一针见血地指出:多达200种因素与患心脏病的上升危险有关,特
别是高血压,高胆固醇和抽烟。我们研究报告刚发表的一个数据是患心脏病的人的平均胆固醇指标为:6.2。当指标升至5.5时,患冠状动脉疾病的危险就大大增加。数字使我毛骨悚然,我的指标是6.9。
Of course there’s a difference between knowing something and acting on it. The citizens of Framingham still eat as many pizzas, chips, doughnuts and sundaes as do people in other towns. I was no exception, even though I know how crucial a healthy diet and regular exercise are. Somehow, there had to be a way to change my habits without taking all the pleasure out of life.
当然,在明了事理与采取行动之间存有差异。弗兰明翰的居民仍然与其他乡镇的人一样进食比萨饼、薯条、面包圈和圣代冰淇淋。我也不例外,尽管我知道健康的饮食和正常的锻炼有多么的重要。不管怎么样,在不放弃享受许多生活乐趣的前提下,我必须设法找到一种能改变我生活习惯的方法。
Over the years, I’ve hit upon a number of solutions. I still snack on sweets. I don’t turn up my nose at red meat. And I’m always interested in finding ways to exercise less. But my cholesterol is now below 5.5. Here’s how you can do it too:
几年下来,我找到了一系列的方法。我仍然吃甜食,对牛羊肉等红肉没有弃而不吃,而且总是乐于寻找少锻炼的方法,但是,我的胆固醇却在5.5以下。以下是你也能如何去做的
方法:
1.Think fat, not cholesterol. Many people who believe they’re following a low—cholesterol diet really aren’t. Some types of shell—fish, for example, are relatively high in cholesterol, while many baked foods and potato chips have none. Yet if you eat more crabs and prawns, and less of those prepared foods, your cholesterol count can actually fall.
1.仅考虑脂肪含量,不考虑胆固醇含量。许多认为自己遵照低胆固醇饮食方法进食的人,其实不然。例如,有些贝类海鲜的胆固醇相对较高,而许多烘烤的食品和炸土豆条却不含胆固醇。然而,如果你进食较多的蟹和虾,较少的熟食,你的胆固醇指标能真正地降下来。
The reason is that prepared foods frequently contain tropical oils (coconut, palm and palm kernel) high in saturated fat. And it’s the saturated fat in the food you eat, more than the cholesterol, that is the problem. (Egg yolks and organ meats, incredibly rich in cholesterol, are exceptions to this rule.)
理由在于熟食经常含有饱和脂肪高的热带植物油(椰子油、棕榈籽油),问题在于你进食了较多的饱和脂肪,而不是胆固醇。(蛋黄和动物内脏含有不可思议丰富的胆固醇,在这条规则里除外。)
Most cholesterol in your body is produced by your cells, Saturated fat signals your cells to make more cholesterol and acts as the raw material for its manufacture. Trim the saturated fat in your diet and you automatically cut the cholesterol in your blood.
你体内大多数的胆固醇由细胞产生,饱和脂肪能发出信号,提示细胞产出更多的胆固醇,
而且它充当制造胆固醇的原材料。减少你饮食里的饱和脂肪,就能自然而然地减少血液里的胆固醇。
Food labels don’t usually list saturated—fat content, but there’s a way to “guesstimate.” Many labels list total fat content, and, although the amounts of saturated fats vary from product to product, I figure that often about half is saturated fat. Roughly speaking,the saturated fats in beef, pork and other red meats are typically a little less than half the total, while those in dairy products are a little more. Some tropical oils, however, are more than three—quarters saturated fat!
食品商标通常没有注明饱和脂肪量,但是,有一个“猜测估计法”。许多商标上有脂肪总含量,尽管各种产品的饱和脂肪含量各不相同,我猜测经常大致一半是饱和脂肪。粗略地说,牛肉、猪肉及其它红颜色的肉一般是总含量一半略不到,而那些乳制品却一半多一点。然而,一些热带植物油含有超过3/4的饱和脂肪。
How much fat is too much? A cheeseburger, a large order of chips and a milk shake can contain nearly 28 grams of saturated fat, about as much as the average person, without heart problems, should consume in a day. Yet many of us eat 50 to 75 grams, with frequent binges of 1 00 grams or more.
多少脂肪属太多呢?一个干酪汉堡包,一大份炸土豆条和一份奶昔含有将近28克的饱和脂肪,这大约是一个没有心脏病的人通常应有的日消耗量。然而,我们许多人进食50到75克,不断暴食,就达100克或更多。
2.Substitute good ingredients for bad.Most of us don’t need dieting classes; we need
cooking classes. The meals we eat come from a short list of unwritten recipes— an “oral cookbook” —passed down from generation to generations: macaroni—and—cheese casseroles , bacon and eggs, hamburgers and chips, lasagna, fried chicken and meat loat.
2. 用好的配料替换差的配料。我们大多数人不需要饮食课程,我们需要烹调课程。我们进食的每一餐来自于一份短小的没有用文字写下来的食谱清单—— 一本“口授烹饪书”,这本书世代相传:通心面与干酪砂锅菜,腊肉和鸡蛋,汉堡包和炸土豆条,卤汁宽面,油炸鸡和肉糕。
Many of these recipes originated in an age very different from our own , when people engaged in manual labour 12 hours a day, six days a week. Their bodies required a high—fat diet; ours don’t.
许多这样的食谱来源于与我们截然不同的年代,那时候,人们每天从事12小时的体力劳动,每周六天。他们的身体需要高脂肪食物,我们不需要。
In theory, one family member can change his diet, but in practice almost no-one is willing to prepare two different sets of meals day in and day out. However, you can remove saturated fat from your favourite family recipes.
从理论上讲,家里的一位成员可以仅改变他一个人的饮食方法,但是,实际上几乎没有人愿意日复一日地准备两份不同的饭菜。然而,你可以将饱和脂肪从你最喜爱的家庭食谱上删除。
Diet books frequently suggest that you throw out all the family’s favourite meals. My powers of resolve would never survive such an upheaval, let alone my first taste of wheat-gluten roast or tofu hamburger. So my wife and I combed through our oral cookbook and replaced ingredients high in saturated fat with low—fat equivalents. We substituted soft diet margarine for butter, skim  milks for whole (saving ten grams of fat for every half a litre! ), egg whites for whole eggs, nonfat yoghurt for sour cream, whole-grain cereal crumbs for bread crumbs and vegetable oils for shortening.
饮食书籍经常建议你应该抛弃所有特别喜爱的家庭饭菜,我的意志力可挺不过这样一场大“变革”,更不必说我第一次尝烤麦麸饼和豆腐汉堡包的心情了。因此,我和夫人仔细回忆了口授烹饪书,用低脂相当的食品替代了高饱和脂肪的配料,用人造奶油替代黄油,脱脂牛奶替代全脂牛奶(每半升减少10克脂肪),蛋白替代整个蛋,无脂酸奶替代酸奶油,全麦粉屑替代面包粉屑,菜油替代起酥油。
It’s easy to cut down. For dinner, instead of a 250— gram sirloin, fried potatoes, peas and a piece of pie, substitute a 170— gram portion of lean steak, a baked potato topped with soft diet margarine, peas, and low fat oatmeal biscuits. You will have eaten eight grams of saturated fat instead of 37. Yet few of us would finish such a meal feeling deprived.
减少进食容易。将250克的上等牛腰肉,炸土豆,豌豆和一个馅饼替换成170克的瘦肉排骨,一份涂有人造奶油的烤土豆,豌豆和低脂燕麦饼干。你将吃进8克的饱和脂肪,而不
是37克。然而,假如这么吃,几乎没有人会在吃完后感觉少吃了什么。
Experiment, and add dishes you like to your list of regular meals. You might organize a neighbourhood potluck dinner, where everyone will have a chance to taste ten or 12 new low— fat foods.
做实验,往正常的饮食单子里添加你所喜欢的菜肴,你可以组织邻居来顿家常便饭,以
使每人都有品尝10或12种新式低脂食品的机会。
3.When you eat out,improvise.Many people eat deep-fried foods five lunches a week, and that’s enough to kill anyone. Some fast food restaurants fry foods in highly saturated oils or beef tallow. The result is that chicken and fish get drenched in more fat than the choicest cuts of beef contain. A typical fast—food chicken-patty sandwich has more fat than half a litre of ice cream,  and just six chicken nuggets can have over 20 grams of fat. Some fried vegetables absorb even more fat than fish and meat do.
3. 外出就餐时,随机应变。许多人每周午餐进食炸得很透的食物五次,这足以致人于死地。一些快餐馆用高饱和油或牛油炸食物,结果是鸡肉和鱼肉浸染上的脂肪比精选牛肉块所含的脂肪还要多。典型的快餐食物鸡肉饼三明治所含的脂肪比半升的冰淇淋要多,就是六个鸡块也有超过20克的脂肪,一些油炸蔬菜吸收的脂肪甚至比鱼和肉还多。
With effort, however, you can eat out without consuming more fat than you should. A good salad bar can provide excellent choices. But watch out for the dressings, which often contain two grams of fat per tablespoon. Lime or lemon juice is one low—fat substitute.
然而,只要你努力,就能做到外出就餐时不进食超过所需的更多的脂肪。一家服务上乘的色拉售卖店能提供很好的选择,但是,注意调料,每一大调匙通常含有2克的脂肪。宜母子或酸橙汁是一种低脂替代品。
If asked, chefs will usually prepare vegetables without butter, sour cream or cheese sauces and will broil your chicken instead of frying it. On your potato, try cooked chopped broccoli, fresh diced tomatoes or nonfat salad dressing. If no low—fat entrees are offered, improvise.
如果你对厨师提出要求,他通常就不会再用黄油,酸奶油或干酪调味酱准备蔬菜;做烤鸡,而不是炸鸡。土豆上放上切好煮过的花茎甘蓝,新鲜切成小块的西红柿或无脂的色拉调料。如果没有提供低脂的主菜,随机应变。
At one restaurant, I found a turkey club sandwich, which I ordered without mayonnaise or bacon. Also on the menu was a Reuben sandwich, suggesting the kitchen stocked sauerkraut which I got as a side dish. Finally, I asked for some plain spaghetti with tomato sauce.
在餐馆里,我先点了不加蛋黄酱及腊肉的火鸡总会三明治。菜单上,也有鲁宾三明治,注明其中夹的德国酸菜是餐馆自己腌制的,我点了它作为配菜。最后,又点了一份只加番茄
酱的意大利细面条。
4.Take a walk.If you exercise, you can diet less. Exercise stimulates the production of a protein called HDL, which removes fat from your blood and may actually scrub plaque deposits off the walls of your arteries.
4.行走。如果参加体育锻炼,你就较少需要节食。锻炼能刺激一种叫作HDL(高密度脂
蛋白)的蛋白质的生成,,它能清除血液里的脂肪,真正地擦去动脉壁上的结块。
I like jogging, but the problem is finding time to jog, or to swim or play tennis. So I park on the far end of the car park, climb stairs instead of waiting for a lift and walk to the store to buy my newspaper.
我喜欢慢跑,问题是要找时间去慢跑或游泳或打网球。因而,我把车停在停车场的最远处;爬楼梯,而不是等着坐电梯;走到店里去买报纸。
Most of the benefit of exercise—whether running, brisk walking, cycling or aerobics—comes from very little effort. So even the most confirmed couch potato, by taking a brisk half—an—hour walk four or five times a week, can cut his odds of dying of a heart attack in half.
无论是跑步,快步行走,骑自行车或有氧运动,锻炼带来的许多好处来自于很小的努力。所以,即使是懒惰成性的人一周四次或五次快步行走半小时就能减少一半死于心脏病突发的机会
5. Know the point spread. Get your cholesterol count checked. Depending on your age, weight and medical history, it should fall below 5.1, with 5.1 to 5.9 a borderline reading. If your total cholesterol is over 5.1, you may have enough HDL to counteract it.
5了解正常指标范围。测量你的胆固醇,依据你的年龄,体重和医疗历史,胆固醇应该低于5.1,临界指标是5.1到5.9。如果你的胆固醇总量超过5.1,你也许会有足够的HDL与之对抗。
Two months after limiting saturated fats in your diet, have your cholesterol checked again. If it hasn’t dropped to a healthy level, set a lower daily limit and check your cholesterol 60 days later. If the number doesn’t look respectable, ask your doctor for help.
限制饮食里的饱和脂肪两个月以后,再次检查你的胆固醇。如果还未降到健康水准,将每日的限制再降低,60天后再查你的胆固醇。如果数字看起来仍不理想,请求医生的帮助。
YOU CAN BEGIN to change the odds that you’ll suffer a heart attack or stroke if you take the steps I’ve outlined here. I’m alive to prove it!
如果你遵照我排列的步骤去做,你能减少患心脏病或中风的机会,我就是一个活的证明。

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