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英语语音学第四章 辅音的分类

(2008-09-02 19:32:05)
标签:

教育

分类: 语音

第四章  辅音的分类

Chater 4 Classification of Consonants

 

1。辅音可按以下分类:Consonants may be classified according to:

1)声带的活动 the work of the vocal cords

2)发音的部位 place of articulation

3)发音的方式 manner of articulation

2.根据声带活动的分类 Classification according to the work of the vocal cords

1)清辅音和浊辅音 voiceless consonants and voiced consonants

  发音时声带不振动为清辅音,发音时声带振动为浊辅音。

  consonants that are produced without the vibratioin of the vocal cords are called voiceless cosonants.consonants that are produced with the vibration of the vocal cords are voiced consonants.

2)清辅音和浊辅音成对voiceless consonants and voiced consonants go in pairs

[p]-[b] [t]-[d] [k]-[g] [f]-[v] [W]-[T] [s]-[z ] [F]-[V] [tF ]-[dV ] [tr]-[td] [ts]-[tz]

3)清辅音和浊辅音的特点 features of the voiceless consonants and voiced consonants

 清辅音送气,强,长。浊辅音不送气,弱,短。

the voiceless consonants are aspirated, strong and long.the voiced consonants are unaspirated,weak and short.

3。根据发音的部位分类 classification according to the place of articulation

1)双唇音bilabials

双唇形成阻碍成音 the obstruction is formed by the two lips

[p] [b] [m] [w]

[w]也叫软腭唇音。labiao-velar sound

2)唇齿音labiao-dental

下唇和上齿形成阻碍成音 the obstruction is formed between the lower lip and the upper teeth

[f] [v]

3)齿音dental

舌尖和上前齿形成阻碍成音 the obstruction is formed between the tip of the tongue and the upper front teeth

[ W]   [ T ]

4)齿龈音alveolar

舌端和齿龈形成阻碍成音the obstruction is formed between the blade of the tongue and the teeth-ridge

[t] [d] [s] [z] [ts] [dz] [n] [l]

5)后齿龈音post-alveolar

舌尖和齿龈后部形成阻碍成音the obstruction is formed between the tip of the tongue and the back

of the teeth-ridge

[r] [tr] [dr]

6)硬腭龈音palato-alveolar

舌端舌前分别朝齿龈和硬腭抬起形成阻碍成音the obstruction is formed when the blade of the tongue is raised towards the teeth-ridge and the front of the tongue towards the hard palate

 [F ]  [V  ] [tF ]   [dV]

7)硬腭音palatal

舌前和硬腭形成阻碍成音the obstruction is formed between the front of the tongue and the hard palate

[j]

8)软腭音velar

舌后和软腭形成阻碍成音the obstruction is formed between the back of the tongue and the soft palate

[k] [g] [ N ]

9)声门音glottal

声带之间声门内形成阻碍成音the obstruction is formed in the glottis,between the two vocal cords

[h]

4.按发音的方式classification according to the manner of articulation

1)爆破音plosives

[p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g]

2)摩擦音fricatives

[f] [v] [s] [z] [r] [h]

3)破擦音affricates

[tr] [dr] [ts] [tz]

4)鼻音nasals

[m] [n]  [ N ]

5)舌侧音(边音)lateral

[l]

6)半元音semi-vowels

[w] [j]

 

 

 

 双唇音

bilabial

唇齿音

labio-detal 

 齿音

dental

齿龈音

 alveolar

后齿龈音

post-alveolar 

硬腭龈音

palato-alveolar 

硬腭音

 palatal

软腭音

velar

喉音

glottal 

爆破音

 plosive

 p b      t d        k g  

破擦音

affricate 

       ts ds  tr dr  tF dV      

摩擦音 

fricative

  f v    T  s z  r  F  V      

 鼻音

nasal

 m      n         N  

 边音

lateral

       l          

 半元音

semivowel

 w            j    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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