The 83rd Academy Awards took place on February 27, 2011 at Hollywood's Kodak Theatre and aired on ABC.
The Academy Award (also known as the Oscar) is an accolade bestowed by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers. The formal ceremony at which the awards are presented is one of the most prominent award ceremonies in the world, and is televised live in more than 200 countries annually. It is also the oldest award ceremony in the media; its equivalents, the Grammy Awards (for music), Emmy Awards (for television), and Tony Awards (for theatre) are modeled after the Academy.
The AMPAS was originally conceived by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio boss Louis B. Mayer as a professional honorary organization to help improve the film industry’s image and help mediate labor disputes. The Oscar itself was later initiated by the Academy as an award "of merit for distinctive achievement" in the industry.
The first Academy Awards ceremony was held on May 16, 1929, at the Hotel Roosevelt in Hollywood to honor outstanding film achievements of the 1927/1928 film season. The most recent ceremony, honoring films in 2010, was held at Hollywood's Kodak Theatre on February 27, 2011.
The first awards were presented on May 16, 1929, at a private brunch at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people. The post Academy Awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel.The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other personalities of the filmmaking industry of the time for their works during the 1927–1928 period.
Winners had been announced three months earlier of their triumphs; however that was changed in the second ceremony of the Academy Awards in 1930. Since then and during the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11 pm on the night of the awards.This method was used until the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began; as a result, the Academy has used a sealed envelope to reveal the name of the winners since 1941.
For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. For example, the 2nd Academy Awards presented on April 3, 1930, recognized films that were released between August 1, 1928 and July 31, 1929. Starting with the 7th Academy Awards, held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier; this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. The honored professionals were awarded for all the work done in a certain category for the qualifying period; for example, Emil Jannings received the award for two movies in which he starred during that period. Since the fourth ceremony, the system changed, and the professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. As of the 82nd Academy Awards ceremony held in 2010, a total of 2,789 Oscars have been given for 1,825 awards.A total of 302 actors have won Oscars in competitive acting categories or been awarded Honorary or Juvenile Awards.
The 1939 film Beau Geste is the only movie (non-documentary) that features as many as four Academy Award winners for Best Actor in a Leading Role (Gary Cooper, Ray Milland, Susan Hayward, Broderick Crawford).
At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27, 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced. Until then, foreign language films were honored with the Special Achievement Award.
A popular story has been that an Academy librarian and eventual executive director, Margaret Herrick, thought the statuette resembled her Uncle Oscar and said so, and that as a result the Academy staff began referring to it as Oscar.
No hard evidence exists to support that tale, but in any case, by the sixth Awards Presentation in 1934, Hollywood columnist Sidney Skolsky used the name in his column in reference to Katharine Hepburn's first Best Actress win. The Academy itself didn't use the nickname officially until 1939.
Although there are seven other types of awards presented by the Academy (the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award, the Gordon E. Sawyer Award, the Scientific and Engineering Award, the Technical Achievement Award, the John A. Bonner Medal of Commendation, and the Student Academy Award), the best known one is the Academy Award of Merit more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated britannium on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34 cm) tall, weighs 8.5 lb (3.85 kg) and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes each represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians.
MGM's art director Cedric Gibbons, one of the original Academy members, supervised the design of the award trophy by printing the design on a scroll.In need of a model for his statuette Gibbons was introduced by his then wife Dolores del Río to Mexican film director and actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Reluctant at first, Fernández was finally convinced to pose nude to create what today is known as the "Oscar". Then, sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain at the Hollywood Bowl) sculpted Gibbons's design in clay and Sachin Smith cast the statuette in 92.5 percent tin and 7.5 percent copper and then gold-plated it. The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois, which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Awards statuettes. Since 1983,approximately 50 Oscars are made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R.S. Owens & Company.
In support of the American effort in World War II, the statuettes were made of plaster and were traded in for gold ones after the war had ended.
Ownership of Oscar statuettes
Since 1950, the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that neither winners nor their heirs may sell the statuettes without first offering to sell them back to the Academy for US$1. If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards not protected by this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums.
While the Oscar is under the ownership of the recipient, it is essentially not on the open market.The case of Michael Todd's grandson trying to sell Todd's Oscar statuette illustrates that there are some who do not agree with this idea. When Todd's grandson attempted to sell Todd's Oscar statuette to a movie prop collector, the Academy won the legal battle by getting a permanent injunction. Although Oscar sales transactions have been successful, some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury.
The Spring Festival
The Spring Festival is the most important festival in China. People usually decorate the doors and windows with red papercuts. Because red means good luck. People usually clean house too. Because they want to sweep away bad luck. Children can get some new clothes or presents from their parents and grandparents.
The origin of the Lunar New Year Festival can be traced back thousands of years, involving a series of colorful legends and traditions. One of the most famous legends is Nian, an extremely cruel and ferocious beast that the ancients believed would devour people on New Year's Eve. Nian extremely fears red, the flame and quarrels the mixed sound. To keep Nian away people pasted the red papers on the gates kept the lights on the whole night and set off firecrackers. On the second morning , the air is filled with the victory and the rebirth joy.
There is a series of colorful celebration activities during The Spring festival
On New Year's Eve, family always have a big dinner. Everybody watch Spring Festival Gala. In the midnight people keep the lights on and staying-up.
Now I will show you some customs during the lunar January.
Pasting New Year Prints, Pasting Spring Couplets , Having Jiaozi, New Year's Visit and Gift Money , Setting off Firecrackers.
"The Spring Couplet", also called "couplet" and "a pair of antithetical phrases". On the eve of the Spring couplet written on red paper to give a happy and prosperous atmosphere of the festival.
On New Year’s Eve, the whole family will sit together to make jiaozi and celebrate the Spring Festival. The shape of jiaozi is like gold ingot from ancient China. So people eat them and wish for money and treasure. You cannot have a complete Spring Festival without having jiaozi.
In ancient China, the sound of burning bamboo tubes was used to scare away wild animals and evil spirits. Firecracker is used to foster a joyful atmosphere. The first thing every Chinese household does is to set off firecrackers and fireworks, which are meant to bid farewell to the old year and usher in the new.
On the first day of the Chinese lunar year, everybody calls on their relatives and friends, wishing them all the luck in the coming year. Seniors will give juniors some gift money as a wish for their safety in the coming year.
During the Spring Festival, one must be extremely careful is his or her acts and words. Because Chinese people want to have a nice start at the beginning of each year. Therefore there are many taboos during the Spring Festival. Some words should not be spoken and some things should not be done. One should not sweep on the first day of the first lunar month .If you sweep on that day, you should sweep from outdoors to indoors, but not from indoors to outdoors. If a child breaks something on that day ,you should not blame him or her ,you should say "To break is great for next year!" Break in Chinese has a homonym which means Years. If a child says something bad it is "Children's words are not taboos."
Relatives always drop each other a visit during the Spring Festival to give their best wishes. A luck talk can bring luck to people in the new year. So people always have a luck talk when they are out. There are some luck talks. Happy New Year! May you come into a good fortune! Good health .Hope everything goes your way. May you succeed in whatever you try.
The Prodigal Son
Hello, everyone. It’s a great pleasure for me to be given the honor of first presenter of this term. Today, I’m here to talk to you about the topic Teacher Lee has suggested me yesterday---The Prodigal Son.
Do you still remember? Yesterday, Teacher Lee told us that we should not translate “The Prodigal Son” literally, because this phrase is an idiom. In fact, it is a parable of the Bible. Do you know what is the meaning of “parable”? “Parable” means the sacred story.
The story of the Prodigal Son actually has another name--- the Parable of the Lost Son. It follows the parables of the Lost Sheep and the Lost Coin.
Now, let me tell you the whole story. Jesus is
responding to the Pharisees' complaint. (The Pharisees are the
people who firmly stick to social ethics.) They complained that
there’s a man who welcomes sinners and eats with them." In the
Pharisees' opinion, sinners should never be forgiven.
Then, Jesus tells the story of a man who has two sons. One day, the younger son asks his father to give him his portion of the family estate as an early inheritance. Once received, the son promptly sets off on a long journey to a distant land and begins to waste his fortune on wild living. When the money runs out, unluckily, a severe famine hits the country and the son finds himself in dire circumstances. To survive, he has no choice but to take a job feeding pigs. He is so destitute that he even longs to eat the food prepared for the pigs. At that time, Jewish people are not allowed to get close to pigs. So, you can imagine how desperate he is.
However, the elder son is very angry and feels
quite unfair when he discovers that. His father explains,
always with me, and everything I have is yours. It's freely for you to accept, just as it is being freely given to your brother."
No matter how many mistakes the younger son makes,he's still the son of his father and his father still treasure him out of father's loving nature.
Actually,"the father" just represents Jesus.Through this parable, Jesus teaches us clearly that there's no condemnation in God.
So, it's not God's forgiveness that we need.
It's our own forgiveness that is needed, for we have banished ourselves from the awareness and experience of love.
Remember, it's never too late to come back for God, for he always loves you.
Please translate the following sentences into Chinese:
1. We recognize that China's long-term modernization program understandably and necessarily emphasizes economic growth.
2. A movie of me leaving that foxhole would look like a shell leaving a rifle.
3. Yet it is painfully apparent that millions of Americans who would never think of themselves as law-breakers, let alone criminals, are taking increasing liberties with the legal codes that are designed to protect and nourish their society.
4. At present people have a tendency to choose the safety of the middle-ground reply.
5. Auntie Julia vainly asked each of her neighbours in turn to tell her what Gabriel had said.
6. These cheerful little trams, dating back to 1873, chug and sway up the towering hills with bells ringing and people hanging from every opening.
7. The military is forbidden to kill the vessel, a relatively easy task.
8. Invitingly green Angel Island, once a military installation, contains meandering trails and picnic spots ideal for a day's excursion.
9. But another round of war in the region clearly would put strains on international relations.
10. I sat with his wife in their living room, looking out the glass doors to the backyards, and there was Allen's pool, still covered with black plastic that had been stretched across it for winter.
11. On her once familiar street, as in any unused channel, an unfamiliar queerness had silted up; a cat wove itself in and out of railings, but no human eye watched Mrs Drover's return.
12. The entire cable-car system recently got an overhaul after more than a century of operations, so you are on firm ground even if the streets seem to be tilting beneath you.
13. The recruitment of Chinese labor was not universally accepted in racially conscious 19th century America and some white workers were unsettled by their appearance in large numbers.
14. One day, while out on the bleak moors, Pip is startled by a hulking, menacing man who threatens him if he does not bring him some food immediately.
15. All this had come to an end in 1905 when the medical mission was dissolved and several of Mother's colleagues were killed in the uprising.
16. Suddenly the door bursts open and the Time Traveler appears, dirty, disheveled, and bedraggled, with a nasty cut on his chin.
17. The boy and the woman were already seated by spread table-cloth when the man came down to them, dressed in his business suit and vest and tie and hat as if he expected to meet someone along the way.
18. She is intelligent, ambitious and hard-working. She is also good at solving problems.
19. The door was unlocked. She went inside and sat in a stupor. She was near collapse, barely able to move her swollen feet.
20. I pulled up a chair and sat down. I sat with my legs wide apart at first. But this struck me as being irreverent and too familiar. So I put my knees together and let my hands rest loosely on them.
21. We are going to have to be prepared to operate with people who are nuts.
22. And he found himself trying to suppress a bitterness that was soul-destroying.
23. Many people have married whose chances to do so were much inferior to Miss Martha's.
24. The diagnosis seems in every case to correspond exactly with all the sensations that I have ever felt.
The 7th Shakespeare Festival
Calls for YOUR Participation
The Seventh Festival will be held in the Chinese University of Hong Kong in May 2011. Twelve teams of three persons each will present brief scenes, in English, not exceeding twenty minutes, from Shakespeare plays to a Hong Kong audience.
The prize for the three members of the winning team (and their advisor/director) will be a trip abroad, including airfare and accommodation, to view performances of professional Shakespearian theatre groups such as the Royal Shakespeare Company in Stratford-upon-Avon. Additional prizes will be awarded for outstanding teams and outstanding individual performances.
Interested undergraduate students from each invited University should form acting teams of three people, and the University should determine the best acting team - for example, on the basis of a University-wide competition. At some point in this process, an advisor/director should be selected, who will assist the team as they proceed through the competition.
Each team must send to the Festival organizers 3 DVDs of their nominated team performing the scene they intend to present at the Festival. These DVDs will be reviewed by a panel of judges, and the twelve teams selected by the judges will be invited to Hong Kong to compete in the final round. DVDs must reach Department of English, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, by 21 January 2011.
1. Each team must consist of a maximum of three undergraduate students. Postgraduate students are not eligible.
2. Previous actors are not allowed to compete in the Festival FINALS a second time in order to maximize the number of students taking part.
3. Each team should perform material from a play written by William Shakespeare. Material from any play written by Shakespeare is acceptable.
4. The length of the presentation should not exceed 20 minutes. The judges will deduct marks from presentations that exceed this time limit.
5. It is perfectly acceptable to have one performer playing more than one role.
6. No dialogue should be added to the Shakespearean language. (Almost) all the words spoken must be contained in the original script. However, it is acceptable to eliminate dialogue, to move dialogue from one place to another, and to use dialogue from more than a single scene.
1. It is also very important for the actors performing the scene to have a good sense of the meaning of the dialogue. You will not act well if you do not understand what you are saying.
2. The presentation of the scene should not be an imitation of a performance already given. For instance, copying the line readings or gestures of famous actors performing the scene will result in poor evaluation from the judges.
3. The presentations should be as professional as possible. Elements such as lighting, costumes, sound effects, and props will be taken into account in the context judging. However, costumes and props should be simple and not costly. The Chinese University of Hong Kong will provide a useful stage set that will lend itself to all performances and all scenes.
4. One of the judges' criteria is an "imaginative selection of scene." There are many excellent scenes in Shakespeare plays, so try to find one that is unlikely to be duplicated by other performers. You should also choose scenes that audiences will readily understand - scenes for example without too much word-play, which are often difficult to follow for even native speakers of English.
5. Imagination is encouraged. There is nothing wrong with setting a Shakespeare play in ancient China, for example; and performing teams are encouraged to invent interesting costumes, props, make-up, gestures, staging techniques, etc. In addition, teams should keep in mind that it is possible to display imagination by interpreting a line of dialogue in an unconventional way or by presenting a character in an original manner. However, teams should also be aware that imaginative touches that have no relation to the meaning of the lines are not likely to produce a successful performance. For example, you would not do well to use a setting of ancient China without thinking about the overall purpose of the scene and whether such a setting can enrich the ideas in it.
6. Although imagination is encouraged, the Festival also encourages 'traditional' interpretations of scenes which attempt to convey the meaning of a scene as it might have been interpreted in Shakespeare's day.
English Proficiency 20%
Technical Arts/ stagecraft 15%
Imaginative selection of scene 5%