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铭记箴言

【余光中】 译者未必有学者的权威,或是作家的声誉,但其影响未必较小,甚或更大。译者日与伟人的心灵为伍,见贤思齐,当其意会笔到,每能超凡入圣,成为神之巫师,天才之代言人。此乃寂寞之译者独享之特权。

 

【鲁 迅】 明哲之士,必洞达世界之大势,权衡校量,去其偏颇,得其神明,施之国中,翕合无间。外之既不后于世界之思潮,内之仍弗失固有之血脉,取今复古,别立新宗,人生意义,致之深邃,则国人之自觉至,个性张,沙聚之邦,由是转为人国。人国既建,乃始雄厉无前,屹然独见于天下,更何有于肤浅凡庸之事物哉? 


【根茨勒】 翻译再不是精英知识分子的“游戏”,或文学学术的注脚,它与整个地区(乃至整个世界)里每个人的生命及生活息息相关。EdwinGentzler: Translation ceases to be an eliteintellectual "game", a footnote to literary scholarship, butbecomes ... lives and livelihood of everyone in the entire region(and maybe the world).


【塞内加】这个俗世中的事情是渺小琐屑的,我们之所以决定还要在其中活下去,是因为它尚有值得研究的地方。

Seneca: Pusillares mundus est nisi in illo quod quaerat omnis mundus habeat.

吾爱吾师

牛喘月博客

国学大师:深谙中华典籍

羽毛笔会

虞建华教授:上外文学研究院 

生活不在别处

吴赟:久未更新却意犹未尽

翻译资源

中国翻译协会

Translators Association CN

中英圣经在线

《圣经》中英译本

古英语词典

Dictionary of Old English

早期现代英语词典

LEME: Early Modern English

英国国家语料库

British National Corpus

当代美语语料库

Corpus of Contemporary AE

句酷双语例句搜索

用搜索解决翻译

中国译典

中国翻译语料库

CNKI翻译助手

辅助在线翻译系统

深度阅读
© The New Yorker 1925
 

《纽约客》

THE NEW YORKER

··········

        创刊于1925年,具有纽约独特的大都会风格,面向那些能够欣赏其幽默和深入报道的读者。都市精英知识分子的定位为其带来了大量优秀的记着和作家,大量的长文报道向美国的中上层知识分子讲述着他们应该关注的社会话题。

        杂志第一期封面上那戴着单眼镜、穿着讲究的公子形象,被称为“EustaceTilly”,后来成为《纽约客》的形象标识。《纽约客》现在“早已成为美国人社会传统的一部分,成为纽约乃至美国知识分子的一个象征。”

 

 

《经济学人》

THE ECONOMIST

··········

        最早于1843年由詹姆士·威尔逊在伦敦创办,目的是“参与一场推动前进的智慧与阻碍我们进步的胆怯无知之间的较量”,这句话被印在每一期杂志的目录页上。读者定位为高收入、富有独立见解和批判精神的社会精英。因而文章始终保持了一种独特的格调:不拘一格、叙述朴实、用词准确和忠于事实。

        时至今日,这份始终以报纸自居的杂志,不仅深度分析了时势、政治观点、商业金融,还涉及到科学技术及艺术。无论主题是什么,经济学家的独立、坦率、简练和尊重事实的品质,使其卓尔不群,堪称典范。

 
且听风吟
电波时间
 


 
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© Photo by sami k

   

LEISURE

闲情赋

 

By W. H. Davies

威廉·亨利·戴维斯

 

■  译  |  佚名

 

What is this life if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare?—

 

No time to stand beneath the boughs,
And stare as long as sheep and cows:

 

No time to see, when woods we pass,
Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass:

 

No time to see, in broad daylight,
Streams full of stars, like skies at night:

 

No time to turn at Beauty's glance,
And watch her feet, how they can dance:

 

No time to wait till her mouth can
Enrich that smile her eyes began?

 

A poor life this if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.

此生何有 郁郁烦忧
未有片刻 延伫凝眸

 

未有片刻 树荫伫留
凝眸良久 如羊与牛

 

未有片刻 止步林薮
见彼松鼠 藏实蒿蒌

 

楚天之下 片刻未有
以见星斗 尽浴川流

 

未有片刻 以睇神姝
睹其仙足 旋蹈旋舞

 

未有片刻 以观其口
渐漾笑靥 续引双眸

 

郁郁烦忧 此生何有
倘无片刻 延伫凝眸

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 阅读这条河

 ( 节选自《密西西比河上》)

 

[美] 马克·吐温

 

■ 译 |  顾忆青

 

(译文)

 

终于,河面成了一本奇书——对于未曾有过航行经验的旅客,书上的文字晦涩难懂;可它却毫无保留地向我倾诉,将它最珍贵的秘密告诉我,清晰得就像真的在说话。这本书不能只读一遍就扔在一旁,因为它每天都会讲一个新的故事。在这漫长的一千两百英里中,没有哪一页会了无趣味,没有哪一页能略去不读而无所失,没有哪一页你忍心跳过,以为在别处能寻到更大的乐趣。在人类所写的书中,从未有哪一本像这样神奇。它是如此引人入胜、历久弥新,每每重读都有全新之感。读不懂这本书的旅客,只因水面泛起一片浅浅的涟漪,便为之陶醉(难得他没有错过这番景象)。然而,对于领航员而言,那则是书中标为斜体的重点段落。更确切地说,那简直是一段用全部大写的头号字体印刷的题词,末尾处还加上了一长串惊叹号。它预示着水面之下,隐藏着一艘沉船或是一块暗礁,足以令途经此处最坚固的船只翻覆。这是河水最细微、最简约的表达,而领航员却能从中窥见最可怕的景象。事实上,读不懂这本书的旅客所看到的,仅是各种由阳光绘成、由云彩勾勒的美丽图画;而在有经验的人眼中,则毫无图画可言,那是最无情、最严酷的读物。

我终于掌握这河水的语言,并逐渐认识河岸边每一处细微的景致,就像我对字母表这般熟悉,现在我才真正有所收获。但我也失去了一些东西。这些失去的,我毕生难以挽回。这条壮丽的河流上,一切的优雅、美丽、诗意都不复存在!我依然记得亲眼目睹的一场日落,那时候我才刚开始驾驶汽船。宽阔的河面被映照得一派通红,在远处中央,红色闪耀着被染成金黄。一根黝黑的孤木漂来,惹人注目。有一处地方,一道长长的水纹斜映在波光粼粼的河面上;另一处,翻腾起伏的漩涡打破了河面的平静,恍若一块蛋白石,泛出五彩的光泽。在红色最浅的地方,有一处平静的河面,遍布着圆形的波纹和伸展的线条,姿态绰约,宛如工笔细描而成;左边的河岸上是茂密的树林,这片森林投下的倒影,被一长道潋滟的银光划破;在那林墙高处,一棵光干枯树摇曳着唯一有叶的树枝,在日落余辉横照中,如火焰般耀眼。这里有飘逸的曲线、倒映的影像、林木荫翳的山丘,以及光线柔和的远景。远近各处,全景之上,逐渐消逝的日光正缓缓荡漾,每一刹那,它都以变换莫测的新奇色彩,令整幅画面更为壮观。

我驻足于此,心醉神迷。在无言的狂喜中,我陶醉于这一切。眼前这个世界完全是崭新的,我在家乡从不曾见过这般景致。但正如我所言,终于有一天,对于日光月华、晨晖暮色在河面上绘就的壮阔美景,我逐渐不再留意;再有一天,我完全就不理会这些了。所以,即便那场日落之景再次重现,我也丝毫不会为之动容,并且还会在心里这般横加解释:“这样的太阳表示明天将会起风;漂浮的木桩表示河水正在涨潮,这不是件好事;河面上斜映的水纹意味着下面有块陡峭的暗礁,如果水纹一直这么斜着,没准这几天晚上就会掀翻某人的船;翻腾的漩涡表示那里有座逐渐消散的沙洲,河床也发生了变化。远处平静的河面上,那线条与波纹是种警告,预示着驶入浅滩的危险。森林倒影中那道潋滟银光,是河中新竖起的暗桩所形成的“关卡”,所立之处恰好能令汽船搁浅;那棵只剩一根活枝的光干枯树,即将走到生命的尽头,若是没了这个亲切的老航标,水手们如何能在黑夜里安全通过这片迷蒙之地?

唉,河上的良辰美景全都无影无踪了。对我而言,这一切景致所具有的全部价值,仅仅在于能为汽船的安全行驶提供导航。自那时起,我开始由衷地对医生感到怜悯。美人脸颊上泛出的红晕,在医生眼中,除了是因某种绝症而引起的“征兆”之外,还有何其他意义?她那妩媚动人的姿色,在他看来,难道不是红颜逝去的迹象吗?他究竟是否真正见识过她的美貌,是否只是简单地以医生的眼光观察她,暗自评判她那欠佳的健康状况?他是否会曾犹豫,学了这一行,究竟是收获更多,还是损失更大呢?

 

(原文)

 

READING THE RIVER

from Life on the Mississippi, Chapter 9 Continued Perplexities

 

by Mark Twain

 

The face of the water, in time, became a wonderful book--a book that was a dead language to the uneducated passenger, but which told its mind to me without reserve, delivering its most cherished secrets as clearly as if it uttered them with a voice. And it was not a book to be read once and thrown aside, for it had a new story to tell every day. Throughout the long twelve hundred miles there was never a page that was void of interest, never one that you could leave unread without loss, never one that you would want to skip, thinking you could find higher enjoyment in some other thing. There never was so wonderful a book written by man; never one whose interest was so absorbing, so unflagging, so sparkingly renewed with every reperusal. The passenger who could not read it was charmed with a peculiar sort of faint dimple on its surface (on the rare occasions when he did not overlook it altogether); but to the pilot that was an ITALICIZED passage; indeed, it was more than that, it was a legend of the largest capitals, with a string of shouting exclamation points at the end of it; for it meant that a wreck or a rock was buried there that could tear the life out of the strongest vessel that ever floated. It is the faintest and simplest expression_r the water ever makes, and the most hideous to a pilot's eye. In truth, the passenger who could not read this book saw nothing but all manner of pretty pictures in it painted by the sun and shaded by the clouds, whereas to the trained eye these were not pictures at all, but the grimmest and most dead-earnest of reading-matter.

Now when I had mastered the language of this water and had come to know every trifling feature that bordered the great river as familiarly as I knew the letters of the alphabet, I had made a valuable acquisition. But I had lost something, too. I had lost something which could never be restored to me while I lived. All the grace, the beauty, the poetry had gone out of the majestic river! I still keep in mind a certain wonderful sunset which I witnessed when steamboating was new to me. A broad expanse of the river was turned to blood; in the middle distance the red hue brightened into gold, through which a solitary log came floating, black and conspicuous; in one place a long, slanting mark lay sparkling upon the water; in another the surface was broken by boiling, tumbling rings, that were as many-tinted as an opal; where the ruddy flush was faintest, was a smooth spot that was covered with graceful circles and radiating lines, ever so delicately traced; the shore on our left was densely wooded, and the somber shadow that fell from this forest was broken in one place by a long, ruffled trail that shone like silver; and high above the forest wall a clean-stemmed dead tree waved a single leafy bough that glowed like a flame in the unobstructed splendor that was flowing from the sun. There were graceful curves, reflected images, woody heights, soft distances; and over the whole scene, far and near, the dissolving lights drifted steadily, enriching it, every passing moment, with new marvels of coloring.

I stood like one bewitched. I drank it in, in a speechless rapture. The world was new to me, and I had never seen anything like this at home. But as I have said, a day came when I began to cease from noting the glories and the charms which the moon and the sun and the twilight wrought upon the river's face; another day came when I ceased altogether to note them. Then, if that sunset scene had been repeated, I should have looked upon it without rapture, and should have commented upon it, inwardly, after this fashion: This sun means that we are going to have wind to-morrow; that floating log means that the river is rising, small thanks to it; that slanting mark on the water refers to a bluff reef which is going to kill somebody's steamboat one of these nights, if it keeps on stretching out like that; those tumbling 'boils' show a dissolving bar and a changing channel there; the lines and circles in the slick water over yonder are a warning that that troublesome place is shoaling up dangerously; that silver streak in the shadow of the forest is the 'break' from a new snag, and he has located himself in the very best place he could have found to fish for steamboats; that tall dead tree, with a single living branch, is not going to last long, and then how is a body ever going to get through this blind place at night without the friendly old landmark.

No, the romance and the beauty were all gone from the river. All the value any feature of it had for me now was the amount of usefulness it could furnish toward compassing the safe piloting of a steamboat. Since those days, I have pitied doctors from my heart. What does the lovely flush in a beauty's cheek mean to a doctor but a 'break' that ripples above some deadly disease. Are not all her visible charms sown thick with what are to him the signs and symbols of hidden decay? Does he ever see her beauty at all, or doesn't he simply view her professionally, and comment upon her unwholesome condition all to himself? And doesn't he sometimes wonder whether he has gained most or lost most by learning his trade?

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詩經·秦風·蒹葭

        蒹葭蒼蒼,白露爲霜。所謂伊人,在水一方。  
        溯洄從之,道阻且長。溯遊從之,宛在水中央。

        蒹葭萋萋,白露未晞。所謂伊人,在水之湄。  
        溯洄從之,道阻且跻。溯遊從之,宛在水中坻。

        蒹葭采采,白露未已。所謂伊人,在水之涘。  
        溯洄從之,道阻且右。溯遊從之,宛在水中沚。
 

 

 

     

 

           James Legge 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The reeds and rushes are deeply green,
And the white dew is turned into hoarfrost.
The man of whom I think
Is somewhere about the water.
I go up the stream in quest of him,
But the way is difficult and long.
I go down the stream in quest of him,
And lo! He is right in the midst of the water.

 

The reeds and rushes are luxuriant,
And the white dew is not yet dry.
The man of whom I think
Is on the margin of the water.
I go up the stream in quest of him,
But the way is difficult and steep.
I go down the stream in quest of him,
And lo! He is on the islet in the midst of the water.

 

The reeds and rushes are abundant,
And the white dew has not yet ceased.
The man of whom I think
Is on the bank of the river.
I go up the stream in quest of him,
But the way is difficult and turns to the right.
I go down the stream in quest of him,
And lo! He is on the island in the midst of the water.

 

Translated by James Legge
(The Shih King or Book of Poetry, 1871)

 

·······································································

 

 

         Arthur Waley

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 





Thick grow the rush leaves;
Their white dew turns to frost.
He whom I love
Must be somewhere along this stream.
I went up the river to look for him,
But the way was difficult and long.
I went down the stream to look for him,
And there in mid-water
Sure enough, it’s he!

 

Close grow the rush leaves,
Their white dew not yet dry.
He whom I love
Is at the water’s side.
Up stream I sought him;
But the way was difficult and steep.
Down stream I sought him,
And away in mid-water
There on a ledge, that’s he!

 

Very fresh are the rush leaves;
The white dew still falls.
He whom I love
Is at the water’s edge.
Up stream I followed him;
But the way was hard and long.
Down stream I followed him,
And away in mid-water
There on the shoals is he!

 

Translated by Arthur Waley
(The Book of Songs, 1937)

 

·······································································

 

 

             Ezra Pound
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dark, dark be reed and rush,
the white dew turns to frost;
    What manner of man is this?
                                      lost?
    Gin I rin up,
    Gin I go down,
    Up stream heavy, there he’d be
    In mid water distantly.

 

Chill, chill be the reeds,
the white dew not yet dry;
    What manner of man is he
    Under the hanging bank?


    Up stream heavily,
    Gin I swim down,
    On tufted isle
    Distantly.

 

Ever falls dew on bright reeds.
    What manner of thing is he
    who seems to be there on the marge


    Up stream, to the West, at large?
    Hard to go up, to swim, tho’ he seem
    there on the isle, mid-stream.

 

Translated by Ezra Pound
(The Confucian Odes, 1954)

 

·······································································

 

              许渊冲 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

        

 

The reeds grow green;
    Frosted dew-drops gleam.
Where was she seen?
    Beyond the stream.
Upstream I go;
    The way's so long.
And downstream,lo!
    She's thereamong.

 

The reeds turn white,
    Dew not yet dried.
Where's she so bright?
    On the other side.
Upstream I go;
    Hard is the way.
And downstream.lo!
    She's far away.

 

The reeds still there,
    With frost dews blend.
Where's she so fair?
    At river's end.
Upstream I go;
    The way does wind.
And downstream,lo!
    She's far behind.

 

Translated by 许渊冲

(Book of Poetry, 1993)

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SCARBOROUGH FAIR

斯卡布罗集市

 

■ 译 |  莲波

 

 译序)

闲来无事,听歌,听老歌。Scarborough Fair是我很喜欢的一首老歌。因为它不那么美国,因为它那种幽怨的低唱。我总觉得它和诗经有一种很微妙的契合,纵然一个是公元之前,而另一个是百世以后。它的旋律,仿佛是一阵清风,夹杂着野草野花的苦寒轻香,在大地上缓缓掠过;而我更看见一个穿白衣服的人摇着木铎,边走边呼唤着苍穹,在一望无际的大地与村庄之间采集梦幻。真的很难忘却这种莫名的联想。很喜欢在异邦的文明之中,还能寻出这样令我心折的古中国的意韵。试着用诗经的格式翻了下,填到原曲中,竟也能唱。 

 

······························

问尔所之,是否如适      Are you going to Scarborough Fair
蕙兰芫荽,郁郁香芷      Parsley sage rosemary and thyme
彼方淑女,凭君寄辞      Remember me to one who lives there
伊人曾在,与我相知      She once was a true love of mine

 

嘱彼佳人,备我衣缁      Tell her to make me a cambric shirt
蕙兰芫荽,郁郁香芷      Parsley sage rosemary and thyme
勿用针砧,无隙无疵      Without no seams nor needle work
伊人何在,慰我相思      Then she will be a true love of mine

 

彼山之阴,深林荒址      On the side of hill in the deep forest green
冬寻毡毯,老雀燕子      Tracing of sparrow on snow crested brown
雪覆四野,高山迟滞      Blankets and bed clothiers the child of maintain
眠而不觉,寒笳清嘶      Sleeps unawares of the clarion call

 

嘱彼佳人,营我家室      Tell her to find me an acre of land
蕙兰芫荽,郁郁香芷      Parsley sage rosemary and thyme
良田所修,大海之坻      Between the salt water and the sea strand
伊人应在,任我相视      Then she will be a true love of mine

 

彼山之阴,叶疏苔蚀      On the side of hill a sprinkling of leaves
涤我孤冢,珠泪渐渍      Washes the grave with slivery tears
昔我长剑,日日拂拭      A soldier cleans and polishes a gun
寂而不觉,寒笳长嘶      Sleeps unaware of the clarion call

 

嘱彼佳人,收我秋实      Tell her to reap it with a sickle of leather
蕙兰芫荽,郁郁香芷      Parsley sage rosemary and thyme
敛之集之,勿弃勿失      And gather it all in a bunch of heather
伊人犹在,唯我相誓      Then she will be a true love of mine

 

烽火印啸,浴血之师      War bellows blazing in scarlet battalions
将帅有令,勤王之事      Generals order their soldiers to kill and to fight for a cause
争斗缘何,久忘其旨      They have long ago forgotten
痴而不觉,寒笳悲嘶      Sleeps unaware of the clarion call

 

问尔所之,是否如适      Are you going to Scarborough Fair
蕙兰芫荽,郁郁香芷      Parsley sage rosemary and thyme
彼方淑女,凭君寄辞      Remember me to one who lives there
伊人曾在,与我相知      She once was a true love of mine

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普通读者

 

[英] 弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙

 
■
译 |  顾忆青

 

(译文)

 

有些地方不足以称为图书馆,但倒也藏书颇丰,是供个人修读之处。在那里,约翰逊博士[1]的《格雷传》里有句话,很值得抄写下来:“我乐同普通读者看法一致,因为在所有的精妙阐释和学究论断之后,要决定诗艺荣誉终归何属,全赖读者未受文学偏见腐化的普遍共识。”这句话对普通读者的性质加以界定,对其阅读宗旨加以推崇。这种挥霍大把时光,却难有实效的行为,因为有了伟人的这般赞许,而获得了认可。

约翰逊博士所谓的普通读者,与批评家和学者全然不同。他未曾受过如此教养,也无多少天赋可言。他读书仅是为了愉悦自身,而非传授知识,或是指摘他人。值得一提的是,他受着一种本能的驱使,依其消化的零星学识,来凭想全貌——某位人物的肖像、某个时代的掠影、某种写作艺术原理。这期间,他不断建造着心中的臆想之阁,尽管东到西歪、摇摇欲坠,但瞧着足以乱真,惹人喜爱也好,逗得欢笑也好、引发争论也好,这一切会使他获得片刻的满足。他这会儿拿来一首诗,那会儿又拾起一篇旧文残章,不管语出何处,也不论品类何属,只求心投意合,聊以润身。他总是如此匆促,想法欠妥,甚至肤浅,在批评家看来,他的缺陷太过明显,毋庸赘述。然而,诚如约翰逊博士所言,诗艺荣誉终归何属,普通读者也有发言权。如此说来,将自己的所思所想记录下来是值得的,尽管其本身微不足道,却也左右着终局。

 

-------------------------------

[1] 约翰逊博士:指塞缪尔·约翰逊(Samuel Johnson),英国文学史上的重要作家,其编纂的《英语词典》(Dictionary of the English Language, 1755)对英语语言发展作出了重大贡献。

 

(原文)

 

THE COMMON READER

 

Virginia Woolf

 

There is a sentence in Dr. Johnson’s Life of Gray which might well be written up in all those rooms, too humble to be called libraries, yet full of books, where the pursuit of reading is carried on by private people. “...I rejoice to concur with the common reader; for by the common sense of readers, uncorrupted by literary prejudices, after all the refinements of subtilty and the dogmatism of learning, must be finally decided all claim to poetical honours.” It defines their qualities; it dignifies their aims; it bestows upon a pursuit which devours a great deal of time, and is yet apt to leave behind it nothing very substantial, the sanction of the great man’s approval.

The common reader, as Dr. Johnson implies, differs from the critic and the scholar. He is worse educated, and nature has not gifted him so generously. He reads for his own pleasure rather than to impart knowledge or correct the opinions of others. Above all, he is guided by an instinct to create for himself, out of whatever odds and ends he can come by, some kind of whole — a portrait of a man, a sketch of an age, a theory of the art of writing. He never ceases, as he reads, to run up some rickety and ramshackle fabric which shall give him the temporary satisfaction of looking sufficiently like the real object to allow of affection, laughter, and argument. Hasty, inaccurate, and superficial, snatching now this poem, now that scrap of old furniture, without caring where he finds it or of what nature it may be so long as it serves his purpose and rounds his structure, his deficiencies as a critic are too obvious to be pointed out; but if he has, as Dr. Johnson maintained, some say in the final distribution of poetical honours, then, perhaps, it may be worth while to write down a few of the ideas and opinions which, insignificant in themselves, yet contribute to so mighty a result.

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朋友 Friends

 

■ 文 |  巴金    ■  译 |  张培基

 

这一次的旅行使我更了解一个名词的意义,这个名词就是:朋友。

On my recent travels, I came to realize still more fully the significance of the word “friend”.

 

七八天以前我曾对一个初次见面的朋友说:“在朋友们面前我只感到惭愧。你们待我太好了,我简直没法报答你们。”这并不是谦虚的客气话,这是事实。说过这些话,我第二天就离开了那个朋友,并不知道以后还有没有机会再看见他。但是他给我的那一点点温暖至今还使我的心颤动。

Seven or eight days ago, I said to a friend whom I had just come to know, “I can’t help feeling embarrassed before my friends. You’re all so nice to me. I simply don’t know how to repay your kindness,” I did not make this remark out of mere modesty and courtesy. I truly meant what I said. The next day, I said goodbye to this friend, not knowing if I could ever see him again. But the little warmth that he gave me has been keeping my heart throbbing with gratitude.

 

我的生命大概不会很长久罢。然而在短促的过去的回顾中却有一盏明灯,照彻了我的灵魂和黑暗,使我的生存有一点光彩。这盏灯就是友情。我应该感谢它。因为靠了它我才能够活到现在;而且把旧家庭给我留下的阴影扫除了的也正是它。

The length of my days will not be unlimited. However, whenever I look back on brief past life, I find a beacon illuminating my soul and thereby lending a little brightness to my being. That beacon is friendship. I should be grateful to it because it has helped me keep alive up to now and clear away the shadow left on me by my old family.

 

世间有不少的人为了家庭抛弃朋友,至少也会在家庭和朋友之间划一个界限,把家庭看得比朋友重过若干倍。这似乎是很自然的事情。我也曾亲眼看见一些人结婚以后就离开朋友,离开事业……

Many people forsake their friends in favor of their own families, or at least draw a line of demarcation between families and friends, considering the former to be many times more important than the latter. That seems to be a matter of course. I have also seen with my own eyes how some people abandon their friends as well as their own careers soon after they get married…

 

朋友是暂时的,家庭是永久的。在好些人的行为里我发现了这个信条。这个信条在我实在是不可理解的。对于我,要是没有朋友,我现在会变成怎样可怜的东西,我自己也不知道。

Friends are transient whereas families are lasting—that is the tenet, as I know, guiding the behavior of many people. To me, that is utterly inconceivable. Without friends, I would have been reduced to I don’t know what a miserable creature.

 

然而朋友们把我救了。他们给了我家庭所不能给的东西。他们的友爱,他们的帮助,他们的鼓励,几次把我从深渊的边沿救回来。他们对我表示了无限的慷慨。

Friends are my saviors. They give me things which it is beyond my family to give me. Thanks to their fraternal love, assistance and encouragement, I have time and again been saved from falling into an abyss while on its verge. They have been enormously generous towards me.

 

我的生活曾经是悲苦的,黑暗的。然而朋友们把多量的同情,多量的爱,多量的欢乐,多量的眼泪分了给我,这些东西都是生存所必需的。这些不要报答的慷慨的施舍,使我的生活里有了温暖,有了幸福。我默默地接受了它们。我并不曾说过一句感激的话,我也没有做过一件报答的行为。但是朋友们却不把自私的形容词加到我的身上。对于我,他们太慷慨了。

There was a time when my life was miserable and gloom. My friend then gave me in large quantities sympathy, love, joy, and tears—things essential for existence. It is due to their bountiful free gifts that I also have my share of warmth and happiness in my life. I accepted their kindnesses quietly without ever saying a word of thank and without ever doing anything in return. In spite of that, my friend never used the epithet “self-centered” when referring to me. They are only too generous towards me.

 

这一次我走了许多新地方,看见了许多新朋友。我的生活是忙碌的:忙着看,忙着听,忙着,忙着走。但是我不曾遇到一点困难,朋友们给我准备好了一切,使我不会缺少甚么。我每走到一个新地方,我就像回到我那个在上海被日本兵毁掉的旧居一样。

I visited many new places and met many new friends on my recent trip. My time was mostly taken up by looking around, listening, talking and walking. But I never ran into any trouble because my friends had done their utmost to make sure that I would be short of nothing. Whatever new places I called at, I always felt at home as if I were back in my old residence in shanghai which had already been raged to the ground by Japanese troops.

 

每一个朋友,不管他自己的生活是怎样苦,怎样简单,也要慷慨地分一些东西给我,虽然明知道我不能够报答他。有些朋友,连他们的名字我以前也不知道,他们却关心我的健康,处处打听我的“病况”,直到他们看见了我那被日光晒黑了的脸和膀子,他们才放心地微笑了。这种情形的确值得人掉眼泪。

No matter how hard up and frugal my friends themselves were, they would unstintingly share with me whatever they had, although they knew I would not be able to repay them for their kindness. Some, whom I did not even know by name, showed concern over my health and went about inquiring after me. It was not until they saw my suntanned face and arms that they began to smile a smile of relief. All that was enough to move one to tears.

 

有人相信我不写文章就不能够生活。两个月以前,一个同情我的上海朋友寄稿到广州《民国日报》的副刊,说了许多关于我的生活的话。他也说我一天不写文章第二天就没有饭吃。这是不确实的。这次旅行就给我证明:即使我不再写一个字,朋友们也不肯让我冻馁。世间还有许多慷慨的人,他们并不把自己个人和家庭看得异常重要,超过一切。靠了他们我才能够到现在,而且靠了他们我还要活下去。

Some people believe that, without writing, I would lose my livelihood. One of my sympathizers in an article published two months ago in the Guangzhou Republic Daily supplement, gives a full account of the conditions of my life. He also says that I would have nothing to live on once I should lay down my pen. That is not true at all. It has already been proved by my recent travels that my friend would never let me suffer from cold and hunger ever if I should go without writing a single word. There are a great many kind-hearted people in the world who never attach undue importance to themselves and their own families and who never place themselves and their families above anything else. It is owing to them that I still survive and shall continue to survive for a long time to come.

 

朋友们给我的东西是太多、太多了。我将怎样报答他们呢?但是我知道他们是不需要报答的。

I owe my friends many, many kindness. How can I repay them? But, I understand, they don’t need me to do that.

 

最近我在法国哲学家的书里读到了这样的话:“生命的一个条件就是消费……世间有一种不能跟生存分开的慷慨,要是没有了它,我们就会死,就会从内部干枯。我们必须开花。道德、无私心就是人生的花。”

Recently I came across the following words in a book by a French philosopher: One condition of life is consumption….Survival in this world is inseparable from generousity, without which we would perish and become dried-up from with-in. We must put forth flowers. Moral integrity and unselfishness are the flowers of life. (Jean-Marie Guyau)

 

在我的眼前开放着这么多的人生的花朵了。我的生命要到甚么时候才会开花?难道我已经是“内部干枯”了么?

Now so many flowers of life are in full bloom before my eyes. When can my life put forth flowers? Am I already dried-up from within?

 

一个朋友说过:“我若是灯,我就要用我的光明来照彻黑暗。”

A friend of mine says, “if I were a lamp, I would illuminate darkness with my light.”

 

我不配做一盏明灯。那么就让我做一块木柴罢。我愿意把我从太阳那里受到的热放散出来,我愿意把自己烧得粉身碎骨给人间添一点点温暖。

I, however, don’t qualify for a bright lamp. Let me be a piece of firewood instead. I’ll radiate the heat that I have absorbed from the sun. I’ll burn myself to ashes to provide this human world with a little warmth.

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不要抛弃学问

 ——中国公学十八年级毕业赠言

 

■ 文 |  胡适

 

诸位毕业同学:

你们现在要离开母校了,我没有什么礼物送给你们,只好送你们一句话罢。

这一句话是:“不要抛弃学问。”以前的功课也许有一大部分是为了这张毕业文凭,不得已而做的。从今以后,你们可以依自己的心愿去自由研究了。趁现在年富力强的时候,努力做一种专门学问。少年是一去不复返的,等到精力衰时,要做学问也来不及了。即为吃饭计,学问决不会辜负人的。吃饭而不求学问,三年五年之后,你们都要被后进少年淘汰掉的。到那时再想做点学问来补救,恐怕已太晚了。

有人说:“出去做事之后,生活问题亟须解决,哪有工夫去读书?即使要做学问,既没有图书馆,又没有实验室,哪能做学问?”

我要对你们说:凡是要等到有了图书馆方才读书的,有了图书馆也不肯读书。凡是要等到有了实验室方才做研究的,有了实验室也不肯做研究。你有了决心要研究一个问题,自然会撙衣节食去买书,自然会想出法子来设置仪器。

至于时间,更不成问题。达尔文一生多病,不能多做工,每天只能做一点钟的工作。你们看他的成绩!每天花一点钟看十页有用的书,每年可看三千六百多页书,三十年读约十一万页书。

诸位,十一万页书可以使你成一个学者了。可是,每天看三种小报也得费你一点钟的工夫;四圈麻将也得费你一点半钟的光阴。看小报呢,还是打麻将呢,还是努力做一个学者呢?全靠你们自己的选择!

易卜生说:“你的最大责任是把你这块材料铸造成器。”

学问便是铸器的工具。抛弃了学问便是毁了你自己。

再会了!你们的母校眼睁睁地要看你们十年之后成什么器。

 

Never Give Up the Pursuit of Learning

 

■ 译、注 |  张培基

 

Dear students of the Graduating Class,

As you are leaving your alma mater, I have nothing to offer you as a gift except a word of advice.

My advice is, "Never give up the pursuit of learning." You have perhaps finished your college courses mostly for obtaining the diploma, or, in other words, out of sheer necessity. However, from now on you are free to follow your own bent in the choice of studies. While you are in the prime of life, why not devote yourselves to a special field of study? Youth will soon be gone never to return. And it will be too late for you to go into scholarship when in your declining years. Knowledge will do you a good turn even as a means of subsistence. If you give up studies while holding a job, you will in a couple of years have had yourselves replaced by young people. It will then be too late to remedy the situation by picking up studies again.

Some people say, "Once you have a job, you'll come up against the urgent problem of making a living. How can you manage to find time to study? Even if you want to, will it be possible with no library or laboratory available?"

Now let me tell you this. Those who refuse to study for lack of a library will most probably continue to do so even though there is a library. And those who refuse to do research for lack of a laboratory will most probably continue to do so even though a laboratory is available. As long as you set your mind on studies, you will naturally cut down on food and clothing to buy books or do everything possible to acquire necessary instruments.

Time is no object. Charles Darwin could only work one hour a day due to ill health. Yet what a remarkable man he was! If you spend one hour a day reading 10 pages of a book, you can finish more than 3,600 pages a year, and 110,000 pages in 30 years.

Dear students, 110000 pages will be quite enough to make a learned man of you. It will take you one hour to read three tabloids a day, and one and half hours to finish four rounds of mah-jong a day. Reading tabloids, playing mah-jongs or striving to be a learned man, the choice lies with you.

Henrik Ibsen says, "It's your supreme duty to cast yourself into a useful implement."

Learning is the casting mould. Forsake learning, and you will ruin yourself.

Farewell! Your alma mater is watching eagerly to see what will become of you ten years from now.

 

------------------------------------

1) “不要抛弃学问”在这里的意思是“不要放弃对学问的追求”,因此不能直译为 Never Give up Learning ,必须加字:Never Give up the Pursuit of Learning.

2)“你们可以依自己的心愿自由去研究了”译为you are free to follow your own bent in the choice of studies,其中to follow one's own bent 是成语,和to follow one's inclination 同义,作“做自己感兴趣或爱做的事”解。

3)“做学问”译为to go into scholarship, 等于to engage in learning 。

4)“学问决不会辜负人的”译为Knowledge will do you a good turn ,其中to do one a good turn 是成语,作“做对某人有益的事”解。

5)“撙衣节食”即“省吃省穿”,现译为cut down on food and clothing, 其中to cut down on 是成语,与to economize on同义,作“节约”解。又,上语也可译为to live frugally.

6)“至于时间,更不成问题”译为Time is no object, 其中no object 是成语, 等于no problem, 作“不成问题”或“不在话下”解。

7)“全靠你们自己的选择”为the choie lies with you 或it is up to you to make the choice.

8)“你们的母校眼睁睁地要看……”中的“眼睁睁地”通常的意思是“无可奈何地”,现在这里做"热切地"解,故译为eagerly。

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■ 译、注 |  顾忆青

 

1. Seven wealthy towns contend for Homer dead, 

    Through which the living Homer begg'd his bread.

—Thomas Seward: On Homer (1788) 

 

荷马活的时候穷得讨饭,死后有七个城拍他的马屁,说荷马是他们老乡。

(摘自《李敖:坐牢家爸爸给女儿的八十封信》之七十一“古希腊的辉煌”。)

荷马生前从贫乞,死后七城拍“马”屁。

 

这是历史惯常出现的图景,不禁让我想起了那个生前潦倒,身后哀荣的梵高——柯灵先生曾在《画意绵绵》中这样叹道:“十年寒窗无人问,一死成名天下知”,其义大凡相似,颇令人怅惋。至于译文,句中的“马”屁乃是亮点,一语双关,以中文锐利的表达力再现原文的讽刺之味。

 

2. Marriage is like a beleaguered fortress: those who are without want to get in, and those within want to get out. ( Le mariage est comme une forteresse assiégée; ceux qui sont dehors veulent y entrer, et ceux qui sont dedans veulent en sortir. )

 

—P. M. Quitard: Études sur les Proverbes Français

 

婚姻像是一个被包围的堡垒:外边的想要进去,里边的人想要出来。

婚姻乃如围城:城外的想进去,城内的想出来。

 

这句话的出名归功于钱钟书的《围城》,其标题被译为:Fortress Besieged(由钱钟书授权、Jeanne Kelly和茅国权合译的《围城》英文版)。书中,褚慎明先引了一句英国古话,将婚姻比作鸟笼,笼外笼内的鸟儿,一个想进进不去,一个想出出不来。而苏文纨随后也引了一句意义相似的法国谚语,即是本句。杨绛如是说:“围在城里的人想逃出来,城外的人想冲进去,对婚姻也罢,职业也罢,人生的愿望大都如此。”这便是人生的困境。

 

3. Man is the only creature endowed with the power of laughter; is he not also the only one that deserves to be laughed at?

 

—Fulke Greville: Maxims, Characters, and Reflections

 

人是唯一能笑的动物,但人难道不也是唯一应该被讥笑的动物吗?

人乃唯一会笑之物,岂不也是唯一可笑之物吗?

 

富尔克·格雷维尔是英国伊丽莎白一世时期著名的诗人、剧作家和政治家,被冠以“布鲁克勋爵”之称。此句的关键在于,句式语气中重现其强烈的讥讽态度,后半句明显是反诘句(rhetorical question),应而可以译为如“难道不……”、“岂不是……”、“不也是……”这样的对应句式。此句原文前后字数相若,甚至前句多于后句;而平白译成中文后,却明显在前后句的字量上不甚对等,以至陷入相反的境地,我甚怀疑这是两种语言在表达反义时,固有的姿态,因为汉语无法像英语这般调换字序,便可即转其意,而是需要加标志词如上述提到的反诘词,这或许就是为何出现这种现象的原因吧。

 

4. A polite man is one who listens with interest to things he knows about, when they are told him by a person who knows nothing about them.

—De Morny

 

别人在他面前滔滔不绝,他对其所讲的事情已经知道得一清二楚,反倒是说话的人自己根本一无所知,作为一个有礼貌的人,他不会泼以冷水,而会继续乐于倾听。

所谓有礼貌的人,乃是如此:即便那人说的他早已了然于胸,甚至那人对其所言根本一无所知,他也会饶有兴趣地倾听。

 

我以为,诚心待人礼貌的人,是常怀宽容之心的人,那是一种非凡的气度和境界。“所谓……乃是”的译法很容易上手,是拆分长句的良方。

 

5. The difference between perseverance and obstinacy is: that one often comes from a strong will, and the other from a strong won't.

—Henry Ward Beecher

 

T1:顽强和顽固的区别是:前者源自非凡的意志力,后者源自惯常的不愿意。

      T2:坚忍不拔与冥顽不化的区别在于:前者决心不变,后者屡教不改。

 

很睿智的一句话,而要完整再现原文的对仗颇有困难,关键在于两个strong的配合,以及will与won't的头韵。译文T1在对仗和押韵上都得到了体现,译文T2的关注点在于一个“不”字,兼有加强语势和前后呼应的作用,当然,不得不承认,“屡教不改”在含义上略有讹化。

 

6. Good breeding consists in concealing how much we think of ourselves and how little we think of the other person.

—Mark Twain: Notebooks (1935)

 

T1:良好的教养,就在于把我们考虑自己很多、考虑他人很少的情况隐藏起来。

      T2:所谓有良好教养,乃是指隐藏起我们如何高看自己和低看别人的真实心态。

      T3:良好的教养在于隐藏我们对自己较佳的评价,以及隐藏我们对他人较差的评价。

(以上三句均来自网络)

 

选取了网络上对于这句话比较有代表性的几种译法,读来迥然相异,T1中将think of理解为“考虑”显然属于无意中的误译,虽然think of的确有“想到”的意思,的确乍一看much和little的对比会产生这样理解,而且句意也说得通;或许,马克·吐温先生在这里玩得是文字游戏也犹未可知。然而当我考察这句话在英语世界里的实际用法时,发现其更多地是表达一种discretion(判断力)的倾向,因而“评价”则应是较为准确的理解。T2将完全的贬讽之气和话语背后蕴含的“深意”直白地表达了出来,似乎不那么恰当,剥夺了读者阅读的乐趣。虽然T3不见得是好译本,但至少在含义和译法上做到了明白晓畅。

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标签:

罗新璋

柔巴依

绝句

诗歌翻译

译闻

文化

分类: 思想钩沉

 

七分译  三分作

 

■ 文 |  罗新璋

 

原文刊载于《文汇报》2007年8月17日 文汇·笔会

 

紫军先生的《中国绝句与“柔巴依”》,文章做在“与”字上:绝句在前,波斯四行诗体在后,二者相距有四百年;在此时光空间,有丝绸之路和回鹘西迁这两条途径,递传中东。回鹘,即回纥,是维吾尔之古称。“柔巴依”这种格式,在维吾尔诗歌史上,可以上溯至六世纪。维吾尔族先民敕勒人斛律金的《敕勒歌》原文即四行诗,北齐(550—557)时译为汉语:“敕勒川,阴山下。/天似穹庐,笼盖四野。/天苍苍,野茫茫。/风吹草低见牛羊。”回纥流徙于贺兰山、敦煌、西域一带。《新唐书·西域传》讲:“唐兴,(各国)以次修贡……然中国有报赠,西至波斯、吐蕃、坚昆。”中亚地区无论在名义上和实际上当时已列入唐朝版图(见王治来《中亚史纲》233页),华夏文化对中亚的影响也比以前为大。安禄山起事,唐肃宗曾乞兵回纥,其士兵纵横长安,留京师者常千人。考七言绝句,起自齐梁间,至唐初四杰后始成调。浸润唐风,维吾尔族的四行诗,逐渐成格律化的柔巴依。“回鹘西迁一个世纪之后,伊朗出现了‘柔巴依’诗体(紫军文)。”我国绝句,或许经维吾尔柔巴依,而成波斯的柔巴依?

波斯天文家和数学家Omaz Khayyam,音译为莪默·伽亚谟、奥玛珈音或欧玛尔·海亚姆,生年1048—1123,约当我国北宋时期,写有柔巴依七百余首,有“波斯李白”之称,因亦嗜酒,且诗风近于太白故。

我国最早译莪默诗《希望》篇者,为胡适,其后记中记下:“八年二月二十八日译英人Edward Fitzgerald 所译波斯诗人Omaz Khayyam(d-1123A.D.)的Rulaiyat(绝句)诗第一〇八首。”(见《胡适全集》卷十页九五)胡博士把“柔巴依”,迳称为“绝句”,想必有其理由吧。后之译者,译成文言、白话,格律、自由体的均有。如二者确有渊源,以绝句译Rulaiyat,可谓旗鼓相当。因喜读莪默诗,各种译本凡见到都曾翻翻。陈四益先生文(见7月23日“笔会”《也说《鲁拜集》的翻译》)引郭沫若氏所译第十二首,黄克孙译本作:
 

一箪蔬食一壶浆,

一卷诗书树下凉。

卿为阿侬歌潮海,

茫茫瀚海即天堂。

A Book of Verses underneath the Bough,
A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread—and Thou
    Beside me singing in the Wilderness—
Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow!
        

 

黄译《鲁拜集》时有佳句(台湾书林出版有限公司2003年版):

 

不问清瓢与浊瓢,

不分寒食与花朝。

酒泉岁月涓涓尽,

枫树生涯叶叶飘。

Whether at Naishapur or Babylon,
Whether the Cup with sweet or bitter run,
    The Wine of Life keeps oozing drop by drop,
The Leaves of Life keep falling one by one.

 

冥冥有手写天书,

彩笔无情挥不已。

流尽人间泪几千,

不能洗去半行字。

The Moving Finger writes; and, having writ,    
Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit
     Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it.

 

黄克孙初译于一九五二年,是二十刚出头的文学青年,一九五六年始由启明书局正式梓行。黄氏后成为国际知名的物理学家,美国麻省理工学院教授。他在一九八六年《序》中称:“初读费氏的译诗(指费茨吉拉德的英译)时,我刚进研究院攻读理论物理学,阅读之下,心中怦然有感……《鲁拜集》的翻译,我的出发点是作诗第一。人必先有感,然后为诗。”依他看法,费氏译诗,是借奥玛珈音的灵感而重新创作,结果是词藻优美,成为传诵的诗章。“相比之下,其他许多比较‘忠实’的译本,不是引人入胜的文学,而是古板的学者的文据。”黄氏亦取经于此,称自己译法为“衍译”。“衍”,犹引也,演也。就是不拘泥于原文的衍绎。译,可译?非常译!诗尤难译。黄氏标举,“作诗第一”;七分译三分作,未始不是一法。

 

◎ 延伸阅读:

 Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (Wikipedia)

 Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (英译比较)

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标签:

桑塔耶纳

英伦独语

英国

美学

英译汉

译作

文化

分类: 文海漫步

桑塔耶纳是我比较喜欢的“优雅”作家之一,当然他更以其深邃的哲学美学思想而著称,钱钟书曾称其为“五位近代最有智慧的人”之一,不过用了“山潭野衲”这个译名,颇具东方色彩,甚有些许禅意。作为一位永远的异乡人,《英伦独语》(Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies)是他充分绽放哲学家与诗人心灵的曼妙之作。

几年前,曾读过三联书店出版的中文译本,觉得译笔尚佳。近日读其原作,亦想前来试身手。不料最近莫名得上“仿古”毛病,不知怎么地译着译着又变成文白体,罢,罢,罢,供大家批评!这篇美文还是需要有些英伦味啊,待我稍事正常,再来一试!曾因译本而喜爱,有些妙译之处已难摆脱,贴出原译文,以作欣赏。


  

© Photo: Kelvin Law

 

GRISAILLE

灰色单色画

 

George Santayana

[西班牙] 乔治·桑塔耶纳

 

■ 译 | 顾忆青

 

(原文)

 

ENGLAND is pre-eminently a land of atmosphere. A luminous haze permeates everywhere, softening distances, magnifying perspectives, transfiguring familiar objects, harmonizing the accidental, making beautiful things magical and ugly things picturesque. Road and pavement become wet mirrors, in which the fragments of this gross world are shattered, inverted, and transmuted into jewels, more appealing than precious stones to the poet, because they are insubstantial and must be loved without being possessed. Mists prolong the most sentimental and soothing of hours, the twilight, through the long summer evenings and the whole winters day. In these country sides so full of habitations and these towns so full of verdure, lamplight and twilight cross their rays; and the passers-by, mercifully wrapped alike in one crepuscular mantle, are reduced to unison and simplicity, as if sketched at one stroke by the hand of a master.

English landscape, if we think only of the land and the works of man upon it, is seldom on the grand scale. Charming, clement, and eminently habitable, it is almost too domestic, as if only home passions and caged souls could live there. But lift the eyes for a moment above the line of roofs or of tree-tops, and there the grandeur you miss on the earth is spread gloriously before you. The spirit of the atmosphere is not compelled, like the god of pantheism, to descend in order to exist, and wholly to diffuse itself amongst earthly objects. It exists absolutely in its own person as well, and enjoys in the sky, like a true deity, its separate life and being. There the veil of Maya [1] , the heavenly Penelope [2] , is being woven and rent perpetually, and the winds of destiny are always charmingly defeating their apparent intentions. Here is the playground of those early nebulous gods that had the bodies of giants and the minds of children.

In England the classic spectacle of thunderbolts and rainbows appears but seldom; such contrasts are too violent and definite for these tender skies. Here the conflict between light and darkness, like all other conflicts, ends in a compromise; cataclysms are rare, but revolution is perpetual. Everything lingers on and is modified; all is luminous and all is grey.

 

(译文)

 

英伦,雾霭之地也。灰霾明莹,四处弥散,故而遥距变短,远景放大,谙熟之物得以易貌,偶然之物得以调和,丑可至美,美可至幻。街巷犹湿,如若明镜,令尘世散作碎片,映其倒影,化成珠玉,诗人手捧真石,竟亦为此着迷,盖只因其仅可倾心莫能拥有也。暑夜寒冬,每每晨昏时分,最是悦目愁情,烟霞笼盖,光阴似也留驻。乡野屋舍林立,城镇草木青葱,街灯与天光交错。行人幸入曙光昏辉之遮罩,廓影归一从简,恍如大师一笔挥就。

若只念及英伦大地与立于其上之斧凿事物,确难称其地大物博。此地迷人温馨,极为宜居,甚或过于内敛,似独有恋家之人与囚困之灵魂方能安度于此。然且凝眸远望,屋檐与树梢之上,那地上难得一见之壮阔景观便赫然呈现。非同于泛神论之上帝,雾霭之圣灵决不为求生存而屈尊降世,全然将自己散布于尘寰之中。它自有其所在,一如真正之神明,在天穹尽享其独立之生命与存在。云巅处,摩耶——天上之珀涅罗珀——织其面纱,却永无终结,命运之风总以魔力令其撕破尽毁,自始重来。远古诸神状若云雾,兼具巨人身躯与孩童头脑,此地正是其嬉戏之所。

在英伦,雷电交加与虹霓斑斓同现之壮景实属罕见。较之以柔和天幕,此般画面,对比之大,未免激烈决绝。亦如其他冲突,光明与黑暗于此终归妥协。灾难祸变鲜见,改良革新不断。万物历久犹存,又非一成不变。一切皆煌然,一切又苍苍。

 

--------------------------------

[1] 摩耶的面纱(The Veil of Maya):摩耶(Māyā)是印度教中的虚幻之神。摩耶一词在印度哲学和美学中意为“幻”,最早出现在印度最古老的典籍《梨俱吠陀》中,它是吠陀诗人和哲学家从对宇宙万象的直观中得到的一个认识论上的共识。……印度宗教和哲学认为,宇宙间存在着一个无所不知无所不包的巨大实体——“梵”(又称为大我,与尼采所提到的“太一”意思相近),梵是永恒的实在,不随时间空间而改变。世间的一切都是梵的显现。人生的最大目的就是要通过刻苦修行,获得自我的解脱,达到与梵合一,即所谓“梵我合一”(又称“梵我一如”)。达到与梵合一之后,人就能脱离轮回之苦,获得永生。……梵在世间显现的一切就是“幻”即摩耶,人必须要破除“幻”才能找到“梵”,在这个意义上理解尼采说的撕破摩耶的面纱,看到个体化的真相,也就是要看透生活的表象。(http://specialcyy.blog.hexun.com/6748394_d.html

[2]  珀涅罗珀的织物(Penelope's Web):在荷马史诗《奥德赛》中,珀涅罗珀是奥德修斯的妻子,以对丈夫忠贞不渝的典范形象出现。在丈夫远征其间,坚贞不渝的珀涅罗珀为了摆脱求婚者的纠缠,想出个缓兵之策,她宣称等她为公公织完一匹做寿衣的布料后,就改嫁给他们中的一个。于是,她白天织这匹布,夜晚又在火炬光下把它拆掉。就这样织了又拆,拆了又织,没完没了,拖延时间,等待丈夫归来。"She has devised tricks to delay her suitors, one of which is to pretend to be weaving a burial shroud for Odysseus's elderly father Laertes and claiming that she will choose a suitor when she has finished."(Wikipedia)

 

····················

 

 

 

(三联书店《英伦独语》译文)

 

英伦是片非凡的雾霭之地。明莹的雾气无所不在,使距离变短,将远景放大,使熟悉的物体变样,将偶然之物调和起来,给美丽的事物蒙上神秘色彩,使丑陋的东西生动如画。大街小巷都成了湿漉漉的镜子,将囫囵一个世界割装成无数的碎片,倒映在镜中,化成一颗颗珠玉,竟比真正的宝石还要令诗人着迷,因为它们是虚幻的,只可倾心而不可拥有。雾霭将最动情温馨的晨昏时刻拉长,覆盖过漫长的夏夜以及寒冬的整个白昼。这个国度的乡间房舍林立,城镇草木青葱,天光与路灯交相辉映;而行人们都无一例外被好心地裹在晨昏微光的斗篷中,形态相似,面貌一致,好像是某个大师一笔画出来的。

如果我们的眼光只落在英伦大地和人工建筑之上,很难说这个国家的风物景观气势磅礴。迷人,温馨,非常适合居住,甚至有点过于小家子气,似乎只有恋家的人与被囚的灵魂能够安居于此。然而,抬起眼睛,望过房顶和树梢,在地面上见不到的恢宏壮观顿时扑面而来,令人震慑。雾霭的精魂不同于泛神论的精灵,不会为了生存而屈尊降世,完全将自己散布在世间万物中。它有完全属于自己的存在,如同真正的神灵,在天空中享受它独立的生命与存在。在空中,玛耶,这位天上的珀涅罗珀,她的面纱怎么也织不成,命运之风总是在它即将完工之时,施展魔力将其撕毁。这里便是早期那些状若云雾,有着巨人般身体和孩童般头脑的天神们的嬉戏之所。

电闪雷鸣与彩虹一道出现的壮丽景象在英伦有是有,但极为罕见;反差如此巨大的场面对英伦温柔的天幕来说太过激烈决绝。在这里,光明与黑暗的冲突,和所有其他的冲突一样,都是以妥协告终。大灾大难难得一见,但改良变革却永无止境。所有的事物都历久犹存,但也都不是一成不变;所有的一切既是明亮的,也是灰暗的。(邱艺鸿、萧萍

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