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新目标英语八年级下册第十单元 Section A  The first period讲解

(2011-05-23 00:00:22)
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新目标英语

八年级下册

第十单元

section

a

the

first

period

讲解

教育

分类: 八年级下册6-10单元教材解析

新目标英语八年级下册第十单元 Section A  The first period讲解

 

语法知识讲解

 反意疑问句是用以要求对方证实所陈述之事,它由两部分组成,前面是陈述句,后面是简短问句。如果前面是肯定句,后面一般是否定问句,如果前面是否定句,则后面多是肯定句。既前肯后否,前否后肯。

 反意疑问句使用中应注意以下几个方面:

除There be句型外,疑问部分的主语必须是与陈述部分的主语在人称数性方面保持一致的人称代词。

Kate is clever, isn’t she?

There be句型的疑问部分的主语用there。

There is going to be a class meeting on Friday afternoon, isn’t there?

如果陈述部分的谓语动词带有助动词或情态动词,疑问部分则使用相同的助词或情态动词。  You can swim, can’t you?  He will go to England, won’t he?

如果陈述部分的谓语动词是系动词Be,则疑问部分也用系动词。

Beijing is a beautiful city, isn’t it?

如果陈述部分的谓语动词是行为动词时,疑问部分要用do/does/did。

Your father likes playing basketball, doesn’t he?

祈使句的反义疑问部分, 不管前面是肯定的还是否定的句子,都可以使用will you?。

Try the new dress on, will you?         Don’t be late next time, will you?

注:祈使句Let's...后,用shall we,let us...后用will you。

          Let’s go home, shall we?          Let us have a try, will you?

I think 后面接宾语从句时,反义疑问部分的主语和宾语从句的主语保持一致。

I think she is from America, isn’t she?

反义疑问句的回答,只要事实是肯定的,就用Yes回答,只要事实是否定的就用No回答。   Tom didn’t come to school yesterday, did he?

Yes, he did. (不,他来了。)   No ,he didn’t. (是的,他没来。)

Tom came to school yesterday, didn’t he?

Yes, he did. (是的,他来了。)    No, he didn’t.(不,他没来。)

请记住以下特殊的反义疑问句。

一 there be 句型

There is a boy in the room, isn’t there?    There weren’t many cars in the street, were there?

There will be robots in our families, won’t there?

二 祈使句

Sit down please, will/won’t you?   Please call me, will/won’t you?

Let’s go home, shall/shan’t we?   Let us go home, will/won’t you?

Let me see, will/won’t you?        Don’t smoke, will you?

总结,除了let’s 开头的句子用shall we之外,所有的祈使句都可以用will you 完成反义疑问句,

同步练习

基础篇

一、选择
1.You don't think he will come,______?
  A. do you     B. will you     C. will he    D. will you
2.Let's go home,________?
  A. don't you   B. do you   C. shall we   D. will you
3.Jack had dinner with his mother at home yesterday, ______ he?
  A.did     B.does    C.didn't    D.hadn't
4.We must start earlier,________we?
  A.needn't   B.mustn't    C.don't    D.mustn't
5.You are not going out today,are you ?       

A.Yes,I'm not.  B.No,I am.    C.No,I'm not.   D.Yes,you are.      

6.Pass me the tool, _______       

A.will you      B.won't you   C.do you        D.don't you      

7. Don't do it, _____ ?       

A.will you      B.won't you   C.do you        D.don't you            

8.Let us go together, ________?       

A.don't we      B.will you    C.shall we      D.won't you               

9. Few of them hurt themselves in the accident last night , __________.

  A. don’t they  B. didn’t they  C. did they    D. do they 

10.-Can I try it on?

   -I’m ____________ you can.

A. sure            B. be sure             C. make sure        D. surely

 

二、完成下面的反意疑问句。

   1. She is a school girl, _____  _____?

   2. It looks like rain, ______  ______?

   3. They go there by bus, _____  _____?

   4. His mother goes to work at 8:00, _____  _____?

   5. The girl can sing an English song, _____  _____?

   6. The students had a class meeting yesterday, _____  _____?

   7. He forgot his umbrella, ______  _______?

   8. There was a telephone for you, ______  _____?

   9. Let’s clean our bedroom, _______  _______?

   10. I think he is a teacher, _____  ______?

   11.He never goes to bed late,_______ _________?
   12.He has a lot of kites,______ _________?
   13.She doesn't like singing,_______ _______?
   14.There isn't any food in the fridge,________ _______?
   15.He has done his job well,_______ ________?


                              提高篇

阅读理解    

In most languages, people often start small talk after a greeting. Small talk means the little things we talk about at the start of a conversation. In English-speaking countries people often make small talk about the weather: “Nice day, isn’t it?” “Terrible weather, isn’t it?” But there is something special about small talk. It must be about something that both people have the same opinion about. The purpose(目的) of small talk is to let both people agree on something. This makes meeting people easier and more comfortable. People usually agree about the weather, so it is a safe topic for small talk. But people often disagree about religion(宗教) or politics(政治), so these are not suitable topics for small talk. The topics for small talk also depend on where the conversation is taking place. At football matches, people make small talk about the game they are watching: “Great game, isn’t it?” At bus stops, people may comment about the transport system: “The bus service is terrible, isn’t it?”

Small talk is an important part of conversation in any language. People in different countries start small talk in different ways. This shows that when we learn a language, we should learn the vocabulary and the grammar as well as the social behavior of the people who speak it.

根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。

)1. Small talk         .

A. is a kind of conversation with short words

B. is a greeting when people meet each other

C. is to let people disagree about something

D. is a polite friendly conversation on unimportant topics

)2. The favorite topic of small talk is about         .

A. the weather               B. politics  

C. games                     D. languages

)3. The passage suggests that when we learn a language,         

A. we should learn about the transport system of the country

B. we should only learn the grammar and the vocabulary

C. we should know the culture about the country

D. we should know the importance of the language

)4. When we say “Great game, isn’t it?”, we in fact         .

A. ask a question          B. agree with the other

C. greet each other        D. start small talk

)5. What we learn from the passage is that         .

A. different languages have different grammars

B. small talk is an important part in a language

C. small talk depends on the purpose of the conversation

D. we can talk about religion and politics in small talk

 

异域风情

English Small Talk Topics: What is ok and what is not?

 

慎选英语闲聊话题

 

   "When in Rome, do as the Romans do." What may be perfectly acceptable to talk about in one culture may offend or even shock others when in a different culture. Accordingly, it is important to know what topics are "safe" to discuss with strangers or acquaintances from a different background. Topics which can be discussed freely within a culture are referred to as "small talk".

 (“入境随俗。”在一种文化里可以完全被接受谈论的话题,在另一个不同的文化里可能就会得罪人,甚至可能会吓着对方。因此,了解什么话题刻意“安全的”跟不同文化背景的陌生人或熟识的人交谈是件很重要的事。在同一文化中可以高谈阔论的话题我们就称之为闲聊。)
   As with any other language, English has its own stock of non-offensive topics. Among these are the weather, occupation, immediate conditions, family and family life, and school or work. Topics in English which should never be broached include one's personal life, physical appearance (unless complimentary), income, and age as well as religious or political views. Each of these topics---both approved and taboo---will be discussed in more detail later.
   (就如所有其他的语言一样,英语里也有一些不会得罪人的闲聊话题。这些话题包括了天气、职业、目前个人的状况、家人与家居生活、学校或者是工作。英语中禁忌的话题则包括了个人生活、外貌(除非是赞美的话)、收入、年龄以及宗教信仰或政治观点等。这些被允许的以及禁忌的话题将容后逐一详细说明。)
   Small talk is extremely useful when first meeting others. Actually, one purpose of small talk is not to find out the answer to questions like "How are you?" or "Nice day, isn't it?" but rather to gauge whether the person is the sort whom one would like to know better. While talking about essentially unimportant matters such as the weather, life in the office, or how many children---if any---one has, each speaker has the opportunity to determine whether the other is cooperative, interesting, potentially useful or friendly, etc. If a person answers the inquiry about the weather with a grunt or "I hate sunny days," no further energy need be wasted!
   (与人初次见面时,闲聊是非常管用的。事实上,闲聊的目的之一并非要如何回应“你好吗?”或“天气不错吧,是不是?”等这类问题,而是判断对方是否是我们想进一步认识的那种人。在谈论一些无关痛痒的话题时,如天气、办公室生活或是对方有多少小孩(若对方有的话),就有机会判断对方是否符合、有趣、有所助益或友善等。谈到有关天气的问题时,对方若哼啊一声敷衍了事,或说:“我讨厌艳阳天,”那就甭再浪费唇舌了。)

   Another purpose of small talk, once a speaker is satisfied that the other person is worth talking with, is to explore possible areas of interest or cooperation. By tactfully going through "safe topics," some information may be revealed which leads the speaker(s) into a deeper discussion, especially when a topic is a shared hobby or interest. Talking about the weather may reveal that one speaker enjoys recreation like camping or hiking. Shooting the breeze about one's family may disclose similar shared family hobbies like board or card games or barbecues and picnics. In other words, small talk may serve as probing of the other person's personality and lifestyle.
   (闲谈的另一目的就是,一旦满意对方且了解对方值得交谈后,谈话就要探究彼此可能感兴趣及合作的范畴。透过巧妙运用“安全的话题”,便可获知一些资讯进而促使双方作更深一层的谈论,尤其是话题与彼此嗜好或兴趣有关的时候。谈论天气透漏对方可能喜欢露营或远足等休闲活动。而闲聊家庭的话题则可显露彼此相似的家居嗜好,如下棋、纸牌游戏、烤肉及野餐等。换言之,闲聊可用来探知对方的个性和生活方式。)

   "Everybody complains about the weather, but nobody ever does anything about it," so goes an old saying. Perhaps the safest of all small talk topics is the weather. Whether good or bad, a comment about the temperature or sky condition (sunny day, cloudy day, rainy day, etc. ) never offends. Commenting on the crowded traffic or the late bus, or high prices in the department store (immediate conditions) is also always appropriate. Similarly, most people do not mind talking about their work, family, or school life, either, since for most people these are experiences held in common. Even so, asking whether someone is married or not crosses over into personal information and therefore should be avoided. If the speaker happens to mention that he or she has children or is married, however, it is all right to pursue the topic.

   (俗话说:“人人怨天气,无人管天气。”因此,或许天气可说是最安全的闲聊话题了。谈论气温或气候(晴天、阴天、雨天等),评语不论是好是坏,永远都不会得罪人。至于交通拥挤、公车迟到或百货公司的物品售价太高等(临时发生的话题),也是很适合的。同样地,大多数人也不介意谈论他们的工作、家庭或学校生活,因为对大多数人而言,这些都是大家共同的生活经验。即使如此,若是询问对方是否已婚时则就涉及私人问题,因此就应避免提及。对方若不经意提及自己有小孩或已婚时,追着这个话题发挥就无妨了。)

   Asking such questions as "How much do you weigh?" "How old are you?" or "How much do you earn?" are taboo in English, at least as starters for conversation. Only when friends are close would they ask such questions of each other. Likewise, for most people, religious or political convictions are considered private matters. These should not be discussed until one speaker offers his opinion first. It is not necessary, though, to respond in kind. The other speaker can change the subject to show that this is a taboo subject.

   (“你多重?”“你几岁?”或“你收入多少?”等的问题在英文里是个禁忌,至少不可用作闲谈的开场白。只有熟朋友才会彼此问这样的问题。同样地,对大多数人而言宗教信仰、政治立场等话题也都属于个人隐私。除非对方先发表他的看法,否则不应谈论这些话题。不过,你也不用跟着回应你的看法。对方可能会改变话题,以表示这个话题是个禁忌。)

   Foreigners are usually "forgiven" the "indiscretion" of asking others offending questions. Still, it is not a good idea to wear out one's welcome. When a subject has been turned down, only a tactless person would pursue it. Being sensitive to others' feelings and sense of privacy will win more friends and influence more people than a reckless line of questioning. When curiosity seems to be getting the upper hand, remember that "Silence is golden."

  (外国人在闲聊时如果不慎提及禁忌的问题通常是会被原谅的。但是,因此而损及对方对你的好感也是不明智的。当对方已拒绝谈论某个话题时,只有不上道的人才会追着这个话题谈下去。敏感察觉对方的感觉对隐私的注重,要比胡乱问一连串问题能使你赢得更多的朋友,也影响更多的人。当好奇心蠢蠢欲动时,切记这句话:“沉默是金。”)

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