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《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世

(2012-04-08 19:38:45)
标签:

国家地理

人口70亿

人类世

人类期

地质时期

石油

垃圾

生物入侵

杂谈

分类: 《国家地理》摘译
人类期(Age of Man)
海豆芽译自《国家地理》2011年3月号“进入人类世——也称人类期”(Enter the Anthropocene—Age of Man)一文图集 http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/03/age-of-man/anthropocene-photography
这是一个为新地质世的新名词,是用我们人类自己对这个星球的巨大影响而定义,那种影响痕迹在我们的城市完全崩溃之后很久也会持续存在于地质记录里。
It’s a new name for a new geologic epoch—one defined by our own massive impact on the planet. That mark will endure in the geologic record long after our cities have crumbled.
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世 
1970年代石油改变了迪拜。现在这座城市拥有世界最高的建筑、巨大的商贸中心、以及约200万居民,他们依靠淡化海水和空调在阿拉伯沙漠中生活,也得益于如此便宜的能源。
Oil transformed Dubai in the 1970s. The city now boasts the world's tallest building, giant malls, and some two million residents, who depend on desalinated seawater and air-conditioning—and thus on cheap energy—to live in the Arabian desert.
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世
时刻变幻的海洋
意大利罗西尼亚诺塞尔威镇
一张托斯卡纳海滨的图片描绘了人类和海洋构成的戏剧。这种“热带”的沙滩不是天然的,是用化工厂的碳酸盐漂白的,这家工厂到目前为止还泄漏过水银。工厂把从海水里提取的盐转化为氯和其它元素产品。全世界都一样,化石燃料为这种转化提供了动力,从烟窗与排气管里排出的CO2慢慢地酸化了海洋,威胁着海洋生物的生命。
Changing Seas
Rosignano Solvay, Italy
A Tuscan beach captures the textured drama of humans and the sea. The "tropical" sands aren't natural; they're whitened by carbonates from the chemical plant, which also discharged mercury until recently. The plant converts salt extracted from the sea into chlorine and other essential products. Fossil fuels power such transformations; worldwide, the CO2 from smokestacks and tailpipes is slowly acidifying the ocean, threatening marine life.
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世
石油1百年
加利福尼亚南贝尔里奇
这个油田1911年发现后就开采了,与此同时,城市因汽车而重建,远古的石油分子被制成如塑料、化妆品、以及医药品等普通用品。南贝尔里奇如今每年生产3200万桶,足够全世界9小时之用。在这个世纪里,世界的这类供给可能会大幅度地下跌。
The Oil Century
South Belridge, California
Discovered in 1911, this field pumped on as cities were rebuilt for cars and as ancient petroleum molecules were spun into household products such as plastics, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. South Belridge today produces 32 million barrels a year—enough for nine hours of world demand. In this century the world's supply may plummet.
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世
移动的山头
西维吉尼亚卡依福特山
当石油公司为了近海石油钻得十越来越深时,矿业公司为了采煤以24比7的比率削平剥离了阿巴拉契亚山的最高峰,提供了美国电厂一半的煤炭。今天,这个最高点消失了。从1980年代以来,约470座山峰被夷平,废渣通常填埋在河沟里。重新堆的山顶只有煤堆的6%。
Moving Mountains
Kayford Mountain, West Virginia
As oil companies drill deeper for offshore oil, mining companies work 24/7 to level Appalachian peaks for coal, which supplies half of U.S. electricity. This summit vanished in a day. Some 470 have been erased since the 1980s; the waste often buries streams. Mountaintop removal recovers just 6 percent of a coal deposit.
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世 
第六次大灭绝
哈萨克斯坦Aralsk历史博物馆
船鲟鱼几近灭绝,它已经从咸海消失了;曾经是世界第四大湖泊的咸海,由于引水灌溉棉花水面减小而成了一个大灰盆。在过去的5亿年间,小行星撞击和其他自然事件已经导致了悲惨的五次动植物物种大灭绝。人类也许正在引起第六次大灭绝。
The Sixth Mass Extinction
Museum of History, Aralsk, Kazakhstan
The ship sturgeon is near extinction, and it's already gone from the Aral Sea; water diversion for cotton farming reduced what was once the world's fourth largest lake to a dust bowl. In the past half billion years asteroid impacts and other natural events have caused five catastrophic mass extinctions of plants and animals. Humans may be causing a sixth.
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世 
工业化的农业
西班牙阿尔梅里亚省
西班牙南部干旱的平原上,农产品种在世界最大的温室大棚下,然后运向北方。温室有效利用了水和养分,还能按要求全年生产,如冬季生产西红柿。但全球面临挑战的是粮食和肉类,而非西红柿。今天,养活70亿人口用了38%的不冻地表,但是到2050年预计世界人口还将增加20亿。
Industrial Farming
Almería Province, Spain
On the arid plains of southern Spain, produce is grown under the world's largest array of greenhouses and trucked north. Greenhouses use water and nutrients efficiently and produce all year—tomatoes in winter, for instance. But globally the challenge is grain and meat, not tomatoes. It takes 38 percent of Earth's ice-free surface to feed seven billion people today, and two billion more are expected by 2050.
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世 
食品化学
西班牙E1合作农场
从这幅西班牙的广告上看,肥料和杀虫剂使获得高产又完美无缺的产品成为可能。副面的影响是深远的¬——氮从施肥的土地里流失,比如,在全世界的河口造成死亡地带。
Food Chemistry
El Ejido, Spain 
Fertilizers and pesticides make possible the high yields and flawless produce celebrated by this Spanish billboard. The side effects are far-reaching—nitrogen runoff from fertilized land, for example, causes dead zones at the mouths of rivers worldwide.
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世 
一个大坝的世界
内华达州胡佛大坝和米德湖
各地的大坝驯服洪水、水用于灌溉(和人饮用)、以及生产了世界16%的电力,还无碳排放。但也转移了4000~8000万人口、破坏了河流生态系统。世界大江大河一半以上现在都建起了大坝,有的像科罗拉多河一样,已露出河床。持续干旱使米德湖看起来就像一个“浴缸”,而它却要承担西南部大部分地区的供水。
A Dammed World
Hoover Dam and Lake Mead, Nevada
Dams tame floods, water crops (and people), and generate 16 percent of the world's electricity, carbon free. They have also displaced 40 to 80 million people and destroyed river ecosystems. More than half the world's large rivers are now dammed. Some, like the Colorado, are tapped out. Persistent drought has left a "bathtub ring" in Lake Mead, which supplies water to much of the Southwest.

《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世
生物入侵
阿拉巴马州阿克伦城
野葛是一种快速生长的亚洲蔓生植物,从1930年代为控制侵蚀而引进种植以来,在美国已经厚厚地覆盖了数百万英亩。由人类传播的外来物种对生物多样性来说是一种全球性威胁,美国大多数受外来生物入侵威胁或有灭绝危险的物种名单有了一部份。
Alien Invaders
Akron, Alabama
Kudzu, a fast-growing Asian vine, has smothered millions of acres in the United States since it was planted in the 1930s to control erosion. Exotics spread by humans are a global threat to biodiversity. Most of the species on the U.S. threatened and endangered lists are there in part because of foreign invaders.

《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世
垃圾大潮
孟加拉国吉大港
拆解船只为孟加拉国人提供了工作和大量的废金属,还有石棉、印刷电路板、以及其它有毒物资。不过废品回收利用业普遍兴旺,废品因而成了产品。近几十年美国城市里,废弃和利用的两种倾向正好互相抵消。
A Tide of Waste
Chittagong, Bangladesh
Ship breaking delivers jobs to Bangladesh and a wealth of scrap metal—but also asbestos, PCBs, and other toxics. Though waste recycling generally is booming, so is waste production. In American cities in recent decades, the two trends have just about offset each other.
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世
四处蔓延的城市
墨西哥城
约有2000万人生活在墨西哥城,这是世界第五大首都市区。1800年时,全球城镇人口是3%,如今达到了50%并且还在上升。拥挤的棚户区里,洁净水源和卫生设施紧缺。但城市化也有一个优势:就总数平均来说,城市使用的资源较少、且污染较小。
Urban Supersprawl
Mexico City, Mexico 
Some 20 million people live in Mexico City, the world's fifth largest metropolitan area. In 1800 the urban fraction of the global population was 3 percent. Today it is 50 percent and rising. In crowded shantytowns, the need for clean water and sanitation is urgent. But urbanization has an upside: Per capita, cities use less energy and pollute less than rural areas.

《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(一)__世界人口70亿 
《国家地理》人口70亿特别系列(二)——地球进入人类世

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