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英语中的量词汇总(一)

(2010-10-10 22:29:04)
标签:

语法

陆文波

新东方

量词

修辞色彩

现代汉语

英语

单位词

教育

分类: NATTI翻译-朗文语法
量词是现代汉语11类词中的一种,运用非常普遍,大约有500多个量词。除了表“量”以外,它的一个显著特点就是习惯搭配。即使是华人也有弄错的时候,学中文的外国人更是头疼。所以正确认识量词,准确翻译汉语量词也是很重要的。英语中没有像汉语这样的“量词”分类,但有类似的用法和修辞结构,如quantitive determinatives(量词限定词),portative(量词),quantifiers(量词)。它们之间有相同之处,但更多的是差异。因而,本节以一定的版面来分析其不同结构和用法,不过,更多的还是靠读者自己潜心收集认识,才能掌握如何翻译。

  1、一群
    一群人  a crowd/group/multitude/throng/army/team/class of people;a gang/swarm/horde/pack/band of people(in a derogatory way)
  troop 通常指聚在一起活动的、生气勃勃的一群人。如:
  a troop of demonstrators/shoppers/visitors
  bevy 特指女性的“一群”,有时指鸟类,尤指鹌鹑或云雀。如:
  a bevy of actresses/young women/ladies/shop girls/quails
  表贬义的“一群”有:a mob of angry people/rioters/slaves/liars/blackguards
  horde 原意为游牧部落,通常含有轻蔑色彩:
  a horde of lazy-bones/swindlers/locusts/hooligans
  band;gang 常指“帮”:
    a band of robbers/gangsters/thieves/outlaws
    a gang of criminals/slaves/prisoners
    一群牛、象、马、天鹅 a herd of cattle/elephants/horses/swans
    一群鸟 a flock of birds/geese/hens/goats/swallows/sheep/chickens
    一群猎狗 a pack of hounds/wolves/grouse
    一群狐狸 a skulk of foxes
    一群狮子 a pride of lions
    一群星星 a cluster of stars
    一群鱼 a school/shoal of fish/shrimps
    一群马 a stud/drove of horses
    一群鹅 a gaggle/flock of geese
    一群蚊子/蝴蝶 a swarm of mosquitoes/butterflies
    一群(窝)蚂蚁 a colony of ants/bees
    一群建筑物 a clump/complex of buildings

  2、一丝/点/层/片
    一片草皮 a chunk of turf
    一丝睡意 a wink of sleep
    一丝怀疑 a shadow of doubt
    一点点工作 a stroke of work
    一线未来之光 a glimpse of future
    一缕月光 a streak of moonlight/amber(fig)
    一丝绿意;一片绿色 a tint of green
    一片心意 a small token of our hearts
    一丝嫉妒;一阵窘迫 a slight twinge of jealousy/embarrassment
    一丝恻隐之心 a sign of sympathy for...
    一丝懊悔 a slight twinge of remorse
    一层霜/雪/糖霜 a layer of frost/snow/cream
    一丝失望的眼神 a flicker of disappointment
    (剩下)一口气/一丝气 a spark/breath of life
    一丝失望的情绪 a taint/faint of disappointment
    一片漆黑 completely dark;dismal night;pitch dark
    一片汪洋 a flood of  water

  3、英译“一阵”,颇有学问,且看以下译例
    (突然爆发出的)一阵哭泣/喝彩/炮击/雷声
    a burst of tears/cheers/gunfire/thunder
    (量如洪水的)一阵泪雨/瓢泼大雨/夸夸其谈
    a flood of tears/rain/boasts
  少量或稀疏的
    一阵(小)雨/射击 a spatter of rain/bullets
     一阵稀疏的掌声/喝彩 a spatter of applause/cheers
  声响很大的
       一阵隆隆的炮声/雷声 a peal of artillery/thunder
  突然而猛烈的
    一阵暴雨/狂风/烈火 a gust/blast of rain/wind/flame
  持续短暂的
    一阵怒气/激情/咳嗽 a fit of anger/passion/coughing
    一阵呕吐 a vomiting fit
  持续一段时间的
    一阵厄运/暑热 a spell of bad luck/summer heat
    一阵寒潮 a cold spell of weather
    一阵昏厥 a fainting spell
    (针捻刀刺般的)一阵内疚/牙痛/风湿痛 a twinge of remorse/toothache/rheumatism
    一阵尴尬 a twinge of embarrassment
    (抽搐或颤抖的)一阵痛苦/伤心/咳嗽/激动 a spasm of pain/grief/coughing/excitement
  雹打雨淋般的
    一阵轰炸/打击/咒骂 a hail of bombs/blows/curse
    一阵弹雨/批评 a shower of bullets/criticism
  更多的例子
    一阵欢乐 an agony of joy
    一阵子爱意 a flush of love
    一点点工作 a stroke of work
    一阵心脏病发作 a stroke of heart attack
    一点点满足 a crumb of satisfaction
    一种混乱的政治局面 a chaos of politics

  4、“一阵”为何有这么多不同的译法
  其实原因很简单,汉语“一阵”这个数量词不含修辞色彩,可用于各类描述;而在英语中,“一阵”这个概念则是由许多不同的名词来表述的,而且这些词一般分别具有不同的修辞色彩。如:
    spatter “少量”,“稀疏”之义;
    peal 专指一阵响亮或轰鸣的声音;
    twinge 特指肉体或心灵上的一阵剧烈的刺痛;
    burst 泛指突然爆发出的一阵,有突如其来之感;
    hail 和shower的比喻色彩也很浓,有雹打雨淋之感;
    spell常用于描述天气、疾病等,表持续一阵子;
    flood一词比喻色彩浓厚,给人以量如洪水,滔滔不绝之感;
    gust则专指风、雨、雹、火、烟等的突然而猛烈的一阵。也可用喻感情的猛烈进发;
    fit常指持续时间短暂的一阵——尤指疾病的短暂发作或感情的短暂进发;
    spasm原指痉挛,抽搐,用于动作、感情的一阵突发时,表抽搐或浑身颤抖之感。
  由此可见,英译“一阵”,宜细心推敲,酌情翻译。

  5、其他类似的汉译英所用的修辞性的用法
  a)暗喻Metaphor
    一串香蕉a hand of bananas
    颗颗汗珠beads of sweat
    一长串汽车a string of cars
    很大的朋友圈a large circle of friends
  b)借代Metonymy
    一串珍珠  a rope of pearls
    一炉钢 a heat of steel
    一年三熟  three crops a year
    一大群飞机 a cloud of planes
    林立的烟囱 a forest of chimneys
    一片沙滩 a beach of sands
  c)夸张Hyperbole
    多如牛毛的问题 a sea of troubles
    一大笔钱 a pile of money
    勃然大怒 a wave of anger
    开怀大笑 gales of laughter
    无数次 heaps of times
    小不点 a dot of child
    一小撮敌人 a pinch of enemy
    滔滔不绝的话语 a flood of words

  
6、英语常用单位词及汉语对应词(Commonly-used unit nouns and their Chinese equivalents)
    piece块;片;段;项;件;篇;首;幅;张
    a piece of bread/paper/wood/furniture/land/advice/news/meat/cloth/music...
    bit一点;一些;一片 
    a bit of water/wood/grass/trouble...
    item条;则;项
    an item of news/information/business/programme...
    article件;项;条
    an article of furniture/clothing/luggage/export...
    grain粒;颗
    a grain of ricce/wheat/salt/sand...
    drop滴
    a drop of water/oil/rain/blood/dew...
    slice薄片
    a slice of meat/bread/cake/ham...
    cake块
    a cake of soap/mud/ice...
    bar块;条
    a bar of chocolate/candy/soap...
    ear穗
    an ear of corn/rice/wheat/millet...
    loaf块;条
    a loaf of bread...
    lump块;团
    a lump of clay/sugar/earth...
    spiral盘
    a spiral of mosquito incense...
    card板
    a card of buttons
    pack副;盒
    a pack of cards/cigarettes

    fistful(s)一把
    a fistful of sand/rice...
    handful(s)一把
    a handful of soil...
    armful(s)一抱
    an armful of flowers...
    cupful(s)一杯
    four cupfuls of jam...
    mouthful(s)一口
    a mouthful of snow/whys...
    spoonful(s)一汤匙
    a spoonful of sugar...
    spadeful(s)一铲
    a spadeful of coal...
    bagful(s)一袋
    a bagful of letters...

  但an eyeful of…的意思是“对……大饱眼福”

    truckload一货车
    a truckload of apples...
    shipload一船
    a shipload of TV sets...
    lorryload一卡车
    a lorryload of iron...
    fit一阵子
    a fit of coughing/fever/laughter/anger/...
    ray一线
    a ray of hope/intelligence/sunlight…
    peal一阵
    a peal of thunder/laughter/applause...
    flash闪现一下
    a flash of hope/lightening/wit...
    display炫耀一下
    a display of power/courage/force/learning/skill...
    attack一疾病的发作
    an attack of fever/malaria
    group组;群;批
    a group of students...
    team队:组
    a team of experts/footballers/scientists...
    gang帮;伙;群;队;组
    a gang of four/thieves/robbers...
    army大群;队
    an army of beggars/ants/bees...
    troop群;伙
    a troop of soldiers...
    host大群
    a host of friends/heroes...
    pack群;伙
    a pack of liars/thieves/rascals/hounds...
    band帮;伙
    a band of music(players)/brigands...
    choir队;组;群
    a choir of singers...
    bunch串;束;挂;群;帮;伙
    a bunch of bananas/fools/flowers/keys/thieves.
    bouquet束;把
    bouquet of flowers
    string串;挂;节
    a string of beads/pearls/words/thread
    sheaf p1.sheaves捆;束
    a sheaf of wheat/arrows/papers
    crew帮;伙;全体
    a crew of sailors/pilots
    party组;伙;批
    a party of guests/children...
    batch批
    a batch of letters/telegrams/visitors...
    gaggle群
    a gaggle of geese/girls...
    litter一窝
    a litter of kittens/little piglets/puppies...
    herd群
    a herd of elephants/deer/cattle...s
    swarm群
    a swarm of ants/locusts/bees/people/stars...
    cluster串;束;群;组
    a cluster of flowers/grapes/bees/islands/stars...
    a cluster of butterflies/grapes/berries/consonants/houses
    brood窝;群;组
    a brood of chickens/paintings/thieves...
    school群
    a school of whales/dolphins...
    shoal群
    a shoal of fish/whales/people...
    flock群
    a flock of geese/birds/pigeons/ducks/visitors/customers...
    dozen一打
    a dozen(of)pencils/eggs/red roses...
    gross一罗
    a gross of nails/pencils/can openers...
    pile一大堆
    a pile of what-ifs一大堆假定
    mound一大堆
    a mound(mouthful)maybes满嘴的可能
    clump一群
    a clump of islands/buildings
    school流派
    the school of traditional grammar
    train一列
    a train of cars一列火车厢
    pot一锅
    a pot of soup/tea/water...
    fleck片
    a fleck of snow...

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