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Chapter 16 Learning Summary 右 8~15—— 会计07-01 路人甲组

(2008-06-13 00:58:25)
标签:

chapter16

learning

summary

会计07-01

路人甲

杂谈

分类: Chapter 16 作业

 

Chapter 16 Learning Summary 右 8~15—— 会计07-01 路人甲组


 Chapter <wbr>16 <wbr>Learning <wbr>Summary <wbr>右 <wbr>8~15—— <wbr>会计07-01 <wbr>路人甲组
 
组长: 谢晨     会计07-01  200742070112
组员: 李宇航   会计07-01  200742070109
       孔筱衍   会计07-01  200742070110
       饶胜兰   会计07-01  200742070111
外员: 钟伟     会计04-01  200442250426
 

  

Chapter <wbr>16 <wbr>Learning <wbr>Summary <wbr>右 <wbr>8~15—— <wbr>会计07-01 <wbr>路人甲组 8、 Explain how goal-setting and reinforcement theories explain employee motivation.

    解释目标设置理论和强化理论怎么解释员工激励。

 1)There is substantial support for the proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals,when accepted ,result in higher performance than do easy goals. This proposition is known as a goal-setting theory.

现有大量证据支持一种观点:具体的目标会提高工作绩效;另外,困难的目标一旦被人们接受,将会比较容易目标导致更高的工作绩效。这个观点就是目标设置理论。

2)According to B.F. skinner, reinforcement theory can be explained as follows : People will most likely engage in desired behaviors if they are rewarded for doing so , these rewards are most effective if they immediately follow a desired behavior , and behavior that isn’t rewarded , or is punished , is less likely to be repeated.

按照B.F.斯金纳的观点,强化理论对激励的解释是:当人们由于采取某种思想行为而受到奖励时,他们最可能重复这种行为。奖励紧跟在理想行为之后效果最好。如果行为没有受到奖励而是受到了惩罚,行为重复的可能性非常小。

 

 Chapter <wbr>16 <wbr>Learning <wbr>Summary <wbr>右 <wbr>8~15—— <wbr>会计07-01 <wbr>路人甲组 9、Describe the job characteristics model as a way to design motivating jobs.

描述工作特征模型设计激励性工作的方式。

 The job characteristics model offers such a framework. It identifies five primary job characteristics, their interelationships, and their impact on emplyee productivity, motivation, and satisfaction.

工作特征模型给我们提供这样一个框架,它提出了五种重要的工作特点,并分析了这些特点之间的关系,以及它们对员工生产率,积极性和满意感的影响。

Five core dimensions

五种核心维度

1)Skill variety: The degree to which a job requires a variety of activities so that an employee can use a number of different skills and talent.

技能多样性:指一项工作中需要员工使用各种技能和才干以完成一些不同类型活动的程度。

2)Task identy: The degree to which a job requires a completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.

任务完整性:指一项工作要求完成和可辨识的任务的程度。

3)Task significance: The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.

任务重要性:指一项工作对员工生活或其他人的工作的实际影响程度。

4)Autonomy: The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.

工作自主性:指一项工作给任职者在安排工作内容,确定工作程序方面,实际上提供了多大的自由度,独立性及自主权。

5)Feedback: The degree to which carrying out work activities required by a job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about his or her performance effectiveness.

工作反馈:指员工在完成任务的过程中,可以直接而明确地活得有关自己工作绩效信息的程度。

Notice how the first three dimensions-skill variety, task indentity, and task significance-combine to create meaningful work, and person will view his or her job as being important, valuable, and worthwhile.Possess autonomy give the job incumbent a feeling of personal responsibility for the results. Feedback will let employee know how effectively he or she is performing.

请注意:如果让前三个维度组合在一起可以让工作富有意义,员工会觉得他的工作是重要的,有价值的和有意义的。工作自主权会给员工一个自己对结果承担责任的感觉。工作反馈让员工了解自己的工作效率如何。

 

Chapter <wbr>16 <wbr>Learning <wbr>Summary <wbr>右 <wbr>8~15—— <wbr>会计07-01 <wbr>路人甲组 10、Discuss the motivation implications of equity theory.

    讨论公平理论与激励的牵连。

 Equality theory, developed by J.Stacey Adams, proposes that employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put into it (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others.

公平理论,由斯达西.亚当斯发展起来,这一理论认为员工首先把自己在工作情境中得到的结果(所得)与自己的努力(付出)进行比较,然后再将自己的所得-付出比与相关他人的所得-付出比进行比较。

If  the ratio is unequal, she views herself as underrewarded or overrewarded, when employees feel they are underrewarded, they will reduce quality of output. And if feel overrewrded, they will work hard in order to be higher productivity.

如果比较不公平,她感到自己报酬过低或是报酬过高。当员工感到他们报酬过低时,他们将减少自己的工作付出质量;如果感到报酬过高时,他们就会更加努力的工作,使自己高工作产量。

 

 Chapter <wbr>16 <wbr>Learning <wbr>Summary <wbr>右 <wbr>8~15—— <wbr>会计07-01 <wbr>路人甲组 11、Contrast the motivation jusice and procedural justice.

   对比分配公正和程序公正。

 Distributive justice: porceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.

分配公正:察觉到在个体中对数量和分配奖励报酬的不公平性。

Procedural justice: porceived fairness of the process used to determine the dustribution of rewards.

程序公正:察觉到经常决定奖励报酬分配的过程的不公平性。

Distributive justice is based on allocation result. And procedural justice is based on determine process.

分配公正是以分配结果作依据;程序公正是以决策过程作依据。

 

 Chapter <wbr>16 <wbr>Learning <wbr>Summary <wbr>右 <wbr>8~15—— <wbr>会计07-01 <wbr>路人甲组 12、Explain the three key linkages in expectancy theory and their role in motivation.

解释期望理论与他们的作用在动机上的三个关键联系。

 Expectancy or effort-performance linkage is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to a certain level of performance.

期望或努力-绩效联系:个体感到通过一定程度的努力可以达到某种工作绩效的可能性。

Instrumentality or performance-reward linkage is the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level is instrumental in attaining the desired outcome.

手段或绩效-奖赏联系:个体相信达到一定绩效水平后即可获得理想结果的程度。

Valence or attractiveness of reward is the importance that the individual places on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job. Valence considers both the goals and needs of the individual.

效价或奖赏的吸引力:从工作中可以获得的结果或奖赏对个体的重要性程度。效价主要关心的是个人的目标与需要。

 

 Chapter <wbr>16 <wbr>Learning <wbr>Summary <wbr>右 <wbr>8~15—— <wbr>会计07-01 <wbr>路人甲组 13、Describe the cross-cultural challenges of motivation.

 描述跨文化挑战的动机。

 In today’s global business environment, managers can’t automatically assume that motivational programs that work in one location are going to work in others.

在现在的全球经济环境下,管理者不能自动认为在一位置中工作的动机的程序将用于其它的工作。

Another motivation concept that clearly has an American bias is the achievement need. The view that a high achievement need acts as an internal motivator presupposes two cultural characteristics- a willingness to accept a moderate degree of risk and a concern with performance.

另一种动机的概念,显然有一位美国的偏见是实现的需要。认为,高成就需要的行为,作为一种内部动力假定两个文化特色-愿意接受适度的风险和关注与表现。

Equity theory has a relatively strong following in many countries.

产权理论有一相对地强跟随在许多国家。

Cross-cultural consistencies can’t be ignored. The desire for interesting work seems important to almost all workers. Job-preference outcomes growth achievement and responsibility are rated the top three and identical rankings.

比较文化的一贯性不可能被忽略。 有趣的工作的欲望似乎重要对几乎所有工作者。 工作特选结果成长成就和责任对估计名列前茅三和相同等第。

 

 Chapter <wbr>16 <wbr>Learning <wbr>Summary <wbr>右 <wbr>8~15—— <wbr>会计07-01 <wbr>路人甲组 14、Discuss the challenges managers face in motivating unique groups of workers.

谈论挑战经理面孔在刺激独特的小组工作者。

 Recognize Individual Differences.

认清个体差异。

Match People to Jobs.

进行人与工作的匹配。

Use Goals.

运用目标。

Ensure That Goals Are Perceived as Attainable.

确保个体认为目标是可达到的。

Individualize Rewards.

个别化奖励。

Link Rewards to Performance.

奖励与绩效挂钩。

Check the System for Equity.

检查体制是否公平。

Use Recognition.

重视认可的使用。

Don’t Ignore Money.

不要忽视金钱的作用。

 

Chapter <wbr>16 <wbr>Learning <wbr>Summary <wbr>右 <wbr>8~15—— <wbr>会计07-01 <wbr>路人甲组 15、Describe open-book management and employee recognition, pay-for-performance, and stock option programs.

描述“账目公开管理”“劳动者认可”“绩效工资方案”“股票期权”。

 Open-book Management: A motivational approach in which an organization’s financial statements (the “book”) are shared with all employees.

通过公开财务报表(即“账目”)方式,让员工参与决策,与员工共享信息,使员工更积极的作出有利于工作的决策,更好地理解自己的工作内容和工作方式对公司的意义。

Employee recognition programs: Personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done.

劳动者认可:个人的重视和表示有兴趣,核准,并赞赏所做的出色工作。

Pay-for-performance programs: Variable compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure.

绩效工资方案:指的是在绩效测量的基础上支付员工工资的薪酬方案,诸如计件工资方案、奖励工资制度、利润分成、包干奖金等等。

Stock options: Financial instruments that give employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price.

股票期权:让员工有权购买价格设定的股票的金融工具。

 

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