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美国人是这样讲述朝鲜战争的

(2010-06-01 10:19:17)
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朝鲜战争

美化

打扮

撒谎

最可爱的人

彭德怀

斯大林

麦克阿瑟

美国人是这样讲述朝鲜战争的

 

张放

 

 

进入6月,让人不禁想到50年前朝鲜发生的那场举世瞩目的朝鲜战争。“美帝”成了中国人痛恨的“侵略者”,跨过鸭绿江的军人们,成了“最可爱的人”。彭德怀成了“横刀立马”的“彭大将军”。一晃,50年,也就是,半个世纪,“嗖”家伙过去了。一切情绪化的东西,似乎随时间老人的坚定走过,都已经变为某种沉淀,像经济泡沫一样,被挤压出去。那首当年唱遍大江南北的“雄赳赳,气昂昂”的歌声,也已被各种稀奇古怪的流行音乐而取代,变而为某些志愿军老战士们心中一抹怎么涂抹也涂抹不掉的一片温柔。

 

近来,看了不少美国人写的关于朝鲜战争方面的文章与书籍。其中有篇文章因写作方式十分洗练,受到我的关注。这文章我是在圣地亚哥大学历史系网站上搜到的。可以说,它代表了很多美国人对朝鲜战争的基本看法。不过,要指出的是,有很多重要地方,与我们被告之的历史“史实”有十分尖锐的冲突之处。也正因此,读来才十分有趣。在读了很多这样的有趣的文章与书籍之后,不禁要发问的是,历史到底是个什么东西?历史到底有没有一个客观的角度存在?历史中被忽悠的人们在觉醒之后会产生什么样的感觉,想哭还是想笑?还是在原有的“被宣传”的历史“史实”中沉湎不醒?

 

当然,我也读到过被美国人美化过的历史,打扮过的历史。不过,50年之后,美国人还会着意美化与打扮那段朝鲜战争的历史吗?有用吗?关键问题是,为这样一场过去50年的战争而撒谎有必要吗?撒谎对于今天的美国统治者们来说,能为其统治的时间长短起到某种积极的作用吗?答案如脑门上的虱子,明摆着的。

 

文章并不很长,所以,花点时间,把意思给译出来,放在此处,供对此话题感兴趣的细心读者赏读。后面还附加一个“民意投票”。感兴趣的朋友,不妨玩玩。

 

 

朝鲜战争 1950-1953

Korean War 1950-1953

 

张放译

 

 

1945 - Korea divided at 38th parallel

1945 – 朝鲜从38线被一分为二。

 

1947 - elections in south created Republic of Korea (ROK), president Syngman Rhee - north became People's Democratic Republic of Korea, president Kim Il Sung

1947 – 朝鲜半岛南部举行选举,产生了“大韩民国”,总统为李承晚。北部成为“朝鲜人民民主共和国”,总统为金日成。

 

1948 - Russians withdrew troops

1948 – 苏联从朝鲜半岛撤军。

 

1949 - US began to withdraw troops in June

1949 – 美国于6月开始撤军。

 

1949/12 - Mao arrived in Moscow for 2-month visit with Stalin, resulting in Feb. 1950 Sino-Soviet alliance; Stalin invited Ho Chi Minh to join Mao in Moscow in Feb. 1950: "Let's add to China's population of 475 million, the populations of India, Burma, Indonesia, the Philippines."

1949/12 – 毛泽东到莫斯科,进行为期两个月的访问,会晤斯大林,结果于1950年2月产生中苏联盟。斯大林于1950年2月邀请胡志明在莫斯科会见毛泽东时说:“咱们在4亿5千万中国人后面,再加上印度,缅甸,印尼和菲律宾的人口数吧。”

 

1950/03/10 - CIA predicted NK attack in June - Charles Willoughby, G-2 in Asia, filed 1195 reports to MacArthur in 12 months after June 1949, reported massive buildup of NK troops on border, large numbers Chinese troops of Korean descent entered NK, but MacArthur ignored the reports, said May 1950: "I don't believe a shooting war is imminent"

1950/03/10 – 美国中央情报局预测北朝鲜要于6月发动进攻 – 负责亚洲情报与安全的查尔斯-威勒比于1949年6月开始连续一年时间,给麦克阿瑟写了1195份报告书,向他汇报说北朝鲜军队在边境大量集结,中国军队里大批朝鲜族人已进入北朝鲜。但麦克阿瑟全然不理会那些报告书。他于1950年5月说道,“我不认为真刀真枪的战争已经迫在眉睫。”

 

1950/04 - Stalin met with Kim Il-sung in Moscow but would not support Kim's plan to invade SK unless Mao agreed to help: "If you should get kicked in the teeth, I shall not lift a finger. You have to ask Mao for all the help." Kim visited Mao in Beijing and assured Mao as he had assured Stalin that the U.S. would not respond. Mao gave his approval because Mao was planning to invade Formosa and wanted Stalin's help. Stalin began to send Soviet supplies to NK and to plan the invasion, using the cover story that it would be a "counterattack" provoked by an alleged attack by SK. Mao was preoccupied with planning the Formosa attack and was surprised when the sudden invasion began in June.

1950/04 – 斯大林在莫斯科会见了金日成,但对金入侵南朝鲜的计划不予支持,除非毛泽东同意帮忙:“即使你的牙齿被人给踢了,我都不会动一动手指头。你必须请毛泽东伸出援助之手。”金于是到北京见毛泽东,并如其跟斯大林打保票一样,向毛泽东打保票说,(一旦统一了整个朝鲜,)美国不会有什么反应。毛泽东表示了赞同,因为毛泽东正计划攻占台湾,希望得到斯大林的帮助。斯大林开始将苏联(军需)物资派送到北朝鲜,并计划入侵南朝鲜。但却堂而皇之地说,南朝鲜假如攻打过来的话,它将进行“反击”。毛则一心扑到攻打台湾的计划之中。却没曾想,6月突然发动了入侵行动。 

 

1950/05/30 - Syngman Rhee lost elections, about to lose control of SK government.The war was planned and initiated by Stalin and Kim.

1950/05/30 – 李承晚输掉了选举,也即将失去对南朝鲜政府的掌控权力。这场战争是由斯大林和金策划并发动的。

 

1950/06/24 - (U.S. time = Saturday, June 24) (Korea time= Sunday, June 25) at 4 am NK invaded SK with 90,000 troops equipped with Soviet weapons and Soviet T-34 tanks, quickly overran SK defenses, captured Uijongbu highway center 20 mi. north of Seoul in 2 days, captured Seoul by June 28 as ROK fled south blowing up Han River bridges, killing refugees, trapping 44,000 own men north of river

1950/06/24 – (美国时间 = 6月24日,周六)(朝鲜时间 = 6月25日,周日)凌晨4点正,北朝鲜9万名士兵,携带苏制武器和苏联T-34型坦克,入侵南朝鲜。军队很快冲过南朝鲜防线,仅用两天时间,就占领了离汉城北部只有20英里的议政府公路段。6月28日,攻克汉城。南朝鲜军队朝南部撤退,炸毁了汉江上的所有桥梁,杀死无数难民,诱捕了4万4千名江北人。

 

1950/06/25 - Sunday, Truman returned to Blair House from Independence, and met with NSC - ordered U.S. Navy and AF into SK to stop invasion (but not Army ground troops)

1950/06/25 – 周日。美国总统杜鲁门从独立城回来到布莱尔宫,召见了国家安全委员会成员 – 命令美国海军和空军进入南朝鲜,以阻挡(北朝鲜)入侵(但没有命令陆军部队进入)。 

 

1950/06/26 - Monday, Truman asked and received support from UN - Russia was absent because boycotting Security Council until seat given to Communist China

1950/06/26 – 周一。杜鲁门请求并获得了联合国支持 – 苏联没有出席,因为它在抵制安理会,以希望共产党中国获得席位。

 

1950/06/27 - Tuesday, 2nd UN meeting approved use of ground troops; Truman ordered the 7th Fleet to the Taiwan Strait to protect Formosa. - 11 days later, a 3rd meeting authorized a UN command under Gen. Douglas MacArthur - 15 nations would contribute 40,000 troops, plus 300,000 from the U.S. and 500,000 from ROK

1950/06/27 – 周二。联合国第二次会议赞同使用陆军部队。杜鲁门于是下令第七舰队直奔台湾海峡,以保护台湾。- 11天后,联合国第三次会议授权联合国军队指挥权交美军的道格拉斯-麦克阿瑟上将。由15个国家出兵4万,美国出兵人数30万,南朝鲜出兵50万。

 

1950/06/29 - Thursday, MacArthur went to the front, saw disintegration of ROK army, committed 13,000 U.S. troops of 24th Division, but were outnumbered 20 to 1, many surrendered or captured

1950/06/29 – 周四。麦克阿瑟来到前线,看到南朝鲜军队已土崩瓦解,于是,下令美军24师13000名士兵接防。但这支部队很快在20比1悬殊比例寡不敌众情况下,或投降或被俘。

 

1950/07/07 - MacArthur proposes his plan to "compose and united" all Korea in a great counterattack, but Truman delayed approval until NK attack was stopped.

1950/07/07 – 麦克阿瑟提出计划,提出“联合”整个朝鲜,以进行猛烈反攻,但此计划遭杜鲁门耽搁,直到北朝鲜的进攻行动被阻止。

 

1950/07/19 - Truman speech before Congress requested $10b for the "police action" and made radio speech to the American people that was vague and ambiguous - no mobilization for complete victory as in WWII

1950/07/19 – 杜鲁门在国会发表讲话,为这场“警察行动”申请100亿美元经费,并向全美国发表了广播讲话。但讲话主旨有些含混,模棱两可 – 并没有像第二次世界大战时为争取全面胜利而进行动员。 

 

1950/07 - "July debate" over strategy - MacArthur supported by John Allison that U.S. should liberate and unite Korea - but Omar Bradley supported by George Kennan that U.S. should only restore boundary of 38th parallel and seek a political settlement rather than a military solution. 

1950/07 – 因战略问题发生“七月争论”。获得约翰-埃利逊支持的麦克阿瑟认为,美国应该解放并统一全朝鲜。但由乔治-坎南和参谋长联席会议所支持的一方的奥马尔-布莱德利则认为,美国只需要恢复三八分界线即可,最好通过政治途径而非军事手段解决问题。

 

1950/07/23 - MacArthur gives JCS the details of his Inchon plan

1950/07/23 - 麦克阿瑟向参谋长联席会议呈递了详细的仁川登陆计划。

 

1950/07/26 - MacArthur orders Gen Walton "Johnnie" Walker to "stand or die" at Taegu - Pusan defense force increased to 92,000 U.S. with 91,500 ROK and 1500 Brit vs. 98,000 NK

1950/07/26 – 麦克阿瑟命令瓦顿(外号叫“威尔士名酒”的)将军在太谷“死守”。釜山防卫部队里美军人数增至92000名,南朝鲜部队人数为91500名,英军参战人数为1500名,对阵北朝鲜的98000名士兵。

 

1950/08/07 - MacArthur begins counterattack from Pusan and stops NK attack

1950/08/07 – 麦克阿瑟从釜山开始反击,并阻挡住了北朝鲜的进攻。

 

1950/08/28 - JCS approve Inchon plan - no order from Truman; only JCS recommendation "let action determine the matter"

1950/08/28 – 美国参谋长联席会议批准了仁川计划 – 这一命令并不是来自杜鲁门;而是由参谋长联席会议建议道“让行动决定一切”。 

 

1950/09/01 - NSC papers support Inchon plan, but only with UN support, with an offer of peace terms, and with only ROK forces to be used in northern border with China

1950/09/01 – 国家安全委员会文件支持仁川计划,但附加条件是须先得到联合国支持,并提出和平条款,而且要求在与中国接壤的北部边界,只能部署南朝鲜军队。

 

1950/09/12 - "bomb at the Waldorf" - Acheson meeting with Brit and French to expand NATO troops with 10 German divisions and 4 U.S. Divisions

1950/09/12 - “沃多夫豪华宾馆里的炸弹”- 美国务卿艾奇逊在这里会晤了英国和法国领导人,讨论增派北约组织里的军事力量。德国出兵10个师,美国再出4个师。

 

1950/09/15 - Inchon landing at high tide

1950/09/15 – 潮涨最高时,开始仁川登陆。

 

1950/09/30 - public warning from China's Chou En-lai to stay away from the Yalu border - called by MacArthur "diplomatic blackmail" - but G-2 reported massive buildup of Communist China Forces (CCF) along northern side of Yalu

1950/09/30 – 中国的周恩来公开警告(联合国军),不要贴近鸭绿江的中朝边界。这一警告被麦克阿瑟斥为“外交敲诈”。但美国情报安全部门则报告说,在鸭绿江北岸有共产党中国军队在大量集结。

 

1950/10/08 - MacArthur crossed 38th line into NK at 3:14 am., 12 hours before UN passed resolution calling for a "unified, independent, democratic Korea" and instructing MacArthur to "insure conditions of stability throughout Korea"; Kim Philby passed to the Russians and the Chinese secret information about MacArthur's troop movements; on this same day, U.S. jets attack Soviet air base near Vladivostok as part of the "Secret Air War" between Russia and the U.S. on both sides of the Yalu.

1950/10/08 – 麦克阿瑟于凌晨3点14分,提前12小时跨过三八线,进入北朝鲜。联合国12小时后,通过一项决议案,呼吁建立“一个联合、独立、民主的朝鲜”,并指示麦克阿瑟“确保全朝鲜情况稳定”。(苏联著名间谍)金-菲尔比已经给苏联和中国发出关于麦克阿瑟军队行动的秘密情报;同一天,作为苏联与美国之间在鸭绿江两岸的“秘密空战”的一个部分,美国飞机攻击了苏联海参崴附近的空军基地。

 

1950/10/15 - MacArthur and Truman meet privately on Wake Island

1950/10/15 – 麦克阿瑟与杜鲁门在维克岛秘密会晤。

 

1950/10/25 - 1st CCF attack across Yalu with 250,000 troops and Russian MIG-15 jets - but after two weeks, retreat back into China

1950/10/25 – 共产党中国军队共25万人,在苏联米格15飞机的掩护下,进行了第一次进攻。两周后,又撤回到中国。

 

1950/11/24 - MacArthur starts final offensive toward Yalu, at the same time as Chinese delegates arrive at UN to begin peace negotiations

1950/11/24 – 麦克阿瑟朝鸭绿江开始了最后进攻。这时,中国代表团已抵达联合国,开始和谈。

 

1950/11/25 - 2nd CCF attack against MacArthur's weakened center line - UN and ROK forces retreat back into SK

1950/11/25 – 共产党中国军队开始第二次进攻,削弱了麦克阿瑟的中心防线 – 联合国军和南朝鲜军全部撤回到南朝鲜。

 

1950/12/25 - CCF stopped at 38th; UN sought armistice but not MacArthur who urged all-out war against China

1950/12/25 - 共产党中国军队在三八线停了下来;联合国寻求停火,但麦克阿瑟却不同意,他敦促发动对付中国的全面战争

 

1951/01 - "great debate" by 82nd Congress over Truman's Dec. 19 declaration of national emergency, wartime controls, increase in U.S. troops for NATO to 6 divisions with Ike in command, $50b defense budget, doubled air groups to 95, increase Army to 3.5m troops, Japanese peace treaty, admit Greece and Turkey to NATO and add new bases in Libya, Saudi Arabia, Spain

1951/01 - 美国国会就杜鲁门12月9日发表的国家紧急状态声明,战时控制,和由艾克指挥的美国为北约组织增兵6个师,5百亿国防预算,空军集团军增至95个,增加步兵到350万人兵力,日本和平协议,允许希腊和土耳其进入北约组织,在利比亚,沙特和西班牙增设军事基地等问题,进行第82次“大辩论”。 

 

1951/02/11 - 3rd CCF attack pushed UN forces back to Han River

1951/02/11 - 共产党中国军队发动第三次进攻,将联合国军击退到汉江。

 

1951/02/21 - Matthew Ridgeway's "Killer" counterattack pushed CCF back to 38th line by April 21

1951/02/21 - 到4月21日,马修-李奇威的“屠夫”反攻计划将共产党中国军队再次逼退回三八线。

 

1951/04/11 - Truman fires MacArthur

1951/04/11 – 杜鲁门解除麦克阿瑟总指挥职务。

 

1951/04/22 - 4th CCF attack - CCF commander Peng Teh-huai ordered by Mao "win a quick victory if you can; if you can't, win a slow one." - drove Ridgeway back to Seoul by May

1951/04/22 - 共产党中国军队发动第四次进攻。毛泽东派出总指挥彭德怀,并命令他“(朝鲜战争)能速胜则速胜,不能速胜则缓胜”。彭德怀于五月将李奇威赶到了汉城。

 

1951/05/02 - Malik speech hints at possible settlement

1951/05/02 – 前苏联驻联合国代表马利克发表讲话,暗示有可能解决冲突。

 

1951/06/01 - Ridgeway's "Ripper" counterattack pushed CCF 40 miles north of the 38th line

1951/06/01 – 李奇威的“撕裂者”反攻行动再将共产党中国军队推回到了三八线以北40英里处。

 

1951/06/05 - Malik began talks with Kennan about possible settlement

1951/06/05 - 前苏联驻联合国代表马利克与美国代表坎南开始谈判,讨论可能的解决方案。

 

1951/07/10 - Panmunjon talks began, but settlement delayed by Stalin (until Stalin's death March 5, 1953)

1951/07/10 – 开始板门店和谈。但最后解决问题时间被斯大林推迟(直到斯大林于1953年5月斯大林死为止。)

 

1953/06/26 - armistice signed

1953/06/26 – 签署停战协议。

 

 

 
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