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完成翻译诺埃尔·卡罗尔《艺术哲学:当代分析美学介》

(2010-01-18 03:39:00)
标签:

分析美学

卡罗尔

艺术哲学

杂谈

分类: 艺术哲学

完成翻译诺埃尔·卡罗尔《艺术哲学:当代分析美学介》

 

 

Introduction

导言

 

 

 

The analytic philosophy of art

 

分析的艺术哲学

Analytic philosophy analyses the concepts that are fundamental to our practices. Art is a recurring form of human practice. Some have argued that all human societies show evidence of artistic activities. The purpose of the analytic philosophy of art is to explore the concepts that make creating and thinking about art possible. Some of these concepts include: the very concept of art itself, as well as the concepts of representation, expression_r, artistic form, and aesthetics. These concepts will be discussed at some length in this book.

    分析哲学分析对我们的各种实践具有基础意义的那些概念。艺术是反复发生的人类实践的形式。有人论证说,全部的人类社会都显示出了艺术活动的证据。关于艺术的分析哲学的目的,就是探索使创造艺术和思考艺术成为可能的那些概念。这样的概念,有一些包括:艺术本身的概念,以及关于再现、表现、艺术形式和审美的概念。这些概念将在本书中以一定的篇幅得到讨论。

 

But there are also further concepts that the philosopher might look at, such as interpretation, forgery, creativity, and artistic value, among others. A philosopher of art might concentrate on specific artforms - asking "What is literature (dance, music, film, drama, and so forth)?" Or, she might explore the concepts of certain artistic genres, such as fiction, comedy, tragedy, poetry, and the like. All these and more are the concepts that the analytic philosophy of art takes as its subject matter.

    但是,还有另外一些概念,也是哲学家可能注意的,诸如解释、赝品、创造性、艺术价值,还有其他的。艺术哲学家或许关注具体的艺术形式,会问“什么是文学(舞蹈、音乐、电影、戏剧,等等)?”或者,她也可能探索关于某些艺术体裁的概念,如小说、喜剧、悲剧、诗,如此等等。全部这些以及更多的概念,都是关于艺术的分析哲学家视为研究课题的那些概念。

 

As with the philosophy of law, so with the philosophy of art, coming to understand these concepts is an important contribution to the life of the practices in which they figure, often constitutively. We have suggested how central the concept of the law is to the practice of jurisprudence. Similarly, the concept of art is fundamental to our artistic practices.

    说到法律哲学,艺术哲学也是一样,着手理解这些概念,是对这些概念在其中扮演角色(常常是本质而必要的角色)的那些实践生活的一个重要的贡献。我们已经表明,关于法律的这个概念在法学实践中有多么重要。与此相似,关于艺术的这个概念,在我们的艺术实践中也是重要的。

 

Without some sense of how to classify certain objects and performances as artworks, the Museum of Modern Art wouldn't know what to collect, the National Endowment for the Arts wouldn't know to whom to give money, nor would the United States government know which institutions deserve tax relief for the preservation of our artistic past. Nor even, without some command of the concept of art, would economists know how to evaluate empirical claims like "Art is a significant component of the financial well-being of New York City. '

    关于如何把某些物件或者操作分类为艺术品,如果对此没有一些理由的话,“现代艺术博物馆”就不会知道去收藏什么,“国家艺术赞助委员会”就不知道把钱给谁,美国政府也不会知道哪些机构由于保存我们的艺术历史而配受免税的优待。如果对艺术的概念没有一些理解,甚至经济学家也不知道如何评估如下这种经验性的断言:“艺术是纽约市财政事业的一个重要部分。”

But far more important than the preceding "official" uses of the concept of art is the role the concept plays in our personal, ongoing commerce with artworks, since how we respond to an object - interpretively, appreciatively, emotively, and evaluatively - depends decisively upon whether or not we categorize it as an artwork. Suppose we come across a living, breathing couple seated at opposite sides of a wooden table, staring intently at each other. Ordinarily we might pay no attention to them at all, or avert our glance out of a sense of politeness. But if we categorize the situation as an artwork - as the performance piece Night Crossing by Marina Abramovic and Ulay - our response will be altogether different.

    但是,比此前对艺术概念的那些“官方”用法更重要得多的,是这个概念在我们个人与艺术品不断打交道过程中的作用,因为我们如何对一个物件起反应(解释、欣赏、动感情、评价)决定性地依赖于我们是否把这个物件在范畴上算作一个艺术品。设想我们遇到了一对活生生、会喘气的夫妻,隔着一张桌子相对而坐,盯着对方,全神贯注。一般而言,我们或许完全不会注意他们,或者出于礼貌,我们也会把目光转向别处。但是,如果我们把这个情况归在艺术品的范畴里,我们的反应将全然不同。

 

We will shamelessly scrutinize the scene carefully, attempt to interpret it, perhaps in terms of what it says about human life and relationships. We will try to situate it in the history of art, comparing it to other artworks in various genres. We will contemplate what it expresses and what feelings it arouses in us, and we may evaluate it - possibly commending it for drawing our attention to neglected realms of experience, or for moving us, or for making its point with a startling economy of means. Or maybe we will criticize it for being boring or hackneyed. But in any event, it is clear that once we categorize the situation as an artwork, our response to it will differ radically from the way in which we regard comparable seated couples in "real" life.

    我们会毫无歉意地仔细审视这一景,试图去解释之,或许从它关于人类生活和关系所说的东西这一角度来解释之。我们会试图把它安置在艺术史中,拿它与各种流派的其他艺术品做比较。我们会沉思它表达的是什么,它在我们心里激起的是什么感情,而且我们或许也评价它——或许表扬它,因为它让我们注意到存在的那些遭到忽视的领域,或者是因为它感动了我们,或者是因为它以令人惊讶的简省手段表达了自己的意思。我们或许会批评它,因为它乏味,或者因为它陈腐。但是,无论怎么说,清楚的是,一旦我们把这个情景归到艺术品的范畴里,我们对它的反应方式将大大不同于我们对“真实”生活中的一对与之类似的夫妻的那种反应方式。

 

Or consider surgical procedures. In the everyday course of life, we do not think of them as alternatives to a night at the opera. But when such procedures are incorporated in a performance piece such as the work Image/New Image(s) or the Re-incarnation of Saint-Orlan and we categorize Orlan's plastic surgery as a work of art, we see it in a different light. We note the interesting color arrangement of the surgeons' uniforms and we ask about the meaning of Orlan's self-elected decision to go under the knife - what does it say about society, about women, about personal identity, about art history and the ideals of female beauty found there ? That is, we react to the event completely differently from how we would, had we happened upon an ordinary gall-bladder operation. The attempt to interpret the meaning of your typical gall-bladder operation is out of place, but the attempt to interpret an artwork is usually appropriate. Yet interpretation here hinges on whether or not we classify the item in question as an artwork - on whether we correctly apply the concept of art to it.

    或者考虑一下外科手术。在日常生活中,我们不认为外科手术和去听歌剧一样,可以作为夜生活的一种可选择的消遣方式。但是,当外科手术过程被整合进了一场像《圣奥兰的再生》那样的表演中的时候,我们就会把外科手术归到艺术品的范畴里,我们就以不同的眼光来看它。我们注意到外科医生的工作服的颜色搭配很有趣,我们问圣奥兰自愿决定把自己置于刀俎之下,是何意思?关于社会、关于女人、关于个人身份、关于艺术史、关于在这个手术里发现的女性美的理想,它说了什么?就是说,我们对这个事件的反应方式,完全不同于我们对我们碰巧遇到的一次胆结石手术的反应方式。试图解释你做的那次一般的胆结石手术的意思,是无的放矢;但是,试图解释一个艺术品,通常是合适的。然而,在这里,解释取决于我们是否把所讨论的一个事情划在艺术品的类别里——取决于我们是否正确地把艺术这个概念用在这个东西身上。

 

Thus, clarifying our concept of art is not merely a matter of dry, academic book-keeping. It lies at the living heart of our artistic practices, since categorizing candidates as artworks puts us in a position to mobilize a set of art responses that are the very stuff of our activities as viewers, listeners and readers. In order to play the game, we need a handle on the concept of art. And it is the task of the analytic philosophy of art to make sure that that handle is a sturdy one by reflecting upon the concept of art and articulating its elements in as precise a manner as possible.

    因此,理清我们关于艺术的概念,不仅仅是一桩干巴巴的掉书袋的事情。这种理清,坐落在我们的艺术实践的活生生的心脏里,因为把一些候选者划在艺术品的范畴里,这把我们置于某种立场上;在这个位置上,我们要动员一套艺术反应方式,而这就是我们身为受众的活动的所作所为了。为了玩这个游戏,我们需要把握艺术这个概念。通过反思艺术这个概念,通过以尽可能准确的方式阐明艺术概念的因素,以此把这种把握搞得稳当可靠,这正就是研究艺术的分析哲学家的任务。

 

As already indicated, the concept of art is not the only one that preoccupies analytic philosophers of art, though for the reasons just stated, it is a central one. Representation, expression_r, artistic form, aesthetic experience and aesthetic properties are also of great interest. Consequently, much of the remainder of this book will be spent analysing these six concepts. Other concepts might have been chosen for analysis; however, for a text of this length, these should supply the inquiring student with a serviceable introduction to the field.

    如已经表明的那样,艺术这个概念并非研究艺术的分析哲学家唯一的心事,尽管出于刚才说过的理由,那是重要的心事。再现、表现、艺术形式、审美经验和审美属性也是很令人感兴趣的。因此,本书此后的许多篇幅也将花费在对这五个概念的分析上。另外一些概念或许也已经选来分析了;然而,由于本书篇幅有限,这里的这些分析应该为求知心切的学生提供一块对这个领域有用的敲门砖。

 

Analysing concepts

分析概念

The phrase "analysing concepts" has been bandied about extensively in this introduction. But what does it involve? How do you go about analyzing concepts ? Since so much time will be spent in what follows analysing concepts, some opening comments may be helpful here.

    “分析概念”这个短语,在前言中一直被颠三倒四地使用。但是,它涉及什么事情?你如何着手去分析概念?因为许多时间将被用于此后对概念的分析上,那么说些入门的话,在这里或许是有帮助的。

 

Like most issues in philosophy, there is substantial debate about what concepts are and how to analyse them. However, there is one very standard approach (though as we shall see in Chapter 5, it has not enlisted universal assent). We can call this standard approach the method of necessary and sufficient conditions. It proceeds by breaking concepts down into their necessary and sufficient conditions for application. Although this method is controversial, we shall presume its practicability for most of this text, if only because it is a powerful tool for organizing and guiding research, even if ultimately it rests on certain questionable assumptions.

    正如哲学中的大多数问题一样,关于什么是概念,关于如何分析概念,存在激烈的争论。然而,有一种非常标准的路数(尽管我们在第五章里会看到,它不曾得到普遍的赞同)。我们将把真正标准的路数叫做“必要条件与充分条件方法”。这个方法的开展,是借助于把概念拆分成恰当使用这个概念的必要条件和充分条件。尽管这个方法是有争议的,我们将假定它对本书的大部分篇幅具有实用性,这仅仅是因为它是一件威力强大的工具,可以用来组织和指导研究,即便到头来它是坐落在一些成问题的假设上。

 

The standard approach takes concepts to be categories. Applying a certain concept to an object is a matter of classifying it as a member of the relevant category. Calling an object an artwork involves determining that it meets the criteria or conditions required for membership in the category. Analysing a concept is a matter of breaking it down into its component parts, where the component parts are its conditions for application.

    这个标准方法把概念视为范畴。把某个概念用于一个物件,是一桩为它分类的事,是把它划为相关范畴的一个成员。把一个物件叫做艺术品,涉及到判断它满足那个范畴的成员资格的标准或者条件。分析概念是一桩把这个概念打碎为它的组成部分的事情,那些组成部分是使用这个概念的一些条件。

 

Think of the concept bachelor. What is a bachelor? A bachelor is an unmarried man. We can break down or analyse the concept of bachelor into two component parts - manhood and unmarriedness. In order to be counted as a member of the category bachelor - in order to apply correctly the concept of bachelor to a candidate - the candidate must meet two conditions: he must be a man and he must be unmarried. Individually, each of these conditions is necessary for anything to count as a bachelor, and together (conjointly) they are sufficient (just enough) to categorize a candidate as a bachelor. Analysing the concept of bachelor - which might also be called "defining 'bachelor'// - is a matter of articulating the necessary and sufficient conditions for applying the concept bachelor to, for instance, the boy next door.

    想一下单身汉这个概念。什么是单身汉?单身汉是一个未婚男人。我们可以把这个概念打碎为或者分析为两个构成部分——男人身份,和未结婚状态。为了算作单身汉这个范畴中的一员——为了把单身汉这个概念准确地用于一个候选者——这个候选者必须满足两个条件:他必须是一个男人,以及他必须未婚。分别开来看,这两个条件,对任何事物被算作单身汉而言,都是必要的;这两个条件放在一起(结合起来),它们就充分地(足以)把一个候选者划在单身汉这个范畴中。对单身汉这个概念的分析——或许也可以称作“对‘单身汉’的定义”——是一桩为了把单身汉这个概念用于(比方说)隔壁邻居家的那个小伙子而清晰地陈述必要条件和充分条件的事情。

 

This method of analysing concepts should seem fairly commonsensical. When you want to know what something, like a bachelor, is, you want to know (1) the feature or features of the kind in question that every proper member of the category possesses; and (2) you want to know what feature or features differentiate members of the relevant kind or category from members of other kinds. For example, if you want to know what a bachelor is - how to apply the concept bachelor - then you want to know what all bachelors have in common and also what sets bachelors apart from other kinds of things, such as husbands and spinsters.

分析概念的这个方法,看来似乎是相当合乎情理的。在你想知道某事物(如一个单身汉)是什么的时候,你是想知道(1)那个范畴的每一恰当成员所属的那个类所拥有的特点;你还想知道(2)什么特点把相关的类或者范畴的成员从其他类的成员中甄别出来。比方说,如果你想知道单身汉是什么——想知道如何使用单身汉这个概念——那么你就是想知道全体单身汉共同拥有的属性是什么,也想知道是什么把单身汉从其他种类的东西(如丈夫或者老处女)那里甄别了出来。

 

That is, you want to know what feature or features are necessarily possessed by all the proper members of the category, such that absence of the feature in question precludes membership in the category (were the boy next door married, he would not be a bachelor). And you want to know what feature or features are sufficient to differentiate members of the relevant category from members of other categories (were the boy next door an unmarried male, he could not be a husband or a spinster). Unmarriedness and maleness are each individually necessary conditions for bachelorhood; together, these criteria represent a sufficient condition for bachelorhood.

    就是说,你想知道什么特点是那个范畴的全体成员都必定拥有的;相关的特点付诸阙如,就排除了这个范畴中的成员资格(如果隔壁邻居家的那个小伙子结婚了,那么他将不是一个单身汉)。你想知道是什么特点足以把相关范畴的成员从其他范畴的成员中甄别出来(如果隔壁邻居家的小伙子是一个未婚男性,他就不可能是一个丈夫或者老处女)。未婚状态和男人身份,各自是单身汉身份的必要条件;放在一起,这两个条件就是单身汉身份的充分条件。

 

There is a very useful way of setting out these ideas. Since we will employ it throughout the text, it will be beneficial to introduce it here. "x is a necessary condition for y" means that something can be a y only if it is an x. Someone can be a princess only if she is a woman. Being a woman is not a sufficient condition for being a princess. But it is necessary; it is a necessary requirement for being a princess that one be a woman. Someone may be a woman and not a princess, but one cannot be a princess and not a woman. Womanhood is a necessary condition for princesshood, or, to state it formulaically: y is a princess only if y is a woman. Here the truth of "y is a woman" is a necessary condition - an unvarying requirement - for the truth of "y is a princess."

    有一个很有效的方式来展示才说的这些意思。因为我们在整本书中都用到这个方式,那么在这里介绍一下,是有好处的。“X是Y的一个必要条件”,意思是某事物能够是一个Y,仅当(或者说“只有”)它是一个X。某人能够是一个公主,仅当她是一个女人。身为女人,不是身为公主的一个充分条件。但是,它是必要的;一个人是一个女人,是她身为公主的一个必要条件。某人或许是一个女人,却不是公主;但是,一个人不是一个女人,不可能是公主。女人身份是公主身份的一个必要条件;或者说,用公式来说:Y是一个公主,仅当Y是一个女人。在这里,“Y是一个女人”这个实情是“Y是一个公主”这个实情的一个必要条件——一个雷打不动的要求。

 

We cannot, however, say that if y is a woman, then she is a princess. Most women are not princesses. Womanhood is not a sufficient condition for princesshood; it is not enough to establish princesshood. Something else needs to be added. A likely candidate is that y be of royal lineage, where that is to be determined by the laws of the lands in question. Then we could say that if y is a woman and of the right royal lineage, then y is a princess. That is, the antecedent clause of the proposition - "y is a woman and of the right royal lineage" - guarantees the truth of the consequent clause of the proposition "y is a princess."

    然而,我们不能说如果Y是一个女人,那么她就是一个公主。大多数女人都不是公主。女人身份不是公主身份的一个充分条件;它不足以建立公主身份。某种别的东西需要添加上来。可能添加的条件是:Y应该有皇家血统,而皇家血统是由有关国家的法律决定的。于是,我们可以说:如果Y是一个女人,而且有合法的皇家血统,那么Y就是一个公主。就是说,这个命题的前一个从句(“如果Y是一个女人,而且有合法的皇家血统”)保证这个命题的后一个从句(“Y就是一个公主”)的真实性。

 

In the preceding example, womanhood and the right royal lineage are each individually necessary conditions for princesshood and conjointly they comprise a sufficient condition for princesshood. To summarize this information formulaically, we can say: y is a princess if and only if (1) y is a woman and (2) y is of the right royal lineage.

    在这个例子中,女人身份和合法的皇家血统,各自是公主身份的必要条件,合起来就构成公主身份的充分条件。用公式的方式总结这条信息,我们可以说:Y是一个公主,当且仅当(1)是一个女人,以及(2)Y有合法的皇家血统。

 

The locution "if and only if" signals that this analysis is proposing necessary conditions (the "only if" conditions) and sufficient conditions (the "if" conditions) for princesshood. Similarly, y is a bachelor if and only if (1) y is a male and (2) y is unmarried. Here conditions (1) and (2) are each on their own necessary conditions for bachelorhood and together they are jointly sufficient for bachelorhood.

    “当且仅当”这个惯用语表示这个分析,是为公主身份建议的必要条件(“仅当”或“只有”条件)和充分条件(“当”或“只要”条件)。与此相似,Y是一个单身汉,当且仅当(1)Y是一个男人,并且(2)Y未婚。在这里,条件(1)和(2)各自是单身汉身份的必要条件,合起来构成单身汉身份的充分条件。

 

This kind of analysis is often called a real or an essential definition. That it is a definition of the relevant concept should be evident. It is an essential definition because it attempts to get at the essential features of the concept - its necessary and sufficient conditions of application. It is said to be a real definition of the concept because unlike so many dictionary definitions it does not simply track how people commonly use the concept, but allegedly discovers the real conditions of application of the concept.

    这种分析常常被称作“真实定义”或者“本质定义”。就是说,对有关概念的那个定义应该是明显的。它是一个本质定义,因为它试图抓住这个概念的本质特点——即使用这个概念的必要条件和充分条件。说它是对这个概念的真实定义,是因为它和词典上的许多定义不同,它不是简单地追索大家通常是怎么用那个概念的,而是据说要发现使用这个概念的真实条件。

 

You will encounter many definitions of this sort in this book - set out in terms of the schema "x if and only if y." Some of these will include analyses of pictorial representation and artistic form. There will also be a large number of proposed analyses of the concept of an artwork, articulated in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. Sometimes the text will refer to these as theories of art, sometimes as essential or real definitions. The variations in terminology should not throw you. In each case, we are talking about attempted analyses of the concept of art.

    在该书中,你会遇到许多这类定义——都是按照“X当且仅当Y”这个模式建立起来的。其中的一些定义,包括对图画再现和艺术形式的分析。也有理论家提出的许多关于艺术品这个概念的分析,是以必要条件和充分条件这种方式得到陈述的。有时候,该书把这些分析称作艺术理论,有时称作本质定义或者真实定义。术语上的这些变种不该让你犯晕。在每个个案中,我们谈的都是关于艺术这个概念所尝试的分析。

 

This brief review of the method of necessary and sufficient conditions or, less cumbersomely, the essential definition approach to analysing concepts, is intended to give you some idea of what is meant by the phrase "analysing concepts." After all, we've been using and will use that notion a lot, and you have a right to some concrete sense of what that abstraction might involve. However, it was also noted that this approach to the way in which we go about applying concepts is controversial and that alternative views will be explored in the last chapter of this book.

    对“必要条件和充分条件方法”的这个简短的议论,用不这么拖泥带水的说法来说,就是关于概念分析的“本质定义法”。关于“概念分析”这个短语是什么意思,这个方法意在为你提供一些了解。我们毕竟已经用了这个方法,而且将要反来复去地用,你就有机会对这种抽象的操作可能会涉及什么事情得到一些具体的理解。然而,也有必要指出,我们着手使用概念的这个路数,是有争议的,与之不同的看法将在本书最后一章得到探索。

 

Yet until the last chapter, we will be employing this approach to analysing concepts pretty much without worrying about its adequacy. This might strike you as strange and even irresponsible, if the approach is really disputed. But let me make two remarks on behalf of this procedure.

    在看到最后一章之前,我们将大大地使用这个方法来分析概念,却不担心这个方法是不是合适。如果这个方法真的是有争议的,这或许就让你产生怪异之感,你甚至会觉得这不负责任。但是,让我站在这种方法的立场上,发表几句评论。

 

One objection to the essential definition approach is that many of our concepts are applied without resort to necessary and sufficient conditions. Arguably, many of our concepts do not have necessary and/or suffficient conditions of application. There is no reason to presume that the concepts that we explore by means of this method will turn out to be analysable in terms of necessary and/or sufficient conditions. That is a fair observation. However, since we won't know whether a given concept is congenial to this mode of analysis until we've tried it, we have no grounds for dismissing this approach from the get-go.

    对本质定义法的一种反驳,是说我们的概念中有许多,在用起来的时候,并不诉诸必要条件和充分条件。很可以说,我们的许多概念,在得到使用的时候,是没有必要条件和/或充分条件的。没有什么理由假定我们用这种方法来探索的那些概念,从必要条件和/或充分条件的角度来说,到头来果真是能够得到分析的。这是一个中肯的意见。然而,因为直到我们在尝试了之后,我们才知道某个概念是否投合这种分析方法,那么我们就没有理由在一开始就把这种方法打发掉。

 

Second, even if the method of definition does not turn out to be the best way of understanding how we go about applying concepts, the method still has immense heuristic value. By "heuristic value," we mean that the method of definition, even when it fails, can assist us in making discoveries. The method alerts us systematically to the richness and complexity of the phenomenon that confronts us.

    其次,即便这个定义法到头来果真不是理解我们使用概念的方式的最佳路数,这个方法仍然有启发人心的重大价值。说“启发人心的价值”,我们的意思是:这个定义法,即便在它一败涂地的时候,也能够帮助我们有所发现。这个方法使我们系统性地幡然明白:我们面对的现象太丰富、太复杂。

 

For example, when a philosopher of art, like Aristotle, proposes that representation is a necessary condition of art, we consider that conjecture by asking whether indeed everything we categorize as art is representational. If we think of color field painting, we will reject this conjecture as too exclusive. But we will learn something by refuting this conjecture. We will not only learn that the representational theory of art is false, but that the realm of art encompasses more different kinds of things than imagined in Aristotle's philosophy and that of his descendants, and this will sensitize us to the need to acknowledge nonrepresentational art in subsequent theorizing.

    比方说,在像亚里士多德这样一位艺术哲学家提出再现是艺术的一个必要条件的时候,我们是这么思考他的这个假说的:我们问,被我们归在艺术这个范畴中的全部东西,果真都是再现的吗?如果我们想到了色块画儿,我们会摒弃这个假说,说它太有排斥性了。但是,通过反驳这个假说,我们会学到东西。我们不仅会了解到关于艺术的再现论是错误的,而且艺术的范围囊括更多不同种类的东西,那要比亚里士多德及其后继者的哲学所想象的还多,这就使我们敏锐地意识到,我们需要在随后的理论活动中承认非再现的艺术。

 

Similarly, if we hear that self-expression_r is a sufficient condition of art, that prompts us to ask whether or not that criterion really picks out only artworks. Of course, it does not, because there is a great deal of self-expressive behavior in everyday life - like the tantrums of a hungry infant - that are not artworks, not even performance art. So, we reject the self-expression_r analysis of art because it is too inclusive. But in this instance we not only learn that the self-expression_r theory is false, but that subsequent theorizing must be alert to the distinction between self-expression_r that is art versus that which is not. The method of definition, then, is conducive to an awareness of "joints" in the data that any future attempts at dissection must respect.

    与此相似,如果我们听说自我表现是艺术的一个充分条件,那就立刻促使我们问:这个标准是否真的能够单把艺术甄别出来。当然,它不能,因为日常生活中有大量自我表现的行为——如一个饥饿的婴儿的勃然大怒——这不是艺术品,这不是艺术品,甚至不算行为艺术(performance art)。因此,我们摒弃关于艺术的自我表现分析,因为它太包容了。但是,在这种情况下,我们不仅知道了自我表现论是错误的,而且还知道此后的理论活动必须敏感于作为艺术的自我表现与并非艺术的自我表现之间的区别。于是,这种定义法有助于我们意识到有待分析的材料中有一些“关节”,此后对这些关节的解剖必须严肃认真。

 

Attempted analyses of concepts in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, even where they fail, abet discovery. They systematically flush out data and distinctions that enrich our understanding of art. They awaken us to the breadth and diversity of the world of art, while also charting its boundaries. In this way, the philosopher's preoccupation with analysing concepts can also contribute to our appreciation of art in all its luxurious and wondrous manifestations.

试图从必要条件和充分条件的角度来分析概念,即便失败了,也能有所发现。这些分析把材料和甄别结果成系统地摆在我们面前,丰富了我们对艺术的理解。这些分析使我们意识到艺术世界的广阔性和多样性,同时也在划定其边界。如此一来,从事概念分析的哲学家们的当务之急,对我们赏识艺术的全部奢华和奇妙的表现,也能做出贡献。

 

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