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教材解析九年级英语第八单元Section A 内容详解

(2010-12-07 00:00:25)
标签:

教材解析

九年级英语

第八单元

section

a

内容详解

教育

分类: 九年级6-10单元教材解析

Section A 内容详解

 

You could help clean up the city parks.

  你可以帮助打扫城市公园。

  a.句中could并不是过去时,而是用比较委婉的语气向对方提出建议,当然用can也是可以的,只是语气显得有点儿生硬。如:

    You could help do some cleaning at home on Sundays.

    星期天你可以在家帮着打扫卫生。

    He could be of some help to you if you're in trouble.

    你碰到难事时,他也许会对你有所帮助。

  b.句中clean up为不定式,由于在help之后,故省略了不定式符号to。通常,在help动词之后跟不定式作宾语或宾语补足语时,该动词不定式的符号to可以省略。在谓语动词help用于被动语态的时候,其后面的动词不定式符号to不能省略。如:

    We often help clean up the streets on Sundays.

    星期天,我们常常帮助清洁街道。

    I helped him repair his car.

    我帮他修好了自行车。

    Could you help pass the book?

    你能帮忙把那本书递过来吗?

    Jim often helps his mother wash vegetable when she is cooking.

    吉姆常常在妈妈做饭的时候帮助洗菜。

    The farmers were helped to pick apples and pears.

    农民们摘苹果和梨时得到了帮助。

    She was helped to get everything ready in advance.

    她得到帮助,把所有的事情都提前准备好了。

    We will be helped to send the living necessities.

    在运送生活必需品方面,我们将会得到帮助。

    All the visitors have been helped to travel safely.

    全体游客都得到了安全旅游方面的帮助。

  a.clean up作“打扫”“收拾干净”解。如:

    Tell Alice to clean up the kitchen.

    叫艾丽丝把厨房打扫干净。

    It is your turn to clean up the bedroom.

    这回轮到你打扫卧室了。

    After the meeting, the students cleaned up the place.

    会后,学生们把这地方打扫得干干净净。

    When she cleaned up, I could hardly make her out.

    她清洗一番后,我简直认不出来了。

    Go home to clean up and put on a clean suit.

    回家去洗洗,穿上干净衣服。

  b.clean up的另一个意思是“清除掉”“清理掉”。如:

    Clean up the broken glass before someone walks on it.

    把碎玻璃清除掉,以免别人踩上。

    About fifty soldiers were left to clean up the last enemy positions.

    大约留下了五十个左右的战士去清理敌人最后几处阵地。

  c.clean up还可以引申为“整顿”,意指清除罪犯或不道德分子。如:

    The mayor has decided to clean up the city.

    市长已决定要整顿市政。

  d.clear up最基本的意思是“(天气)转晴”。如:

    The weather has cleared up and we can go out.

    天晴了,我们可以出去了。

    It's raining now, but I think it will clear up soon.

    尽管现在正在下雨,但是我认为天气很快会转晴的。

    It looks as if the rain will continue for some time, but it may clear up before dark.

    看起来雨还会下一些时候,不过天黑前也许会转晴的。

  e.另外,clear up还有“整理”“收拾”“澄清”“解决”“露出喜悦的表情”等意思。如:

    When you have finished your meal, please clear up the kitchen.

    你吃完饭后,请把厨房收拾一下。

    The book has cleared up (=solved) many problems for me.

    这本书给我解决了许多难题。

    The teacher cleared up (=explained) the harder parts of the text.

    老师讲清了课文中比较难以理解的部分。

    Her face cleared up (=brightened up) as she read my letter.

    她看我的信时,面露喜色。

I'd like to help homeless people.

  我想帮助无家可归的人。

  a.homeless是由名词home+后缀-less所构成的形容词,意思是“无家的”“无家可归的”。homeless既可以用作表语,也可以用作定语。如:

    After the accident, the boy became homeless.

    在那次车祸发生过后,这个男孩儿成了孤儿。

    The flood made Tony and his brother homeless.

    水灾使得托尼和他哥哥失去了家园。

    No one likes to think about the feelings of being homeless.

    没有人乐意去体味无家可归的滋味。

    Homeless children have been sent to an orphanage.

    无家可归的儿童被送进了孤儿院。

    That is a homeless eat.

    那是一只没有养主的猫。

  b.-less是一个常见的形容词后缀,意为“无……的”“不能……的”“永不……的”。如:

    It's quite harmless.它的确无害。

    It's useless to you, I think.

    我认为它对你来说没什么用。

    To me the marks on the page were just meaningless symbols.

    对我来说这一页上的标记仅仅是一些没有意义的符号。

    Is the universe really endless?

    宇宙真的是无穷无尽的吗?

    She broke two glasses? That was a bit careless of her.

    她打碎了两只玻璃杯?太不小心了。

    Don't be so heartless! 不要那么无情!

    A nameless author wrote that book.

    那本书是一位无名作者写的。

    We together spent a restless night.

    我们在一起度过了一个不眠之夜。

    It's useless to you, I think.

    我认为,那对你来说没有什么用处。

    Any word can't be meaningless.

    每个单词都会有一定的意思。

    It's a windless day today.

    今天是个风平浪静的日子。

    The material is almost weightiess.

    那种材料几乎没有什么重量。

I'd like to cheer up sick kids.我想让生病的孩子高兴起来。

  a.cheer up意为“(使)高兴起来”“使……提起精神”,可作及物动词或不及物动词。如:

    We have to work harder at cheering up the patients.

    我们要更努力些,使病人们振作起来。

    Our teacher cheers us up with a humor.

    我们老师讲了一则幽默逗我们开心。

    Do you know how to cheer up a child?

    你知道调动儿童情绪的方法吗?

    The old are not easily to be cheered up, but your sincerity.

    只有你的真情才能使得老人开心。

    He cheered up at once when I promised to help him.

    我一答应帮忙,他立即高兴起来。

    Cheer up! Things are not as bad as they seem.

    乐观一点儿!事情并不像看上去的那样糟。

    Cheer up, perhaps we'll win the next game.

    打起精神来,也许我们会赢下一场比赛。

  b.cheer用作动词,意思是“为……喝彩”“给……鼓劲儿”等。如:

    They cheered and cheered. The hall seemed boiling.

    他们欢呼雀跃,大厅里像开锅了似的。

    Many people cheered the red team.

    许多观众为红队加油。

    People everywhere in China cheered when they knew that the host of the 2008 Olympic Games was fixed to China.

    当得知2008年奥运会主办国被确定为中国的时候,全体中国人民都为之喝彩。

  c.cheer以复数名词的形式使用,用在亲朋好友、合作伙伴、君臣之间的礼仪场合,意思是“干杯”“喝彩”“万岁”等。如:

    Cheers! /To your health and happiness./A health!

    干杯!/为你的健康和幸福干杯。/为健康干杯!

    The children welcomed us with cheers.

    儿童们欢呼雀跃着来欢迎我们。

⑤a.sick是形容词,意思是“有病”,可用作定语或表语。需要注意的是,sick作表语时,在英国英语中是“恶心的”“要呕吐的”的意思,在美国英语中为“有病”的意思。sick和ill在作“有病”解时可互相替换。

    He has been sick/ill for three days.

    他生病已经三天了。

    I have sent the sick child into hospital.

    我已经把那个生病的小孩送进了医院。

    She felt sick when we travelled by air.

    当我们乘飞机旅游时,她感到晕机。(不用ill)

    She was sick a few times in the night.

    她夜里呕吐了几次。(不用ill)

  【注】sick可引申为“渴望”。如:

    She is sick for her childhood happy times.

    她很怀念孩提时那欢乐的时光。

  【注】be sick of=be tired of,意思是“对……感到腻烦”。如:

    Everyone will be sick of having the same food for several days.

    几天连续吃同样的食物,任何人都会腻烦。

    I know my husband is sick of my complaining.

    我知道丈夫对我的抱怨感到厌烦。

  b.ill在表示“病的”这一意思时通常只用作表语形容词,不用作定语,这一点与sick不同。ill有时也可以作定语,但其意思却发生了变化。ill作前置定语时,作“坏的”“不善的”解。如:

    We have got the ill news.

    我们已经得到了那则坏消息。

    She is a woman with an ill temper.

    她是个脾气很坏的女人。

    Hibernating animals can sleep all through the winter without eating any food with no ill effect.

    冬眠的动物能不吃东西度过整个冬天,而无不良后果。

You could give out food at a food bank. 你可以在食品储存库分发食品。

  a.give out在此处作“分发”“散发”解释。如:

    The teacher gave out the examination papers.

    老师分发了考卷。

    The flowers in the garden gave out sweet smells.

    花园里的花发出馥郁的芳香。

    Our chemistry teacher often came to check our studies and gave out new assignments.

    我们的化学老师常常来检查我们的学习情况,布置新的作业。

    The radio is giving out a strange signal.

    收音机在发出一种奇怪的信号。

  【注】give out 作“分发”解释时,其反义词组是give in,此时give in作“交上”“呈上”解释。如:

    Give your examination papers in when you have finished.

    你们把试卷做完后交上来。

    All the papers should be given in before 12:30.

    所有的考卷都要在12点半以前交上来。

  b.give out还有多种意思。give in也有其他用法,这时它们就不再是反义词组了,请注意它们的几种常见用法。如:

    The announcer gave out that the 3:30 train to Beijing would start from Platform 6.

    播音员说,3点30分开往北京的列车在6号站台开出。

    The date of the election will be given out soon.

    选举日期将很快公布。

    I plan to stay here until my money gives out.

    我计划在这里呆到钱用完为止。

    Tom's legs gave out and he couldn't nm any farther.

    汤姆感到两腿疲乏不堪,他再也跑不动了。

    Children who are always given in to by their parents soon become spoiled.

    父母若是老迁就孩子,孩子很快就被惯坏了。

    She decided to be brave and not to give in to her fears.

    她决心勇敢点儿,不向恐惧屈服。

  【注】give out意为发出某种光、热、烟、雾时与give off同义。如:

    Burning leaves give off/out thick smoke.

    燃着的树叶放出浓烟。

    The rose gives out/off a sweet smell.

    玫瑰花散发出芳香的气味。

We need to come up with a plan/some ideas.

  我们需要想出一个计划/一些主意。

  a.这里come up with相当于think up或think of,作“想出”“找到”解。come up with还可以作“赶上”“追上”解。come up with不能用于被动语态。如:

    The students have decided to come up with a peaceful solution.

    同学们决定提出和平解决的办法。

    She came up with a new idea for increasing sales.

    她想出增加销售量的新主意。

    The teacher asked a difficult question, but finally Tod came up with a good answer.

    老师问了一个难题,不过最后托德想出了好答案。

    For years Johns kept coming up with new and good ideas.

    多年来琼斯一直不断地想出新的好主意。

    She came up with a new suggestion to solve the problem as well.

    她也提出了一种解决问题的建议。

    We have to come up with practical measures to prevent the air pollution.

    我们必须找到防止空气污染的切实可行的办法。

    It's wonderful for you to come up with such a good idea.

    你能想出这么一个好主意,太棒了!

    He's come up with his classmates ahead of him, after months of patient diligence.

    经过几个月坚持不懈的努力,他赶上了前面的同学。

    The policeman handcuffed the robber, when he had come up with him.

    那个警察追上劫匪,给他戴上了手铐。

  b.请注意以下例句中come短语的意思:

    Your position has come up.

    你的职位提高了。

    Almost all of the seeds have come up after a few days of sowing.

    几乎所有的种子播下几天之后都发芽了。

    He came up to Beijing days ago; and he will work there for months as a visiting professor for half a month in Beijing University.

    他于几天前来到北京,将在北京大学作半个月的客座教授。

    I know why you came up to me so quickly.

    我知道你来这儿如此快的原因。

    I came upon a country-fellow in the street the day before last.

    前天,我在街上碰到了一位老乡。

No,we can't put off making a plan.

  不,我们不能推迟制定计划。

  a.put off的意思是“推迟”“延期”,通常指会议、活动等未能按照预定时间举行。如:

    The meeting is put off to next week.

    会议被推迟到下周举行。

    Don't put off what we should do today to tomorrow.

    今日事今日毕。

    You may put it off, if necessary.

    假如有必要,那么你们可以将其推迟。

    They put their party off to meet the guests.

    他们推迟了宴会,以便迎接客人。

  b.put off还可以解释为“使人打消念头”“使人丧失兴趣”。如:

    If you can't help him, you'd better put him off.

    如果你不能帮忙,最好让人家打消念头。

    What she said put me off suddenly.

    他的话使我的兴趣在突然之间就荡然无存了。

    We haven't been put off for the moment.

    我们暂时还有点儿兴趣。

    It's not the opportunity to put them off.

    此时不是让他们打消念头的时候。

Clean-up Day is only two weeks from now.

  清洁日离现在只有两的周时间了。

  这个句子还可以写为Clean-up Day is only two weeks away,或Clean-up Day is only in two weeks'time。因此,two weeks from now,two weeks away和in two weeks'time这三种表达方法都可以表示“从现在起两周以后”。再如:

  My sister's birthday is a week away/from now.

  =My sister's birthday is in a week's time.

  过一星期是我姐姐的生日。

  Summer vacation is a month away/from now.

  =Summer vacation is in a month's time.

  再过一个月就放暑假了。

⑩We're going to set up a food bank to help hungry people.我们准备建立一个食品储存库来帮助那些饥饿的人们。

  a.set up表示“建立”“组建”“成立”,相当于establish。set up一般指“建立”“组建”“成立”无形的东西,如组织、机构等。如:

    The students set up a self-learning group to help each other.

    学生们成立了自学小组,互相帮忙。

    What about setting up a food bank to help the homeless?

    设立一个食物储蓄所,帮助无家可归者怎么样?

    The new law has been set up.

    那部新法已经制定完毕。

    We are planning to set up a new company.

    我们正在筹划组建一个新公司。

  b.set up作为固定搭配,还可以指“竖立”“搭建”,=put up,通常针对规模较小的建筑物或某种设施。如:

    Shall we set up a tent here?

    我们在这儿支起一顶帐篷如何?

    Who set up the flag on the island?

    是谁在那个岛上竖起了旗帜?

    We set up an umbrella to cool ourselves.

    我们撑起一把雨伞纳凉。

    He set up a warning sign on the bank of the river.

    他在河边竖起了一个告示牌。

  c.set up还有“使恢复健康”“使体格强健”的意思。如:

    A few days’ rest will set you up.

    几天的休息将使你恢复健康。

   What a well set up young man! 多么健壮的小伙子!

  d.set up意为“(使)开始从事某种职业”。如:

    His parents set him up as a doctor.

    他的父母使他从事医生的职业。

    He set up for himself as a bookseller.他开始经营书。

  e.set作为使役动词时,意为“使处于某种状态”,其宾语补足语一般是形容词、分词或介词短语。如:

    His jokes set all of us laughing.

    他的笑话使我们大家都笑起来。

    She set the dishes on the table.她把菜放到桌上。

    They set all the war prisoners free.

    他们释放了所有的战俘。

Being a volunteer is great!

    Number 77 High School is home11 to three very special young people. Li Huiping, Lan Pei, and Zhu Ming. These three students all volunteer12 their time to help other people. This volunteer work takes each of them several hours a week, so it is a major commitment. Huiping loves to read, and she puts this love to good use13 by14 working in the after-school care center at her local elementary school. Here, she helps young children to read. Pei loves animals, and plans to study to be a veterinarian when he leaves school15. He spends16 every Saturday morning working in an animal hospital. Ming is a tenth grade student who wants to be a professional17 singer. He sings for groups of people at the city hospital to cheer them up. "Volunteering is great!" says Huiping. "Not only do I feel good about helping other people, but18 I get to spend time doing what I love to do." Pei says he has learned more about animals. Ming says he has met19 some wonderful people at the hospital. The three students plan to set up a student volunteer project at their school. "Don't put it off," says Huiping. "Become a volunteer today!"

做一名志愿者真开心!

    对于李惠萍、兰培和朱明三个特殊的年轻人来说77高中是他们的家。这三位学生都志愿利用课余时间帮助别人。志愿活动每星期占用他们几个小时时间,因此可以说从事志愿活动是他们所做出的一个重大贡献。惠萍热爱读书,她通过在当地一所小学的课后关怀中心工作使自己的爱好起到了良好的作用。在该中心,她帮助小孩子阅读。培喜爱动物,他打算毕业后做一名兽医。他每星期六上午都去一家动物医院帮忙。明是一位想当专业歌手的十年级学生。他到市医院去给病人唱歌,让他们高兴。“从事志愿活动很开心!”惠萍说:“我不但为能够帮助别人而快乐,而且还能利用这一机会做我所喜欢做的事情。”培说他学到了更多的关于动物的知识。明称他在医院里结识了一些很优秀的人。三位同学计划在学校创办学生志愿工程。“不要推迟,”惠萍说:“今天就成为志愿者吧!”

11a.此处home是名词,意为“家”,指某人或一家人居住的地方,可以是房屋,也可以是其他供居住的地方,有时候指家庭成员、出生地或故乡。home常带有感情色彩,有使人觉得亲切、温暖的意味。如:

    He left home at the age of 16 and began an independent life.

    他十六岁就离开家开始独立生活。(着重指家庭的亲人)

    She looks forward to seeing her old home.

    她盼望能看到自己的老家。(着重指她出生和居住过的地方,包括她住过的房子)

    They wanted to give the child a home.

    他们想给这个孩子一个家。

    More and more couples are setting up home together without getting married.

    越来越多的一对对不结婚就组成家庭。

    Our new house doesn't feel like a home yet.

    我们的新家感觉不像家。

    That was a handsome house. I lived in it for several months, but I never felt it my home.

    那是一栋漂亮的房子,我在里面住了几个月,可是从来没有感到那是自己的家。

  【注】home,family和house都可表示“家”的概念,但侧重点不同:home侧重于个人出生、被抚养长大的环境和居住的地点,不一定非含有建筑物的意思,特别强调家里的氛围和环境;family主要指家庭或家庭成员;而house则侧重于居住的建筑物本身,即“住宅”“房屋”,是用得最普遍的中性词。如:

    I come from a large family, I have three brothers and a sister.

    我来自一个大家庭,我有三个兄弟,一个妹妹。

    The old lady hasn't any family.那个老妇人没有任何家人。

    I leave the house at eight o'clock every, morning.

    我每天早晨八点钟离开家。(着重指住宅)

    She looks forward to seeing the old house she used to live in.

    她盼望能看到她曾经住过的那所老屋。

  b.home还可以作“祖国”“发源地”“疗养院”解。如:

    I have friends both at home and abroad.

    我在国内国外都有朋友。

    I consider Singapore my second home.

    我视新加坡为第二故乡。

    China is the home of dates, pottery and some others.

    中国是大枣、瓷器等的发源地。

    The red-roof houses belong to an old people's home.

    那座红顶房子属于一家养老院。

  c.home常被用作副词,意为“到家”“回家”“在家”。如:

    Is he home from work yet? 他下班回家了吗?

    I'm not going back home tonight.今晚我不回家。

    I really must be getting home in a moment.

    我真的得马上回家。

    I've stayed at home for the whole day.

    我已经在家呆了一整天了。

  【注】在be home,go home,come home,get home,arrive home,return home等短语中,home是副词,因此,在home前不能用物主代词来修饰,也不能使用介词。如上述c部分第二个例句不能说成:I'm not going back my home tonight. c部分第三个例句不能说成:I really must be getting to home.

  【注】当home前有修饰语(如名词所有格或物主代词)时,home为名词,此时go,return,get等动词后须加适当介词才能与之连用。如:

    She was very angry with her husband and went to her parents' home last night.

    昨晚她很生丈夫的气,回到了父母家。

    We could get to your home by five o'clock, if that would be convenient.

    如果方便的话,我们可以五点以前到你家。

  d.home还可用作形容词,意为“自家的”“家庭的”“本国的”“本地的”。如:

    Home life is a matter of all the members of it.

    家庭生活是关系到所有家庭成员的事情。

    This home cooking is even more delicious.

    这种家庭烹饪的菜肴更好吃。

    The team in blue suits is the home team.

    蓝队是主队。

    Because of this I prefer to buy home product.

    正因为如此,我更愿意买国内产品。

12a.volunteer既可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词,表示“自愿做某事”“自告奋勇”“自愿效劳”,后可接不定式或由介词for引起的短语。如:

    How many of them volunteered? 多少人主动参加?

    They all volunteered their help to those homeless people.

    他们都自告奋勇去帮助那些无家可归者。

    I volunteered my services as a teacher.

    我自告奋勇去当老师。

    Lots of people volunteered to give a helping hand.

    许多人自动来帮忙。

    Jenny volunteered to clear up after the party.

    珍尼自愿负责聚会后的清理打扫工作。

    He always volunteered for the most difficult work.

    他总是主动要求做最困难的工作。

  b.volunteer用作及物动词时意为“自动说出”“主动提供”。如:

    She volunteered the information before I had a chance to ask.

    我还没来得及发问,她就自动把情况说了。

    He volunteered a statement to the police.

    他自动向警方供出情况。

    "It's not my car; it's my father's," she volunteered.

    “这不是我的车,是我父亲的,”她主动提供情况说。

  c.volunteer也可用作名词,意为“志愿者”“志愿参加者”“愿作志愿人员者”。如:

    This work costs us nothing; it's all done by volunteers.

    这项工作我们没有花钱,是由志愿人员完成的。

    Can I have a volunteer to collect the glasses?

    谁自愿帮助收拾一下这些杯子。

    I need some volunteers to clean up the kitchen.

    我需要几名志愿者来收拾一下厨房。

13a.put sth. to good use是个固定短语,意为“发挥作用”。如:

    He'll be able to put his experience to good use in the new job.

    他能在新的工作中把他的经验派上用场了。

    Surely I can put my knowledge to good use in this field.

    我深信能在这个领域里使我的知识发挥作用。

  b.make use of动词短语的意思是“利用”,在实际使用中,make use of相当于一个独立的及物动词。在名词use之前,可以加上形容词表示不同程度的利用。如:

    We must make good use of our limited time and money.

    我们必须好好利用我们有限的时间和金钱。

    If we had made better use of the time, we would have finished the task sooner.

    如果我们当时能更好地利用时间的话,我们会更快地完成任务的。

    Human beings, especially the Chinese, should make full use of their natural resources.

    人类,尤其是中国人,应该充分利用其自然资源。

    You can make any use of it.

    你可以任意利用它。

    They began to consider what use could be made of such a material.

    他们开始考虑如何利用这一种材料。

    Every possible use should be made of advanced technology.

    要尽量使用先进技术。

  c.use作为名词,还可以组成其他词组。如:

    be in use

在使用中

    be of great use

很有用

    go out of use

废弃;不用

    come into use

开始被使用

    bring...to use

加以利用

    for the use of...

供……使用

14by doing是个介词短语,其基本意思有“通过”“靠”“借助于”“用”等。如:

  One may make progress in his English studying by listening and speaking more.

  多听多讲英语可以使你的成绩得到提高。

  You may go home by taking a taxi if necessary.

  如有必要,你可以搭出租车回家。

  They celebrated the festival by holding a party.

  他们是以举行宴会的方式欢度该节日的。

  Cakes normally are made by mixing eggs, flour, sugar and other food materials, and then they are baked in a stove.

  糕点通常是通过先把鸡蛋、面粉、白糖和其他的食品原料掺合,然后在烤箱中烘烤的方式制做的。

  He disguised himself by wearing a wig and beard.

  他利用戴假发、粘胡须的办法进行了自我伪装。

  The teacher permitted his students to ask him questions by putting up the left hand first.

  那位老师允许学生们先举左手(示意)再提问题。

15leave school是对于主语是学生身份的人来说的,因此名词school强调的是性质或作用,而不是场所,所以前面不带定冠词。leave school有三个含意,第一个意思如同原文一样,作“(毕业)离校”解;第二个意思是作具体某一次“离校”解;第三个意思是“退学”。在不同的语境中应作不同的理解。如:

  We left school very late yesterday.

  昨天我们很晚才离校。

  My brother left school at the age of eighteen.

  我哥哥十八岁毕业离校的。

  My sister left school before she finished school.

  我姐姐还没毕业就离校了。

16a.原句working前省略了介词in,构成spend time(in) doing sth.句型。spend和take在表示“花费(时间)”时,所用的句型有所不同。spend常用于spend time (in) doing sth. 和spend time on sth.两种句型上,主语是人。注意介词in后面接动词-ing形式,on后面接名词。take常用于It takes/took(sb.)some time to do sth.这一句型,其中It为形式主语,不定式是真正的主语。有时可用人或事物作主语。如:

    He often spends his spare time helping his parents on the farm.

    他经常利用业余时间在农场上帮他父母。

    I spent two and a half months building the house.

    我花了两个半月时间建造这座房子。

    You have to spend much more time on spoken English.

    你们得在口语上花更多时间。

    It will take you a long time to build a house.

    建造一座房子将花你很长时间。

    It took him one month and a half to write the book.

    写那本书花了他一个半月的时间。

    It took them over two years to build the bridge.

    = The bridge took them over two years.

    修建那座大桥花了他们二年多时间。

    The journey from London to Oxford takes about an hour and a half.

    从伦敦到牛津大约需要一个半小时。

  b.spend money on...和pay money for都可用来表示花钱买东西。如果说“那本词典花了我20元钱”,英语可以有以下几种表达法。

    The dictionary cost me twenty yuan.

    = I spent twenty yuan on the dictionary.

    = I paid twenty yuan for the dictionary.

    = I bought the dictionary for twenty yuan.

    = I bought the dictionary at the price of twenty yuan.

  c.cost表示“花费(多少钱)”“需(多少钱)”,主语一般是表示所买东西的名词。cost是不规则动词,过去式和过去分词均为cost。如:

    The watch cost me two hundred yuan.

    那块表花了我200元钱。

    How much did the dictionary cost you?

    你买那本词典花了多少钱?

    The journey will cost too much.旅行的消费将过大。

  【注】cost的主语不同于spend,pay和buy的主语。

17形容词professional的意思是“职业的”“专业的”“内行的”。professional只用作定语,不能单独使用。如:

  He is a professional singer.

  他是一个专业歌唱演员。

  A professional author should pay more attention to ordinary life.

  专业作家更应该注意普通人的生活。

  My brother is a professional drawer.

  我弟弟是一个职业画家。

  Learning from him, you can get professional skill.

  跟着他,你能学到专业技术。

  China needs more and more professional people.

  中国需要越来越多的专业人员。

  That is a professional football team.

  那是一支专业足球队。

  Li Tie belongs to a professional football team.

  李铁属于职业足球运动员。

18a.这一句子使用了not only...but(also)句型,连接了前后两个分句,意思是“不但……而且……”,为了加强语气,作者将not only放在了前一分句的主语之前,由于not是否定词,位于句首时,主谓应用倒装形式。又由于feel为实义动词,故用助动词do在主语前。当然,如不用倒装句型,也可说成I not only feel good...,只不过句意就没有那么生动有力了。再如:

    Not only was everything that he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship.

    不仅他所有的一切都被没收或撤消了,而且连他的德国国籍也被剥夺了。

    Not only has he a first-class brain but he is also a tremendously hard worker.

    他不仅有一个头等聪明的脑子,而且是一个极为刻苦努力的工作者。

    Not only does he like English but also maths.

    他不但喜欢英语而且喜欢数学。

  【注】由not only...but also连接两个并列的主语位于句首时,不用倒装语序,其谓语动词在人称和数上与but also后的主语保持一致。如:

    Not only you but also he is wrong.不但你,而且他也错了。

    Not only he but also his students are interested in the subject. 

    不但他,而且他的学生对这个学科也很感兴趣。

  b.not only...but also是并列关联连词,意为“不但……而且……”,主要用来连接两个并列成分(主语、谓语、表语、宾语或状语),也可连接两个分句,所强调的重点是后面的一个。有时not only...but also中的also可以省略。如:

    Not only the students but also the teachers went to see the film.

    不但学生,而且老师也去看电影了。

    She not only sings well but also dances beautifully.

    她不但歌唱得好,而且舞也跳得好。

    He was not only a successful writer but also the greatest poet of his time.

    他不但是一位成功的作家,而且是他那个时代最伟大的诗人。

    When we talk about the universe, we mean not only the earth, the sun, the moon and the stars, but also all the things too far away to see.

    当我们谈到宇宙时,我们的意思不仅是说地球、太阳、月亮和星星,而且还有那些离我们远得看不见的所有的东西。

    The Great Wall was made not only of stone and earth but of the flesh and blood of millions of men.

    长城不仅是用石头和泥土筑成的,而且是用数以百万计的人的血肉筑成的。

    He is famous not only in China but in the whole world.

    他不但誉满中国,而且誉满全世界。

  【注】not only...but(also)...的位置应分别放在所连接的两个同等成分的词之前。如:

    She can speak not only English but also French.

    她不但会说英语,而且会说法语。

    He not only speaks English fluently but also writes English well.

    他不但英语说得很流利,而且写得很好。

  【注】not only...but(also)和as well as二者均有“不仅……而且……”之意。但是,not only...but (also)强调后项;as well as强调前项。两者可融合为not only...but(also)...as well,这时更强调了后一项。

    He cares not only for music but also for sports.

    = He cares for sports as well as music.

    他不仅喜欢音乐,而且喜欢运动。

    He is interested not only in English but in physics as well.

    = He is interested in physics as well as in English.

    他不仅对英语,而且对物理也感兴趣。

  【注】not...but...意为“不是……而是……”。如:

    Shakespeare was not a musician but a writer.

    莎士比亚不是音乐家,而是作家。

    The person I referred to is not you but Tom.

    我指的那个人不是你,而是汤姆。

19a.meet可用来表示初次“相识”“结识”,用作及物或不及物动词,=get to know or be introduced for the first time。如:

    People also travel to meet new friends.

    人们旅行也是为了想结识一些新的朋友。

    Tom and Jack met for the first time at the beginning of term.

    汤姆和杰克在开学初首次相识。

    I don't think you have met before, have you?

    我想你们以前没见过面,是吗?

    I'd like you to come and meet my family, Mary.

    玛丽,我想要你来见见我的家人。

    Nice/Great/Pleased to meet you.

    =It's nice (或 great)/I'm pleased to meet you.认识你很高兴。

  【注】以上例句中的meet强调初次相识,不宜用see代替。当两人首次结识,或经第三者介绍认识时,常说Nice/Great/Pleased to meet you,对方的回答往往也是Nice/Great/Pleased to meet you,(too)。这是一种较正式的客套语。熟人或朋友之间相见,常说Glad to see you,对方也往往重复说Glad to see you, too。句中的形容词nice,great,pleased,glad等一般可相互替换,都表示“高兴”的意思。

  b.动词meet还有另一些基本用法。如:

    I often meet her in/on the street.

    我经常在街上遇见她。(作“遇见”讲,= see her by chance, come face to face with her)

    I must go and meet my aunt at the station.

    我得到车站去接我姑妈。(作“迎接”解,=go and wait for one's coming.注:see sb. off是“送某人走”的意思。)

    Shall we meet at six at the school gate?

    我们六点在校门口集合,怎样?(作“集合”解,=come together或gather)

  c.动词meet的几种引申用法:

    We should do our best to meet their needs/wishes/demands/requirements.

    我们应该尽量满足他们的需要/希望/要求/条件。(作“满足”解,=satisfy)

    They have to work hard for more money, trying to make both ends meet.

    为了使收支平衡,他们只能拼命地干活以多挣钱。

  【注】make both ends meet=use one's small amount of money carefully to meet what one needs,意思是:节省使用微薄的收入,以应付日常开支。

  d.meet with强调“偶然遇见”,meet也可表示此意,只是语气没有那么强烈。如:

    I met (with) one of my old school friends on the train yesterday.

    昨天我在火车上偶然遇见了我的一位老同学。

    (meet with强调“偶遇”。)

    We met with some difficulties when I tried to finish the work.

    在我想要结束这项任务时,遇到了些麻烦。

    He met with a bad accident on the way there.

    在去那儿的途中他遭遇了一次严重车祸。

  【注】meet with也可用来表示正式“会见”。如:

    Premier Weng met with several heads of other states this afternoon.

    温总理今天下午会见了一些其他国家的领导人。

  e.meet作为名词,常用来表示“运动会”,在英国用meeting。如:

    Our school held a sports meet (或 meeting) last week.

    上周我们学校举行了一次运动会。(a sports meet=a track and field meet)

20Well, you could help coach a football team for little kids.嗯,你可以帮助指导少儿足球队。

  a.coach作动词使用时,意思是“辅导”“指导”“训练”。如:

    I asked Mr Cheng to coach my son.

    我请程老师辅导我儿子。

    The team has made much progress since Lucy coached it.

    自从露西接手训练以来,那支队伍进步非常大。

    Is he able to coach the football team?

    他能够担当起指导这支足球队的任务吗?

    Can you coach me with my Shaolin boxing?

    你能够辅导我学习少林拳吗?

  b.coach作名词使用时,意思是“指导员”“教练”“家庭教师”。如:

    He has been made coach of our school basketball team.

    他被任命为我们学校篮球队的教练了。

    Madame Lang Ping used to be the head coach of China Women's Volleyball Team.

    郎平女士曾经是中国女子排球队的主教练。

    Would you like to be my kid's coach?

    你想做我小孩的家教吗?

    You should respect your coach.

    你们应该尊重教练。

 

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