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A New Type of Major Power Relations on North Korea

Bonnie S. Glaser, Senior Adviser for Asia, CSIS

September 19, 2013

 

Source language

Target language

 

A New Type of Major Power Relations on North

 Korea

 

大国与朝鲜的一种新型关系

Earlier this year it appeared to some that US and Chinese approaches to North Korea were converging.  More recently, however, the gap between Beijing and Washington in its policies toward Pyongyang is widening.  The absence of effective coordination between the US and China will undoubtedly work to North Korea’s advantage.  In addition, if cooperation on North Korea between the US and China unravels, it will have a negative impact on their efforts to build a new type of major power relationship.

今年早些时候,在一些人看来,中美两国对朝鲜的态度似乎正趋于一致。但最近,北京和华盛顿在针对平壤的政策上,双方的分歧却正在加大。

 

鉴于中美之间缺乏有效的协调机制,毫无疑问,这种分歧将使得平壤渔翁得利。

 

此外,如果一旦在朝鲜问题上,中美间的合作破裂的话,将会对中美两个大国为建立一种新型关系所做的努力,产生负面影响。

After Pyongyang conducted its third nuclear test in February, the Chinese government took unprecedented measures to implement U.N. sanctions against North Korea.  Among the most prominent steps, the state-run bank of China halted business with North Korea’s main foreign exchange bank.  In addition, the central government instructed local governments to implement U.N. Resolution 2094, which led to more rigorous inspections of North Korea-bound cargo.

在平壤二月份进行第三次核试验之后,中国政府破天荒的采取一系列措施,利用联合国来制裁朝鲜。

 

其中,最显著的一个举措,就是中国的国有银行停止与朝鲜银行间的国际汇兑业务。两外,中央政府还指示地方政府执行联合国第2094号决议。

也就是说,对运往朝鲜的货物加大检查力度。

When Presidents Obama and Xi Jinping met at Sunnylands, they agreed to work together to deepen cooperation and dialogue to achieve denuclearization.  In his readout of the meeting to the press, then National Security Advisor Tom Donilon stated that the two leaders had “quite a bit of alignment on the North Korean issue.”  He characterized the two nations’ shared approach as “continuing to apply pressure both to halt North Korea’s ability to proliferate and to make clear that its continued pursuit of nuclear weapons is incompatible with its economic development goals.”

当总统奥巴马和习近平在安安波哥庄园会晤时,他们一致同意,要共同努力,深化合作,加强对话,来实现朝鲜半岛的无核化。

 

当时的国家安全顾问汤姆。多尼伦,在其后的新闻发布会上,表示,“两国首脑在朝鲜问题上,已经达成了相当多的共识”。

 

他称两国间的共识就是,继续向朝鲜施压,迫使其停止核武器扩散行动,并向朝鲜申明,他们一贯追求的核武器,与其经济发展目标是互相矛盾的。

Since then, however, US and Chinese policy approaches have increasingly diverged.  Beijing’s focus is on promoting dialogue—resuming the six party talks—as a pathway to a solution to the North Korean nuclear issue.  From the perspective of the United States, along with Japan and South Korea, however, it is premature to discuss reconvening the six party talks because North Korea has not reaffirmed its commitments made in the agreements reached during prior rounds of the six party talks; it has not abided by the UN Security Council’s resolutions; and it has not demonstrated sincerity to give up its nuclear weapons.  After recent consultations in Seoul, Beijing and Tokyo, Ambassador Glyn Davies, the U.S. Special Representative for North Korea Policy expressed concern that North Korea seeks to use the six-party talks to gain recognition as a nuclear weapons state, which is not an acceptable outcome

但是,从那以后,中美在处理朝鲜问题方面的分歧却日益扩大。

 

北京将焦点放在促进谈话,重启六方会谈上,并将此作为解决朝鲜核问题的一个途径。

 

而在美国,以及日本和韩国看来,讨论重启六方会谈的时机还不成熟,朝鲜并没有再次确认,承诺其遵守对于前几轮的六方会谈中所达成的协议;而且并没有展现出放弃核武器的诚意。

近期,经过同首尔,北京和东京磋商,美国的朝鲜政策特别代表,格林戴维斯大使,对朝鲜试图利用六方会谈,获得核武器拥有国地位的认可,表达关切。

 

他说,这样的结果是让人无法接受的。

China’s policy seems to have come full circle.  Kim Jong-un’s decision to launch a long-range Unha-3 missile in December 2012 and then conduct a nuclear test in February incensed Chinese leaders, prompting harsh statements and actions designed to signal Beijing’s displeasure.  Yet after several rounds of high-level meetings between Chinese and North Korean officials, the two allies apparently mended fences.  On a visit to Beijing in May as a personal envoy of the North Korean leader, Vice Marshal Choe Ryong-hae indicated that the North was “willing to accept advice from the Chinese side and carry out dialogue with relevant parties.”  He delivered a letter from Kim Jong-un to Xi Jinping expressing the commitment to “appropriately resolved the relevant questions through the six-party talks and other forms” adding that Pyongyang was “willing to take active measures in this regard.”  In July, Chinese Vice President and Politburo Standing Committee Member Li Yuanchao visited Pyongyang.  Kim Jong-un told Li that his country “supports China’s efforts to resume the six-party talks and is willing to make joint efforts with all parties to maintain peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula.”  Although these assurances were not accompanied by any concrete actions, they were enough for China to begin actively pushing for another round of the six-party talks.

中国的对朝政策,似乎兜了个圈子,又回到了原地。

金正恩在201212月发射了一枚远程的银河三号火箭。

随后,在2月份,又进行了一项核试验,激怒了中国领导人,驱使中方发布严厉声明,并采取行动,从而发出中国生气了的信号。

但是,经过几次高层会晤,中朝两大盟国的关系得到了明显的改善。

5月份,朝鲜领导人的个人特使,副元帅崔龙海对北京进行了一次访问。

这表明,朝鲜“朝鲜愿意接受中国方面的建议,并同相关各方进行对话。”

崔龙海递交了金正日写给习近平的信件,金正恩在信中承诺:“会通过六方会谈以及其他方式适当解决相关问题”,又表示平壤“愿意就此采取积极措施”。

 

7月份,中国国家副主席,政治局常务委员李源潮访问平壤。

 

金正恩告诉李源潮,朝鲜“支持中国为努力重启六方会谈所做的工作,而且愿意同各方一起,为保持朝鲜半岛的和平和稳定而共同努力。”

 

虽然,上述保证并没有伴随任何具体行动,但对中国来说已经足够了,足够他们借此积极推进另一轮的六方会谈。

Evidence of a widening gap between the U.S. and China is growing.  When China’s special representative for Korean Peninsula affairs Wu Dawei met with Glyn Davies in Beijing on September 12, he called on all parties to make greater efforts for the resumption of the six-party talks.  Without consulting Washington, China and North Korea machinated a Track 1.5 meeting for September 18 and announced that Chinese and North Korean nuclear negotiators would attend.  However, the U.S., Japan, and South Korea deemed such a meeting premature.  Although Davies publicly commended Beijing for convening the meeting, Washington was surely peeved at the surprise initiative.  The US had instead hoped for talks among the five nations that are demanding denuclearization—Japan, South Korea, the US, China, and Russia.

有证据显示,中美之间的政策差异正在加大。

912日,中国朝鲜半岛事务特别代表武大伟在北京会见了美国的朝鲜政策特别代表格林戴维斯,武大伟呼吁各方为重启六方会谈做出更大的努力。

9月18日,未同华盛顿商议,中朝策划了一个跟踪 1.5会议,并宣布,中朝两国的核谈判代表将出席该会议。

但是,美国,日本,朝鲜认为,召开这个会议的时机不成熟,虽然戴维斯公开称赞北京召开此项会议,但是,毫无疑问,华盛顿对这个突如其来的倡议感到恼怒。

相反,美国希望进行由日,韩,中,美,俄参与的五方会谈,来解决朝鲜半岛无核化问题。

At a recent meeting I attended in Shanghai, a leading academic emphasized that although the US and China both seek common goals on the Korean Peninsula, they have different bottom lines.  China’s bottom line is that North Korea not cause problems, while the U.S. bottom line is denuclearization and regime change, he maintained.  In other words, Pyongyang is no longer challenging Beijing’s bottom line because for the time being it has refrained from taking destabilizing actions.  Therefore, there can be a return to business as usual, including resumption of the six-party talks.  Moreover, China remains hopeful that North Korea will implement economic reforms, which is widely viewed by Chinese as the only real means to an eventual decision by Pyongyang to abandon its nuclear weapons.

我最近在上海参加了一个会议,一位学术权威强调,虽然中国和美国都在寻求解决朝鲜半岛问题的共同目标,但是双方的底线是不同的。

 

他断言:中国的底线是,朝鲜不要挑事,不要无事生非,而美国的底线是无核化,和朝鲜的政权更迭。

 

换句话说,朝鲜暂时偃旗息鼓,不再挑战北京的底线。因此,一切有可能照常进行,包括重启六方会谈。

 

中方依然希望,朝鲜愿意实行经济改革,中国舆论普遍认为,这是让平壤最终决定放弃核武器的唯一现实的手段。

It appears that we are back to square one.  The US and China both favor a Korean Peninsula free of nuclear weapons, but they support different means to achieve that goal.  The widening gap between China and the United States in policy toward North Korea does not bode well for their efforts to establish a new type of major power relationship.

看来,绕来绕去,我们又退回到了原点。中美都赞成朝鲜半岛无核化。

 

但是,他们却殊途同归,双方在这一问题上,悬殊加大,对两个大国努力建立一种新型关系来说,不是一个好兆头。

Bonnie Glaser is Senior Adviser for Asia at the Center for

 Strategic and International Studies

美国国际战略研究中心高级研究员邦妮格拉泽

 

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标签:

college

education

tuition

fee

loan

分类: Culture

A  personal  mission‏

                                         by President Barack Obama (president@messages.whitehouse.gov)

2013/9/20

 


Source language  

Target language

Hello, everybody --

嗨,大家好:

Michelle and I know exactly how tough it can be to pay for higher education. By the time we finished paying back the loans we took out to go to college and grad school, I was on my way to being a U.S. Senator.

米歇尔和我都非常清楚,要支付高等教育的费用有多么的艰难,直到我即将成为美国参议员时,总算才还清上大学和上研究生时的贷款。

I believe that anyone who works hard should have the same opportunities that our educations gave us. That's why, as President, I've made it a personal mission to make higher education more affordable -- and why I'm going to be visiting school campuses later this week.

 

我相信任何一个努力工作的人,都应该拥有我们的教育所给予我们的同等的机遇。这就是为什么,作为一位总统,我把让高等教育收费更便宜,作为我的一项个人使命。也正因为这个,我将于本周晚些时候参观几所校园。

Learn more about why this is the time to take action.

了解更多,明白为什么说,现在就该采取行动了

The facts are clear. Over the past three decades, the average tuition at a public four-year college has more than tripled. At the same time, many state governments are actually reducing their support for education, and many middle-class students are getting stuck with the tab. Today, the average student taking out loans to pay for education graduates with more than $26,000 in debt

事实很清楚。过去30年来,公立大学4年制的平均学费,是原来的3倍多。同时,许多州政府事实上削减了多教育的扶持力度,许多中产阶级的学生因学费高昂,而陷入困境。目前,为完成学业而贷款的大学毕业生,平均负债高达26000美元。

Just tinkering around the edges won't be enough: To create a better bargain for the middle class, we have to fundamentally rethink about how higher education is paid for in this country. We've got to shake up the current system.

光是在边缘修修补补还不够,为了给中产阶级打造更实惠的高等教育,我们必须从根本上反思一下,我国的高等教育是如何收费的,我们必须大力整顿现行体制。

That's why, starting Thursday, I will be embarking on a bus tour to offer my plan to make college more affordable, tackle rising costs, and improve value for students and their families. My plan includes real reforms that would bring lasting change. They won't all be popular with everyone --including some who've made higher education their business -- but it's past time that more of our colleges work better for the students they exist to serve

鉴于此,从星期四起,我将着手开始一项公车之旅,提出我的计划,内容包括:大学收费更实惠,解决高成本,减少学生及其家庭的开支。我的计划所囊括的真正改革,将会带来长远的变革。可能那些举措不会让每个人都喜欢因为其中的一些人,靠高等教育挣钱。可那只是过去,现在,越来越多的大学在为学生服务方面做得越来越好,因为学生就是他们的衣食父母。

 

Over the past four and a half years, we've worked to put college in reach for more students and their families through tax credits, improving access to financial aid, and new options that make it easier to repay those loans.

在过去的四年半里,为了让更多的学生上得起大学,并减轻其家庭负担,我们做了一些工作,通过税收抵免,扩大财政援助面,开辟助学贷款还款新途径等方式,让学生还贷更容易一点。

But if we're going to keep the doors of higher education open to everyone who works for it, we need to do more -- much more. And that's exactly what I'm going to be talking about this week.

但是,如果我们要敞开高等教育的大门,让每一个莘莘学子都能上大学,我们需要做更多,更多的事情。这正是本周我将要谈论的话题。

So learn more here, then help to spread the word:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/college-affordability

Thanks,

Barack Obama

因此,如果你想了解更多内容,请帮助转发如下内容:http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/college-affordability

谢谢!

巴拉克。奥巴马

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标签:

solider

citizen

combat

forces

defend

军事

分类: Army


Members of the 69th marching in NYC's St. Patrick's Day Parade

平民军人参加第69届纽约市圣帕特里克节游行

 

Source language 

Target language (译

Who Is a Citizen Soldier?

 

谁是平民军人?

Citizen soldiers are everyday people who willingly put their lives on hold to defend, aid, and protect their communities and their country.

 

Answerable to both the President of the United States and the Governor of New York, the New York National Guard mobilizes in response to natural disasters and emergencies here at home and also serves as combat forces around the world.

 

In a tradition begun in the days of the colonial militia and continuing over three centuries, New York's citizen soldiers stand prepared to assist their neighbors and protect the nation whenever they are called.

 

平民军人是指自愿把一生奉献给保卫,援助,以及保护所在社区乃至国家的普通百姓。

他们对美国总统,纽约州州长负责。

 

纽约国民警卫队的军人的职责是,响应或参与国内的自然灾难救援,紧急事件处理,也可充当世界范围的作战部队。

 

传统上,平民军人始建于殖民时代的殖民地民兵,这一制度延续至今,已有300多年历史。纽约的平民士兵们时刻准备着,无论何时,一旦接到号令,就立即援助邻居,或者是保卫祖国。

 

 

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标签:

syria

artists

threaten

death

分类: politics

Iran's cartoonists find new lines of expression_r

 

 

Source language   (   )

Target language

9/19/2013

Iran's cartoonists find new lines of expression_r

 

 

伊朗漫画家找到新的表达方式

Less than a week after the cartoon was published, Ferzat was accosted outside of his office by masked gunmen.

"The president's boot is better than you," they told him, before breaking every finger in his hands and leaving him for dead.

"At that moment, I thought that I was going to say good-bye to life. But I also thought I had to accept the outcome of what I'd done. I had to stand behind what I believed in," admits Ferzat, who was recently in London for an exhibition of Syrian art organized by the charity Mosaic Syria, who is using proceeds from the sales to fund their relief work.

Hands healed, Ferzat continues to draw politically charged cartoons, but now lives outside Syria. If he was ever reticent about caricaturing the atrocities taking place in his home country, he isn't now.

"I was really happy to start drawing again. It was like a second chance. After what happened to me, I had more resolve to tell the whole world. I went to the front line. It's been even more important for me to speak out against the regime," he says.

 

漫画发表后,还不到一周,菲尔萨特就被蒙面枪手叫出了办公室外头。

蒙面人把他的十根手指齐齐弄断,说:“总统的鞋子都比你好得多。”(你连给总统提个鞋子都不配),他当时疼得死去活来,而那伙人却扬长而去。菲尔萨特承认;“当时,我想,我快死了,可我还想到,我得为我所做的事,承担后果,我必须坚持自己的信仰。”他最近去伦敦出席了一个展览会,是关于叙利亚艺术的,该展会由一个名叫叙利亚马赛克的慈善团体组织主办,其目的是利用展会销售所得资助他们所从事的的救援工作。

手伤痊愈后,菲尔萨特继续画政治题材的漫画,只是,他目前不住在叙利亚了。如果说,他以前所画的讽刺本国的暴行的漫画,还有所保留的话,但现在,可是毫不留情面了。他说:“能够再次开始画画,我真的非常高兴,感觉就像是机遇再次来临了,经历了那些事之后,我会更加坚决地告诉世人事情的真相。我要上前线,对我来说,大声说出对现政权的反对意见,才更加重要。”

 

Video: Egypt's first comedy factory

 

Though exile is not an easy life, those cartoonists that haven't managed to escape face a potentially worse fate. Last year, another Syrian artist, Akram Raslan, was arrested and hasn't been heard from since. Russell, who has been lobbying for Raslan's release, fears he may be dead.

"We sent a letter to Syrian ambassador in Washington, D.C, and a few days later heard his trial had been delayed. We thought, 'Oh, how wonderful.' Two weeks later, we heard he'd been killed," he says.

Recognizing the dangers that many cartoonists face, Iranian Nikahang Kowsar who fled Iran in 2003, is working on an online platform that allows cartoonists to use templates to create their own satires anonymously.

"That way, people can use those characters to question the authorities, without having it traced back to, say, the Syrian or Iranian cyber army," he says. "It's our way of giving a voice to the voiceless."

 

 

录像:埃及的第一座喜剧工厂

 

不过,背井离乡的日子并不容易,那些没能想办法逃避的漫画家们,他们所面临的的命运,可能更加悲惨。去年,另一个叙利亚籍的艺术家,阿克拉姆。拉斯蓝被捕后,就从此杳无音讯了。

为了释放拉斯蓝,鲁塞尔一直在为他说情,他害怕,他自己可能也会遭此厄运。他表示:“我们给驻华盛顿的叙利亚大使写了一封信,几天后,就听说已经决定了,拉斯蓝案延期审判。我们就想,哦,太好!可两周后,我们听说他被杀了。”

 意识到许多漫画家面临重重危险,伊朗的倪卡航。寇飒在2003年逃出伊朗,目前在一家网络平台工作,漫画家可以匿名用模板创作讽刺作品。他说:“这样一来,人们可以利用那些漫画人物去质问现政权,政府也没法追踪漫画的出处,比如说,如果叙利亚或者是伊朗的网络部队要跟踪的话。”“我们就是用这种方式来向那些沉默的人,表达我们的看法。”



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