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高考英语非谓语动词题的八条经典原则

(2021-03-12 21:19:25)
标签:

教育

英语教研

分类: 教育教研

高考英语非谓语动词题的八条经典原则     

 原则一:用作目的状语,原则上要用不定式
  1. When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there _____ for a space flight. 2007江西卷)
  A. trainingB. being trained C. to have trained D. to be trained
  【解析】答案选 D。由于进行航空飞行训练是他被派往那儿的目的,所以要用不定式,因此可排除 A 和 B。另外,由于“他”与“训练”之间为被动关系,故选 D

  2. _____ this cake, youll need 2 eggs, 175 g sugar and 175 g flour. 2006广东卷)
  A. Having madeB. Make C. To makeD. Making
  【解析】答案选 C。由于是表示目的,故要用不定式,句意为:为了做这块蛋糕,你需要2只鸡蛋、175克糖和175克面粉。

  原则二:用于名词后作定语时,使用非谓语动词的原则是:用不定式,表示动作尚未发生;用现在分词,表示动作正在进行;用过去分词,表示动作已经发生,同时表示被动意义
  1. The Chinese are proud of the 29th Olympic Games _____ in Beijing in 2008. 2006四川卷)
  A. hold B. holding C. heldD. to be held
  【解析】答案选 D。由于2008年奥运会尚未举行,故要用不定式。

  2. There are hundreds of visitors _____ in front of the Art Gallery to have a look at Van Goghs paintings. 2006上海卷)
  A. waitedB. to wait C. waiting D. wait
 【解析】答案选 C。由于表示“正在等”,故用现在分词作定语。

  3. Things _____ never come again!I couldnt help talking to myself. 2007湖南卷)
  A. lost B. losingC. to lost D. have lost
 【解析】答案选 A。因 things 与动词 lose 之间为被动关系,故用过去分词。

  注:受 the first, the second ... the last 修饰的名词或代词后原则上要用不定式作定语。如:
  —The last one _____ pays the meal.
  —Agreed!2007全国I

  A. arrived B. arrives C. to arriveD. arriving
  【解析】答案选 C。因为在 the first, the second, the third, … the last 等结构后习惯上要接不定式作定语。又如:Id be the first to admit I might be wrong. 我愿第一个承认我可能错了。You are the second to make that mistake. 你是第二个犯这错误的人。

  原则三: 用作伴随状语,原则上要用现在分词
  1. As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not _____, and asked myself what I was going to do. 2007湖南卷)
  A. movedB. moving C. to moveD. being moved
  【解析】答案选 B。由于与句子主语 I 之间为主动关系,且表示当时持续了一会儿,故用现在分词。句意为:当信号灯变绿时,我站在那儿一会儿没动,心想自己该怎么办。

  2. Peter received a letter just now _____ his grandma would come to see him soon. 2007四川卷)
  A. saidB. saysC. saying D. to say
  【解析】答案选 C。此处用现在分词表伴随,又如:A card came yesterday saying Sue will arrive tomorrow. 昨天收到的明信片上说,休明天到。Alan received a telegram saying his father was ill. 埃伦收到一封电报,说是他父亲生病了。

  3. Whenever he was asked why he was late for class, he would answer carelessly, always _____ the same thing. 2006江苏卷)
  A. sayingB. saidC. to say D. having said
  【解析】答案选 A。现在分词 saying 在此表示伴随。

  4. We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketballs_____ that all children like these things. 2006全国III
  A. thinkingB. think C. to think D. thought
  【解析】答案选 A。现在分词 thinking 在此表示伴随。

  原则四:用作结果状语时,可用现在分词或不定式,其原则区别是,一般要用现在分词,不定式用作结果状语主要用于某些特定句式中
  1. The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance_____ in the natural light during the day. 2007天津卷)
  A. to letB. letting C. let D. having let
【解析】答案选 B。此处用现在分词表示结果。又如:It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in that place. 大雨滂沱,造成了那个地方洪水泛滥。

  2. Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year_____ a record US$ 57. 65 a barrel on April 4. 2005山东卷)
  A. have reachedB. reaching C. to reachD. to be reaching
【解析】答案选 B。伴随着谓语动词的发生而产生的自然结果,用现在分词作结果状语。

  注:在 enough to do sth, too...to do sth, only to do sth 等特定句式中,习惯上要用不定式表示结果。如:
  1. He hurried to the booking office only _____ that all the tickets had been sold out. 2006陕西卷)
  A. to tellB. to be toldC. telling D. told
  【解析】答案选 Bonly to do sth 在此表示出人意料的结果。

  2. He hurried to the station only_____ that the train had left. 2005广东卷)
  A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found
  【解析】答案选 Aonly to do sth 在此表示出人意料的结果。

  原则五:凡是含有被动意义时,原则上要用过去分词。但是,如果所涉及的动作尚未发生,则用不定式的被动式;如果所涉及的动作正在进行,则用现在分词的被动式
  1. The children talked so loudly at dinner table that I had to struggle _____. 2007浙江卷)
  A. to be heard B. to have heard C. hearingD. being heard
  【解析】答案选 A。根据句意,此处指的是“被听见”,故要用被动式,因此可排除 B 和 C。另外,由于“设法被听见”为目的状语,动作在当时尚未发生,故用不定式,即选 A

2. The repairs cost a lot
, but its money well _____.2005湖北卷)
 A. to spendB. spentC. being spent D. spending
  【解析】答案选 B。由于 money 与 spend 之间为被动关系,故用过去分词。

 3. Five people won the Chinas Green Figure” award, a title _____ to ordinary people for their contributions to environmental protection. 2006山东卷)
  A. being givenB. is given C. givenD. was given
  【解析】答案选 C。由于 title 与 give 之间为被动关系,故用过去分词。

  原则六:谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语原则上应与主句主语保持一致
  1. Faced with a bill for $10, 000_____. 2006陕西卷)
  A. John has taken an extra job
  
B. the boss has given John an extra job
  
C. an extra job has been taken
  
D. an extra job has been given to John
【解析】答案选 A。由于(be) faced with 的逻辑主语是 John,故答案只能选 A

  2. While watching television_____. 2005全国卷III
  A. the door bell rangB. the doorbell rings
  
C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings
【解析】答案选 C。因为 watching 的逻辑主语一定是we,排除选项 A 和 B;又因在hear后作宾补的是省略了 to 的不定式,所以选项 D 中的 rings 是错误的。

  原则七:强调动作发生在主句谓语动作之前时,原则上要用完成式(根据情况可用不定式的完成式或现在分词的完成式)
1._____ from other continents for millions of years
, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. 2005湖北卷)
  A. Being separated B. Having separated
  
C. Having been separated D. To be separated
  【解析】答案选 C。因为 Australia 与 separate 是被动关系,且 separate 发生在谓语动词 has 之前,所以用现在分词的完成被动式作原因状语。

  2. The manager_____ it clear to us that he didnt agree with us, left the meeting room. 2005江西卷)
  A. who has made B. having made C. madeD. making
  【解析】答案选 B。因为 The manager 与 make 是主动关系,且 make 发生在谓语 left 之前,所以用现在分词的完成式作状语, having made ... 相当于 who had made... 的意思。

  原则八: 对于固定搭配,原则上按搭配习惯处理
 1._____ with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time. 2006四川卷)
  A. Faced B. FaceC. Facing D. To face
  【解析】答案选 A。(be) faced with 为固定搭配,其意为“面对”,又如:They are all faced with the same problem. 他们都面临同样的问题。

2._____ in a white uniform
, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. 2005湖南卷)
  A. DressedB. To dress C. DressingD. Having dressed
  【解析】答案选 A。(be) dressed in 为固定搭配,其意为“穿着……”,句中的 Dressed in... 表原因,相当于 As he is dressed in... 的意思。

  【现学现用】
1. A railway station is no place for a child _____ alone at night.
  A. leave B. leaving C. to be leavingD. to be left
2. Children should be encouraged _____ up outside interests
 such as music or sport.
  
A. to take B. taking C. to have taken D. having taken
3. We were warned _____ the fish which might give us a slight stomach upset.
  
A. not to eatB. not eating C. to eat not D. eating not
4._____ a champion
 skill is not enough you have to have the right temperament.
  
A. To be B. To have being C. Having beenD. Being
5. _ themselves awake they sat on the floor and told each other stories.
  
A. Keep B. Keeping C. To keep D. To have kept
6. ___ back problems,always bend your knees when you lift heavy objects.
  
A. Avoiding B. To avoid C. Having avoided D. To be avoiding
7. Please make my excuse at tomorrow
s meetingI
ve got too much work _____.
  
A. to do to comeB. doing coming C. to do coming D. to do coming
8. I arrived at the shop _____ I
d left all my money at home.
  
A. only to find B. only finding
  
C. only found D. only having found
9._____ these children _____ what you want is a science I can tell you!
  A. Getting, doneB. Get
 done
  C. To get, to doD. Getting
 to do
10. When you're learning to drive
__ a good teacher makes a big difference.
  
A. have B. havingC. and haveD. and having
11. _____ knowledge is one thing but _____ able to communicate it to others is another thing.
  A. Have, beB. Having
 being
  C. Have, beingD. Having
 to be
12. Anyone _____ bags
, boxes, or whatever
 was stopped by the police.
  
A. seen carry B. seen carrying C. saw to carryD. saw carrying
13. A few days after the interview
 I received a letter ___ me the job.
  
A. offered B. offering C. to be offering D. having offered
14. Don
t leave her _____ outside in the rain
ask her in.
  
A. waitB. waiting C. to wait D. to be waiting
15. The plane crashed
_____ all 200 people aboard.
  
A. killed B. having killed C. killing D. had killed
16. My wife had a long talk with Sally
_____ why she didn
t want the children to play together.
  
A. explained B. explaining C. to explain D. having explained
17.
 We can't go out in this weather.said Bob
___ out of the window.
  
A. looked B. looking C. to look D. having looked
18. I can
t ask you to dinner this week as I am having my house _____ at the moment.
  
A. paintingB. to paint C. painted D. to be paining
19. My wife refused to have the house _____ as a hotel.
  
A. be usingB. to useC. using D. used
20. It can be cheaper to buy a new washing machine than to get your old one _____.
  
A. repaired B. to repairC. repairingD. having repaired
21. He was always the first _____ and the last _____ the office.
  A. to come, to leave B. coming
 leaving
  C. to come, left D. coming
 left
22. Robert is said _____ one of my classmates the other day
, but I don
t know who she is.
  
A. to marryB. to have married
  
C. to be marrying D. being married
23. After driving all night we got to Amy's place
__ that she was away.
  
A. only to discover B. only discovering
  
C. only discovered D. only having discovered
24._____wherever you go is the price you pay for being famous.
  
A. Being recognized B. To be recognized
  
C. RecognizingD. Having recognized
25. _____ out more about our products
 fill in the form and send it to us at the address below.
  A. Finding, givingB. To find
 given
  C. Finding, givenD. To find, giving

【参考答案】15 DAAAC610 BAADB 1115 BBBBC1620 BBCDA 2125 ABAAB

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