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MariaDB字符集编码

(2015-07-12 16:20:51)
标签:

mysql

mariadb

utf8

character

collation

分类: 数据库(RDBS/NoSQL)
MariaDB字符集编码

查看数据库支持的所有字符集
SHOW CHARACTER SET;
SHOW COLLATION;

一.查看编码 

Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.

Your MariaDB connection id is 2

Server version: 5.5.41-MariaDB MariaDB Server


Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.


Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.


MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'character%';

+--------------------------+----------------------------+

| Variable_name            | Value                      |

+--------------------------+----------------------------+

| character_set_client     | utf8                       |

| character_set_connection | utf8                       |

| character_set_database   | latin1                     |

| character_set_filesystem | binary                     |

| character_set_results    | utf8                       |

| character_set_server     | latin1                     |

| character_set_system     | utf8                       |

| character_sets_dir       | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |

+--------------------------+----------------------------+

8 rows in set (0.00 sec)


MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'collation%';

+----------------------+-------------------+

| Variable_name        | Value             |

+----------------------+-------------------+

| collation_connection | utf8_general_ci   |

| collation_database   | latin1_swedish_ci |

| collation_server     | latin1_swedish_ci |

+----------------------+-------------------+

3 rows in set (0.00 sec)


默认是latin1,外部访问数据乱码的问题就出在这个connection连接层上

二.设置编码
命令行修改
1. SET NAMES 'utf8';
它相当于下面的三句指令:
SET character_set_client = utf8;
SET character_set_results = utf8;
SET character_set_connection = utf8;
一般只有在访问之前执行这个代码就解决问题了

2. 创建数据库是指定编码
CREATE DATABASE database_name CHARACTER SET utf8;

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE foo CHARACTER SET utf8;

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)


MariaDB [(none)]> USE foo;

Database changed

MariaDB [foo]> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'character%';

+--------------------------+----------------------------+

| Variable_name            | Value                      |

+--------------------------+----------------------------+

| character_set_client     | utf8                       |

| character_set_connection | utf8                       |

| character_set_database   | utf8                       |

| character_set_filesystem | binary                     |

| character_set_results    | utf8                       |

| character_set_server     | latin1                     |

| character_set_system     | utf8                       |

| character_sets_dir       | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |

+--------------------------+----------------------------+

8 rows in set (0.00 sec)


MariaDB [foo]> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'collation%';

+----------------------+-------------------+

| Variable_name        | Value             |

+----------------------+-------------------+

| collation_connection | utf8_general_ci   |

| collation_database   | utf8_general_ci   |

| collation_server     | latin1_swedish_ci |

+----------------------+-------------------+

3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

注意:虽然在建库的时候有指定字符集,但character_set_server 仍然是latin1, 需要修改配置文件/etc/my.cnf

3. 创建表指定编码
CREATE TABLE `type` (
`id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL auto_increment,
`flag_deleted` enum('Y','N') character set utf8 NOT NULL default 'N',
`flag_type` int(5) NOT NULL default '0',
`type_name` varchar(50) character set utf8 NOT NULL default '',
PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

示例:

CREATE TABLE mytable 

(

columnn1 INT, 

columnn2 VARCHAR(10) 

)DEFAULT CHARACTER SET hebrew COLLATE hebrew_general_ci;


CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE mytable 

(columnn1 INT,

columnn2 VARCHAR(10),

column3 VARCHAR(10) CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_general_ci 

)DEFAULT CHARACTER SET hebrew COLLATE hebrew_general_ci;

 


SELECT * FROM customers ORDER BY lastname, firstname COLLATE latin1_general_cs

还可以限制某个字段的字符集作为筛选条件

4. 修改数据库成utf8

ALTER DATABASE database_name CHARACTER SET utf8;


5. 修改默认用utf8

ALTER TABLE table_name CHARACTER SET utf8;


6. 修改字段用utf8

MariaDB [foo]> DESC hello;

+-------+----------+------+-----+---------+-------+

| Field | Type     | Null | Key | Default | Extra |

+-------+----------+------+-----+---------+-------+

| id    | int(10)  | YES  |     | NULL    |       |

| name  | char(50) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |

+-------+----------+------+-----+---------+-------+

2 rows in set (0.00 sec)


MariaDB [foo]> ALTER TABLE hello MODIFY name char(50) CHARACTER SET utf8;

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0


配置文件
Linux下一般是 /etc/my.cnf,Windows下一般在系统目录下或者在MySQL的安装目录下名字叫my.ini

[mysqld]
character_set_server = utf8
lower_case_table_names = 1 //表名不区分大小写(此与编码无关)

[mysqld_safe]
character_set_server = utf8

[mysql]
default-character-set = utf8

[mysql.server]
default-character-set = utf8

[client]
default-character-set = utf8


Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.

Your MariaDB connection id is 2

Server version: 5.5.41-MariaDB MariaDB Server


Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.


Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.


MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'collation%';

+----------------------+-----------------+

| Variable_name        | Value           |

+----------------------+-----------------+

| collation_connection | utf8_general_ci |

| collation_database   | utf8_general_ci |

| collation_server     | utf8_general_ci |

+----------------------+-----------------+

3 rows in set (0.00 sec)


MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'character%';

+--------------------------+----------------------------+

| Variable_name            | Value                      |

+--------------------------+----------------------------+

| character_set_client     | utf8                       |

| character_set_connection | utf8                       |

| character_set_database   | utf8                       |

| character_set_filesystem | binary                     |

| character_set_results    | utf8                       |

| character_set_server     | utf8                       |

| character_set_system     | utf8                       |

| character_sets_dir       | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |

+--------------------------+----------------------------+

8 rows in set (0.00 sec)


注意:新版本的mariadb,如mariadb-10.1的配置些许有些变化
[mysqld]

init_connect = 'SET collation_connection = utf8_general_ci'

init_connect = 'SET NAMES utf8'

character_set_server = utf8

collation_server = utf8_general_ci

[mysqld_safe]

init_connect = 'SET collation_connection = utf8_general_ci'

init_connect = 'SET NAMES utf8'

character_set_server = utf8

collation_server = utf8_general_ci


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