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教材解析九年级英语第四单元 Section B 内容详解

(2010-12-10 00:00:12)
标签:

教材解析

九年级英语

第四单元

section

b

内容详解

教育

分类: 九年级1-5单元教材解析

Section B 内容详解

 

What would you do if the teacher asked you to give a speech in front of the whole school?如果老师让你在全校师生面前发言,你怎么办?

  a.本句是一个含有if虚拟条件句的主从复合句。表示与现在事实相反,if从句谓语动词用一般过去时,主句的谓语动词用“would+动词原形”的结构。用虚拟语气完全是为了表示一种假设。如:

    I would take her son as my own if she died.

    如果她去世了,我就把她的儿子当作我自己的孩子。

    What would you do if an earthquake took place?

    如果发生了地震你会怎么办?

    I wouldn't tell him the truth if he asked me.

    他即使问我,我也不会告诉他真相。

  b.give a speech 相当于动词speak,是“发言”的意思,give后可有sb.,也可没有sb.。动词give可以和名词结合构成give+名词形式的许多固定短语,这些短语通常都具有与该名词相应的动词同样的词义。类似的情况还有give(sb.)a talk=talk(做个报告),give sb. a pull=pull sb.(拉某人一下),give a shout/cry= shout/cry(喊了一声),give sb. a beating=beat sb.(揍某人一顿),give sb. a scolding=scold sb.(责骂某人一顿),give sb. a ring=ring sb. (给某人打电话),give sb.a kick=kick sb.(踢某人),give sb. a push=push sb.(推某人),give sb. a kiss=kiss sb.(亲吻某人),give sb. a smile=smile to sb.(朝某人微笑),give a laugh=laugh(大笑起来),give a sigh=sigh(叹一口气),give sb. a surprise=surprise sb.(使某人吃惊),give sb. advice=advise sb.(建议某人),give sh. a shock=shock sb.(使某人震惊),give sb.an explanation=explain to sb.(向某人作出解释),give sb. help=help sb.(帮助某人),give sb.permission=permit sb.(允许某人)等。

  c.原句中the whole school指“全校师生”,而不是指学校这一场所。school,class,family,team,city,country等名词在一定的语境中都可指代这一范围内的所有人,因此在理解上须特别注意,尤其当这些词作主语时,其谓语动词该用单数还是复数应根据其含义而定。如:

    aclass用作集体名词时有三种情况,第一,class指一个班集体,强调整体,作主语时,其谓语动词可用单数,也可用复数。第二,强调class中的成员,class作主语时,其表语是复数名词,这时谓语动词应用复数,不能用单数。第三,class作主语,其表语是单数名词时,谓语动词应用单数,不能用复数。如:

    Your class is /are going on a field trip near your hometown.

    你们班将去你家乡附近作一次野外郊游。

    What's/What are your class going to do for the coming field trip?

    你们班在即将到来的野外郊游中将进行些什么活动?

    (这句中coming为现在分词,作定语,修饰field trip,表示“即将到来的”。)

    The English class is /are reading Shakespeare.

    英语班的学生正在读莎士比亚的著作。

    Class 3 are winners in this sports meet.

    在这次运动会上三班是获胜者。(谓语动词须和表语winners在数上一致,故不能用单数is。)

    His class is a big one/class.

    他的班级是个大班。(谓语动词须和表语在数上一致,故不能用are。)

  【注】family和school也属这一情况。如:

    The whole family is /are watching TV.

    全家都在看电视。

    His family are all sports lovers.

    他全家人都是体育爱好者。(不能用is)

    The whole school is /me shouting with joy at the good news.

    听到这一好消息全校师生都欢呼起来。

    bgo into class或go to class表示“进课堂”,class前不能带定冠词the,这是因为class指的是有教师和学生共同参与的教与学的课堂,强调的是学习氛围,而不是一个集体或场所。再如in class(在课上),before class(课前),after class(课后)。类似的用法还有:

  go to school              去上学

  come back from school         上学回来

  after school              放学以后

  at school               在学校(没放学);在学校学习的时候

  be in school              在上学(还没工作)

  go to bed               去睡觉

  be in bed               卧病在床;在睡觉(还没起床)

  go to hospital             去医院看病

  be in hospital             在住院

  go to town              进城(买东西)

  be in town              在城里

  go to work              去上班

  at work                在工作;在工作的时候

  come back from work          下班回来

  go to prison              去坐牢

  be in prison              在坐牢

  【注】这些名词前都不带定冠词the,强调其性质或作用以及该性质(或作用)与有关人的关系,这些名词已失去了单位和场所的含义。但是,如果句子反映出来的意思不具有这种关系,这些名词的性质或作用对有关人不产生其作用或性质,则这些名词前就应带定冠词the或其他限定词。如:

    Many teachers are coming to sit in the maths class.

    许多老师要来听数学课。(Many teachers不参与math class的教与学活动)

    My uncle is coming to the school to see me.

    我叔叔要来学校看望我。(My uncle和school不存在教与学关系)

    His wife goes to the prison to see him once a month.

    他妻子每月去监狱看望他一次。(prison不对wife起作用)

    He went to the bed to get his overcoat.

    他走到床边拿他的大衣。(He并非去睡觉)

    cclass和lesson有所不同。一般情况下class着重指性质,lesson着重指内容。注意下面几种情况:

    上课开始的时候老师说“在这节课上,我们要学……”,英语用In this lesson/class we shall learn...。

    “物理课”可说a physics lesson/class,a lesson/class in physics。

    然而,“去上课”应该说go to class,而不说go to lesson,“在课上”应说in class,而不说in lesson。

    作为老师“上美术课”应该说give an art lesson,作为学生“上美术课”应该调take/have an art lesson。这里用lesson,一般不用class和动词搭配。

    “功课好”说be good at one’s lessons;“做功课”说do noe's lessons。注意lesson用复数,这里不用class。

    dclass可用作老师对全班同学的称呼,意为“同学们”,这时前面不带冠词;也可用来表示全班同学,这时应和定冠词the连用。如:

    Now class, let's come to the next question.

    同学们,现在我们来看第二个问题。

    The teacher told the class an interesting story.

    老师给全班同学讲了个有趣的故事。

    eclass可用来表示“班级”。“三年级二班”应说Class Two, Grade Three,不能说Grade Three,Class Two。

  【注】in the class可能有两个意思,可以指特定的某一堂课(这时class前面应带冠词the);也可以指特定的某一班。试比较:

    What did you learn in the/that class?

    在那节课上你们学些什么?

    How many students are there in the/this/that class?

    这/那个班上有多少名学生?

  d.whole和all这两个词意思相同,但用法很不一样。

    awhole一般位于冠词、所有格或别的限定词之后,而all须位于这些词之前。

    all the time; the whole time     整个时间;一直

    all my life; my whole life      我的一生

    all the class; the whole class     整个班级

  【注】如名词前没有限定词,不能用whole,如可以说all day,而不能说whole day。

    ball和whole都可指“未经分割的整体”。但all还可用来指“已经分割或分散的”人或物,而whole则不能这样用。

    the whole city= all the city     整座城市

    all the classes          所有的班级(不能说the whole classes)

    cwhole一般不能修饰不可数名词或物质名词,修饰复数名词时一般前面有数量词,而all能用于各种情况。如:

    all the money           所有的钱(不说the whole money)

    three whole days          三整天

    dwhole一般不能修饰地名。不能说the whole Europe,但可以说the whole of Europe(整个欧洲)

What would you do if your brother borrowed your clothes without permission

  如果你的哥哥未经允许就借走了你的衣服,你会怎么办?

  permission是不可数名词,意为“允许”“许可”“准许”,without permission意为“未经允许”。请看下列例句:

  How comes you did that without permission?

  未经许可你怎么能那么做?

  Did he give you permission to take that?

  他准你拿那件东西吗?

  Who gives you permission to leave class early?

  谁准许你提早离开课堂的?

  If you want to take these books away, you must ask permission from the library assistant.

  如果你想把这些书带走,必须征得图书馆管理员的许可。

  With your permission (= If you allow me), I'll leave now.

  如果你准许的话,我现在就离开。

  With your permission, I'll send a copy of this letter to the doctor.

  如果你准许的话,我就把这封信的副本寄给那位医生。

  【注】permission后可接不定式作定语,如第一句;give sb. permission to do sth. 意为“准许某人做某事”,如第二、三句;ask permission from sb.意为“征求某人的许可”,如第四句;with your permission常用于口语中,意为“如果你准许的话”,如第五句和第六句。

What would you do if you wanted to be friends with a new student

  如果你想和一个新生交朋友,你会怎么做?

  句中be friends with...相当于make friends with...由于这里be用于不定式,因此be的意思是“做(朋友)”“成为(朋友)”。另外这一短语中的friends总是复数。

Personality survey results

·If you answered ___c____ for most questions, then you are probably pretty confident. Social situations don't bother you in the slightest. You know what you want, and you know how to get it. Sometimes you might annoy people because you're so confident.

·If you answered ___a____ for most questions, you are outgoing and fairly confident. You have plenty of friends, and you enjoy the company of offer people. People come to you when they want advice. Your friends would probably say that you are easy to get along with.

·If most of your answers were ____b___, you are probably a shy person. You like talking to one or two people rather than to a group. You would also rather stay at home and read a good book than11 go to a party. You have a small circle12 of very good friends. Your friends would probably say you are a good listener.

性格调查结果

·如果你大多数问题的答案都是c,你也许相当自信。社会环境丝毫不会使你感到烦恼。你很清楚你想要什么,并懂得如何去获得。有时候由于你太自信可能会使人生气。

·如果你大多数问题的答案都是a,那你就是外向型并且是相当自信的人。你有很多朋友,并喜欢和别人在一起。别人需要建议时通常到你这儿来请教。你的朋友也许会认为你是个容易打交道的人。

·如果你大多数问题的答案是b,那你也许是一个害羞的人。你喜欢和一两个人说话,而不愿意和一群人说话。你可能宁愿呆在家里读一本好书,而不愿去参加聚会。你非常好的朋友为数不多,你的朋友可能会认为你是个好听众。

④a.动词bother指干扰别人的正常生活或工作,从而使之不能安宁。其中含有故意去打扰别人,甚至使人讨厌的意味。bother可以用作及物动词,其后直接加宾语,意为“打搅”“麻烦”“使烦恼”“使难受”。如:

    Don't bother your father. He's got a lot to do tonight.

    别去打搅你爸爸,他今晚有好多事情要做。

    He comes bothering me day after day.

    他天天都来打搅我。

    I can't bother him with my little affairs.

    我不能拿我这些小事去麻烦他。

    Such things no longer bothered him.

    这些事不再使他烦恼了。

    He couldn't say exactly what it was that bothered him.

    他说不清究竟是什么事使他烦恼。

  b.bother也可用作不及物动词,意为“费事”“烦心”,可与介词about或with连用,或后接动词不定式。如:

    Thank you, but please don't bother.

    谢谢,但请你不要费事了。

    She never bothers about clothes.

    她从来不在穿着上费心思。

    Oh! Don't bother about me, Uncle.

    哦!叔叔,别为我费心了。

    You needn't bother about coming up.

    你不必费事来了。

    I haven't time to bother with such things.

    我没时间为这种事费心。

    He told us not to bother with him.

    他让我们别为他费心了。

⑤a.in the slightest相当于in the least或at all,与否定词not连用表示“一点儿都不”“丝毫不”。如:

    "Do you mind if I use your car for a day?"

    "Not in the slightest. /Not in the least./Not at all."

    “你的车我借用一天行吗?”“完全可以”。

    She doesn't like that man in the slightest.

    她一点儿都不喜欢那个男人。

    You didn't bother me in the slightest.

    你一点儿都没有打扰我。

  b.slightest是形容词slight的最高级形式。slight意为“不重要的”“不严重的”“轻微的”。如:

    He did the work without the slightest difficulty.

    他毫无困难地完成了这项工作。

    There's a slight difference between the two words.

    这两个词之间有些细微区别。

⑥a.plenty of意思是“大量”“许多”,相当于a lot of,既可以修饰可数名词,又可以修饰不可数名词。plenty of通常用于肯定句中。如:

    There is plenty of lime to think about it.

    有很多时间去思考它。

    The building requires plenty of money.

    建这座大楼需要很多钱。

    They need plenty of water to grow vegetables.

    他们需要大量的水来种植蔬菜。

    There are plenty of books for you to read.

    有很多书供你阅读。

    Standing on top of the building you can see plenty of people walking on the street.

    站在楼顶上你可以看到很多人在街上走。

  b.plenty of通常不用于疑问句和否定中,在疑问句和否定句中,通常用enough,much或many代替plenty of。如:

    Are there enough workers?

    这里有足够的工人吗?

    Does she have enough time to do the work?

    她有足够的时间去做那件工作吗?

    Sorry, he didn't get so many books for you.

    对不起,他没有给你弄到许多书。

    They can't find much work to do.

    他们不能找到很多工作去做。

⑦a.company在这里是不可数名词,意思是“陪伴”“和他人在一起”,原文enjoy the company of...相当于like being together with...。如:

    I enjoy his company.=I enjoy being together with him.

    我喜欢和他在一起。

    I'm thankful for your company when I travelled up to the north.

    我去北方时你跟我作伴,我非常感谢。

  b.不可数名词company还可以作“伙伴”解。如:

    I don't think she's good company to you.

    我觉得她并不是你的好伙伴。

    He isn't good company when he's with me.

    他和我在一起时并不是一个好相处的人。

⑧a.advice为不可数名词,可用some,much,a little,a piece of, pieces of等修饰,不能说an advice或many/a few advices。与advice搭配的动词有give(提出),take/follow(接受,采纳),ask for(征求)等。表示“有关……的建议”,可用介词on接名词、代词或由疑问代词、疑问副词引导的不定式。如:

    Mr Smith gave us some good advice on the study of physics.

    史密斯先生就物理学习问题给我们提了些好的建议。

    The advice given is really worth paying attention to.

    所提的建议确实值得重视。

    You'd better take /follow his advice on how to make the plan.

    关于如何制定计划,你最好采纳他的建议。

    When I have difficulty in doing anything, I will ask my father for advice.

    每当我做事遇到困难时,我往往向我父亲求教。

    Let's ask for his advice on what to do next.

    我们去征求一下他的意见下一步该怎么办。

  b.on one's advice表示“按照某人的建议”“听从某人的建议”。如:

    You should act on the teacher's advice.

    你应该按照教师的建议行事。

    On the doctor's advice, he gave up smoking.

    听了医生的建议,他戒烟了。

    That was done on my advice.

    那事是按照我的建议执行的。

  c.当advice后面接that同位语从句表示建议的具体内容时,that从句中的谓语动词用“should+动词原形”的形式。如:

    His advice that we should stay another day for further information was reasonable.

    他要求我们再呆一天以等待更进一步消息的建议是有道理的。

  d.advise是advice的动词形式,意为“劝告”“忠告”,“劝某人做某事”是advise sb. to do sth.。请比较suggest(建议)的用法,suggest后不能用不定式作宾语补足语,而应用动名词或宾语从句,即不能说suggest sb. to do sth.,而要说suggest(one's)doing sth.或suggest that...,后接从句表建议时,与advice的用法相同。如:

    Mary advised him to give up drinking.

    玛丽劝他戒酒。

    I advise you to leave now.

    我劝你现在就走。

    My uncle suggested my getting a job in a bank.

    =My uncle suggested (that) I should get a job in a bank.

    我叔叔建议我在银行找个工作。

⑨动词不定式在句中用主动形式表示被动意义的用法主要有下面几种情况:

  a.不定式作状语,与句子的主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,如课文原句。再如:

    The book is difficult to understand.

    这本书很难理解。

    The chair is comfortable to sit on.

    这把椅子坐上去很舒服。

  b.不定式作后置定语,与被修饰的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,但又与该句主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系时。如:

    Do you have anything to say on this question?

    针对这个问题,你有什么要说的吗?

    He is a pleasant person to work with.

    他是一个与其合作起来令人愉快的人。

  【注】试比较:She has two letters to type.她有两封信要打。(自己打)She has two letters to be typed.她有两封信要打。(让别人打)

  c.get along(with)或get on(with)意为“与……相处”“进展”“过日子”。如:

    The business is getting along very well.

    生意进展得很好。

    He is honest and easy to get along with.

    他很诚实,容易相处。

    How are you getting dong with your English study?

    你英语学得怎么样了?

    I can't get along with them. They are so untidy.

    我无法与他们相处,他们太乱了。

    We can't get along on $ 100 a week.

    每周一百美元我们无法生活。

  d.get along还可解释为“走掉”“走开”。如:

    Get along with you!

    胡说!去你的!

    We'd better get along home.

    我们最好往回走吧。

    It's rather late, I'd better be getting dong.

    天晚了,我还是走吧。

⑩rather than在意思上相当于instead of,表示“而不是”“不愿意”。rather than前后连接两个并列成份,若连接的是两个介词短语时,既使介词相同,后一个短语中的介词也不能省略,如课文原句;连接动词时,应用动词原形。许多时候句子的主语后面有情态动词would,和rather than结合起来,表示“宁愿……不愿……”。如:

  I like going out with you rather than with him.

  我喜欢和你出去,不愿意和他出去。(介词with不能省略)

  I think I'll have a cold drink rather than coffee.

  我想喝冷饮,不想喝咖啡。

  I would stay home alone rather than go with him.

  我宁愿一人待在家里也不愿和他一起去。

  She said she'd buy one rather than borrow it.

  她说她宁愿买一个也不愿意借。

11a.本句使用了would rather...than...句型,而这一句型和前面所讲的would... rather than...其实是一样的,都表示“宁愿做……而不愿做……”,前后连接两个不同的动词,都应用动词原形。如:

    He would rather stay home than go shopping with his wife.

    =He would stay home rather than go shopping with his wife.

    =He would stay home instead of going shopping with his wife.

    他宁愿待在家里也不愿意和他妻子去购物。

    I'd rather walk than take a bus.

    我宁愿走着去而不愿意坐公共汽车。

    She'd rather die than lose her children.

    她宁愿死也不愿失去孩子们。

  【注】在实际使用中,would rather...than...比would...rather than...更常用。

  b.would rather在很多时候可单独使用,这时句中省去than...而意思却不言而喻。would rather do的否定形式是would rather not do,要注意否定词用not而不是don't,否定词not应位于would rather之后,不能位于would之后。如:

    I'd rather go and tell them myself.

    我宁愿亲自去告诉他们。

    We'd rather go there in summer.

    我们宁愿夏天去那儿。

    I'd rather not take the chance.

    这个机会我宁愿不要。

    He'd rather not borrow it from her.

    他宁愿不向她借这东西。

    "Some more wine?"

     "Thank you. I'd rather not. I have to drive home."

    “再来一点酒好吗?”

    “谢谢,不要了,我不能再喝了。我还得开车回家呢。”

12a.名词circle在这里指有一共同兴趣和爱好、脾气性格相投的人的“圈子”。如:

    She always has a large circle of friends.

    她一直交友甚广。(她始终有一大群朋友。)

    He's well known in the publishing circle.

    他在出版界很有名气。

  b.circle的基本意思是“圆”“圆形”“圈”。如:

    He can draw a good circle without compasses.

    他能不用圆规画一个非常标准的圆。

    We stood in a circle watching them play.

    我们站成一圈观看他们表演。

  c.circle可用作及物或不及物动词,=go or move in a circle usually in the air,通常指在空中“转圈”“盘旋”,也可指用笔把字“圈”起来。如:

    The plane circled the airport before landing.

    飞机在降落前围绕机场盘旋。

    The moon circles the earth every 28 days.

    月亮每28天绕地球转一圈。

    The teacher circled the spelling mistakes in red ink.

    老师用红笔把拼写错误圈了起来。

    Many birds are circling over the lake.

    许多鸟在湖的上空盘旋。

13If a friend said something bad about you, would you talk to the friend right away

  如果你的朋友说了你的坏话,你会立刻找这个朋友谈吗?

  a.形容词修饰不定代词something,nothing,anything,everything等时须位于这些词之后,不能位于其前。如:

    Did you notice anything strange about him?

    你注意到他有什么异样的地方吗?

    The doctors did everything possible to save her life.

    医生尽了一切可能抢救她的生命。

    Do you have anything important to say?

    你有什么重要的事情要说吗?

    There's nothing interesting in today's paper.

    今天的报上没有什么有趣的新闻。

  【注】副词enough修饰形容词或副词时,也须位于其后;修饰名词时一般位于其前,有时也可位于其后,尤其是后面有表示目的的状语时。如:

    The room isn't warm enough.这房间不够暖和。

    Tom doesn't work carefully enough.汤姆工作不够细致。

    There was not enough food /food enough for us all.

    食品不够我们大家吃。

    He has enough money /money enough to buy a car.

    他有足够买一辆车的钱。

  【注】以today, here,them, below, above, downstairs, upstairs等词作定语修饰名词时,一般位于其后。如:

    The weather today is quite wet.

    今天天气阴雨。(但“今天的报纸”一般说today's newspaper)

    People there usually like to eat fish.

    那儿的人通常喜欢吃鱼。

    The man downstairs couldn't go to sleep.

    楼下的那个人睡不着觉。

    Read the passage below and answer the questions.

    阅读下面的短文,然后回答问题。

  b.right away是一个副词性短语,意为“立刻”“马上”,相当于at once。如:

    Who can go to fetch some water right away?

    谁能马上打点儿水来?

    I'm afraid you have to leave right away.

    恐怕你得立刻出发。

    There's not much time left. You have to go to the station right away.

    所剩时间不多了,你得立刻去车站。

Dear Knowledgeable,

     My best friend, Mei, has a problem. There is a really important Entglish speech contest for our whole city next month. Our classmates want her to represent the class in the school contest. Everyone is sure she will win. It's probably true. Met is very clever, and can speak English really well. In fact, she always cones top in the school exams. The problem is that she's very shy. She doesn't want to let her friends down, but she's terrified of speaking in front of other people. She's my friend, so she can tell me that she's shy. But she can't tell everyone that. I don't think they would believe her. I can't think of any good advice to give her, but you always come up with good solutions to people's problems. What do you think I should tell Mei? What do you think I should tell the rest of the students

Fran

亲爱的智多星:

    我的好朋友梅遇到了一个问题。下个月我们全市将举办一个非常重要的英语演讲比赛。我们全班同学想让她代表我们班参加学校的比赛。每个同学都确信她会赢,她十有八九也会赢。梅很聪明,英语讲得的确很棒。事实上,她的考试成绩总是名列前茅。问题是她很胆小。她不想让朋友们为此失望,而又怯于在别人面前讲话。她是我的好朋友,所以她告诉了我自己怯场的问题。但是,她不能告诉每一个同学。我认为他们也不会相信她的说法。我想不出任何好的建议,可你总是能为遇到问题的人想出好办法。你认为我该怎样开导梅,又如何给其他同学讲呢?

弗兰

①problem是一个含义较广的名词,通常指生活、学习或工作中需要解决的“问题”,也可以用来表示人们不希望有的“麻烦”“不快”。如:

  What is your problem?

  你有什么问题要解决?

  His problem is that he has no time to join us.

  他的问题是没有时间参加到我们的行列中来。

  We all have housing problems at present.

  目前,我们都有住房问题。

  How to learn mere in less time is a problem.

  如何在较少的时间内学到较多的知识是个问题。

  Getting up always late is a big problem to him.

  总是晚起对他来说是个大问题。

②There is...用了一般现在时代替了一般将来时,There's going to be...。英语中用一般现在时代替一般将来时的情况经常出现,大致有以下几种情况:

  a.表示计划、安排好的将来动作,可用一般现在时代替一般将来时,通常谓语动词只限于be(如课文原句),go,come,leave,start,begin,arrive等。如:

    There's a big party for her tomorrow evening.

    明晚要为她举办一个盛大的晚会。

    He comes back tonight.他今晚会回来。

    We leave here at 8:00 sharp.我们八点整离开这里。

    The meeting begins at 7:00.会议七点钟开始。

  b.表示由于日历或时刻表的规定而固定不变的将来时间发生的动作。如:

    Tomorrow is Friday.明天是星期五。

    They have no classes next week.

    他们下周没有课。

    What time does the next train leave for Paris?

    下一班开往巴黎的火车几点出发?

  c.在时间状语或条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来时间的动作或状态。如:

    I'll give the book to you after I finish it.

    我看完这本书就给你。

    If you can't find her, just leave her a note.

    如果你找不到她,就给她留个条。

    Give me a ring before you leave.

    走之前给我打个电话。

    When she comes, I'll tell her about it.

    她来时我将把这件事告诉她。

  d.在hope后的宾语从句中常用一般现在时表示将来的动作或状态。如:

    I hope all is well with him.我希望他一切都好。

    I hope she gets back in time.我希望她及时回来。

    We hope you all have a good time.我们希望你们都玩得高兴。

③a.此处动词represent是“代表”某人或某团体的意思。再如:

    Which area does he represent?

    他代表哪个地区?

    She represented her fellow-workers at the meeting.

    她在会议上代表她的同事。

    I'd like to buy something that represent Chinese culture.

    我想选择代表中国文化的东西。

  b.动词represent还可意为“表示”“表现”“描绘”“意味着”等。如:

    What does this mark represent?

    这个符号表示什么?

    What does the star represent before the question?

    问题前的星号意味着什么?

    The red lines on the map represent railways.

    地图上的红线表示铁路。

    He was not what they had represented him to be.

    他并不是他们所描绘的那个样子。

    For the boy, his father represents power.

    对这个男孩来说,他的父亲就是权利。

④a.be sure + that从句表示主语“确信……”,be sure的主语只能是人。如:

    I'm sure that smoking is not good for you.

    我确信抽烟对你有害。

    I'm sure that He is right.

    我坚信他是对的。

    They were sure that we would help them.

    他们坚信我们将会帮助他们。

  b.be sure of/about表示主语“相信……”“对……有把握”,后面常接名词、代词或动词-ing形式,其主语是人。如:

    He is sure of success.

    他深信自己会成功。

    They are sure about his coming.

    他们对他的到来有把握。

    She is sure of getting his permission.

    她对于获得他的准许很有把握。

  c.be sure 可用于祈使句中,后面跟动词不定式表示说话人对对方的要求,解释为“务必”“切记”。如:

    Be sure to come tomorrow.

    明天一定要来。

    Be sure to return the book by the end of this month.

    本月底前你务必得还书。

    Be sure to finish the work before the weekend.

    切记在本周末前完成那项工作。

  【注】“be sure+动词不定式”结构还可以用于表示说话人的推测或判断,作“肯定”“必定”解释。其中,句子的主语可以是人,也可以是物。如:

    It's sure to rain tomorrow.

    明天肯定要下雨。

    He is sure to arrive soon.

    他肯定马上到达。

    They are sure to give the book to you.

    他们肯定要将书给你。

  d.sure常用于口语中,相当于certainly。这里,sure是说话人对于某个问题有把握的回答,意思是“当然可以”“当然”。如:

  "Can you come to my party this evening?" "Sure!"

  “今晚你能来参加我的聚会吗?”“当然!”

  "May I use your pencil?" "Sure!"

  “我可以用用你的铅笔吗?”“当然可以!”

  "May I take this seat?" "Sure!"

  “我可以坐这个座位吗?”“当然!”

⑤come top是比cone to the top更随便的用法,意思是“夺冠”“出人头地”。通常,come to the top要比come top使用得普遍。如:

  Wei Fang studies very hard, and she often comes (to the) top in the exam.

  魏芳学习很努力,所以她经常在考试中夺魁。

  Are you sure to come top this time?

  你肯定这次能夺冠吗?

  Whether you can come top depends on if you will study hard.

  一个人是否能夺魁,取决与他是否努力学习。

  I'm studying for the test and trying to come top this time.

  我正在准备功课,这次力争夺魁。

  Because of his hard working, his flame came top in the list.

  因为他努力工作,他的名字在排行榜上名列第一。

  Coming top in studying doesn't mean that he or she is perfect.

  在学习成绩方面夺魁,并不意味着一个人就是十全十美了。

⑥let...down意为“辜负”“做对不起……的事”“使失望”“失信于”。如:

  He said he would be there by 12 o'clock, but he let us down.

  他说他十二点到那里,但却失信了。

  This was the second time he let us down. We won't trust him again.

  这是他第二次不守信用,我们不能再信赖他了。

  I haven't done it well. I've let all of you down.

  我没有干好,我辜负了大家的期望。

  We certainly won't let you down.

  我们一定不会让你们失望的。

⑦think of的两种常见用法:

  a.think of作为固定搭配,意思是“想到”“想起”。如:

    Can you think of an idea to solve the problem?

    你能想到一个办法去解决那个问题吗?

    In fact, I didn't think of that at that moment.

    事实上,我当时没有想到那一点。

    What did you usually think of when you were walking in the dark?

    当你在夜里漫步时你通常都想些什么?

    Does anyone think of any advice to help her?

    有谁想到帮助她的办法了吗?

  b.think of作为固定搭配,意思是“顾及”“考虑到”。如:

    You should think of his health, when you ask him to do the work.

    当你叫他去做那个工作时,你应当顾及到他的健康。

    I'm sure that you'll start earlier, if you have thought of the busy traffic.

    假如你考虑到了拥挤的交通这一因素,我肯定你会提前出发。

    You must think of the local customs when you want to live in a certain place.

    当你想住在某个地方时,你应该考虑到当地的风俗。

⑧come up with是固定短语,意思是“想出”“找出”,相当于think of。如:

  My brother is a person that often comes up with good ideas.

  我弟弟是一个常常能想出好点子的人。

  Really I'm not able to come up with a better way to solve the problem.

  我确实想不出解决这个问题的更好的办法。

  Whoever has come up with the answer may pat up his hand.

  谁想出了答案可以举手。

  After trying several times, he's finally come up with the best way.

  尝试了多次,他终于找到了最佳方法。

  【注】come up with还有“赶上”“追上”的意思。如:

    Jim has come up with his classmates.

    吉姆赶上了他的同学。

    He comes up with me and asks me to have a rest.

    他追上来让我休息一下。

⑨a.the rest是名词性词组,意思是“其余的……”“剩下的……”。如:

    This one thousand dollars is mine, and the rest is yours.

    这一千美元是我的,其余的是你的。

    We'll eat some of the butter and keep the rest of it for breakfast.

    我们将吃一点儿黄油,余下的留着早饭再吃。

    He'll be in a wheelchair for the rest of his life.

    他的余生将在轮椅上度过。

    Only ten students attended the class because all the rest were off sick.

    只有十个学生上课,因为其余的人都请了病假。

    Mary is from Australia and the rest of us are all from China.

    玛丽是澳大利亚人,我们其余的都是中国人。

  b.the rest与the other,others,another,the others的主要区别:the rest可指代不可数名词或可数名词的复数;others是泛指可数名词复数;the other特指可数名词的两个之中的另一个;the others特指某一范围内的其余的可数名词的复数;another是泛指三个或三个以上之中的另一个。如:

    Mary and Tom have arrived. What about the rest/the others?

    玛丽和汤姆到了,其他的人呢?

    One of his parents is a doctor, and the other is a teacher.

    他的父母之中有一个是医生,另一个是教师。

    Some people like playing football; others like playing basketball.

    有些人喜欢踢足球,有些人喜欢打篮球。

    I will show you another if you don't like this one.

    如果你不喜欢这一个,我再给你拿另外一个。

 

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