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與死神共舞的鐵人三項

(2014-03-19 21:36:37)
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健康

鐵人三項目前很風行,很多男生都在追這股風潮,但要成為鐵人很不容易,要有堅強的意志力與旺盛求勝心, 才能在比賽中戰勝自己也戰勝別人.但很多人不明白的是,在三項鐵人競賽中,一位不請自來的神祕客也在一旁虎視耽耽,它是誰,它是神,但不是你心中的勝利女 神,而是帶著黑色鎌刀披著黑色斗篷的死神.

你想,怎麼可能,我能來參加鐵人就表示我的體能比一般人還要好,沒錯!這種我是最強的心態,連周遭的人也讚嘆不已.死神來,我也不怕,反正一定是別 人倒大楣,但奇怪的是,愈看起來死不了,沒有任何心血管風險者的人,反而愈容易猝死,身旁的人根本不相信出事的是他,也堅絕不相信這樣強壯而沒有病史的 人,竟會出事!

為什麼會這樣?古人早就有言,在古書《淮南子》有云:「自誇善射者死於矢,善戰者死於兵,善泳者溺於水。」這句話是說,愈有經驗者反而愈容易在專業領域裡出差錯,主要是心態變得太有自信,不像初學時那麼地謹慎,而忽略了自身或是周遭環境的變化.

以鐵人三項來看,其中最危險的是,游泳!

國外有很多的報告都指出,有不少的案例都是因為在游泳這個項目出問題而導致憾事發生,主要是因為每個人都爭先恐後地下水,就像下水餃一樣,一盤又一 盤地倒入開放式的海域,泳客像疊積木一樣地推擠在水中,這時最先下水位在最下層的泳者最倒楣,他必須承受水中最人推擠和重壓的力道,還要奮力游出水面朝目 標前進,這時,全身肌肉必須全力前進,強烈運動之下,肌肉不斷地出力,血管也會強烈地收縮,心臟這時要做比平時來得更大的工,才能不斷地搏動,以應付身體 的需求,若這時海水冷冽低於十四度,又沒有穿防寒衣的,平時也沒有在類似的環境之下,接受專業教練的指導,再加上比賽前若狀況不佳,像是加班或是身體有小 感冒,失眠,沒有睡好,或是情緒低落等等,一切不吉利的因素全集中在同一時刻,那麼,最倒楣的事就有可能會發生,心肌梗塞或是腦中風最常見.

若,自己懶一點,謹慎一點,不要那麼求完美,或許,成績不太漂亮,但卻能順利逃過死神的邪眼,而順利苟活.不知為什麼,每每看到人在中年就撒手人 寰,總是心中有無限的遺憾,在急診室中,這樣的案例,太多了,看著死者身旁有年幼的子女和年輕的妻子,一旁還有老淚縱橫的老父老母跪在地上,不斷叩頭要求 我們不要放棄急救,”因為他不能就這樣走了,我們沒了依靠,也不想活了”哀號聲在急診永遠都不曾停止過….心裡難過,但病歷上很清楚地載 明:DOA(dead on arrival)到院前死亡,經搶救再搶救,電擊到胸口出現焦味,這時,只能無奈地請家屬進去見最後一面,做最後的告別.

我只希望,參加鐵人三項的參賽者,一定要尊重身體的任何反應,平時也要多做心血管的保健,練習瑜伽,做深層的吐納,都可以柔化鐵人三項競賽中過於陽 鋼的力量,肌肉要收縮之前,必先放鬆,但肌肉不會主動放鬆,因此要我們主動地拉筋去做伸展,這層道理就像投籃一樣,要先蹲下,才能躍起,故古人說,以退為 進呵!

若你已經看到這裡,那麼有機會就來參加四月份的肩頸痠痛保健班, 你會發現自己的肩頸原來這麼緊,自己的末梢循環早已出現問題,教室有微循環儀,能讓你自己看到末梢血管是否有擴張,血流是否過慢或過速,或血液過於粘稠等 等,若能早點放鬆肩頸,可以立即地改善心血管循環,古人重視手部六條經絡不是沒有道理的,放鬆手三陽和手三陰,至少可以讓你遠離心血管的暴風圈.給自己一 點機會吧!

 

PS:現在多使用OHCA(OUT OF HOSPITAL CARDIAC ARREST到院前心(肺)中止.

鴻海經理鐵人賽溺斃 家屬盼別解剖
蘋果日報2014年03月17日19:08

前天上午在新北市二重疏洪道挑戰鐵人三項競賽,卻在第一項1500公尺長泳失蹤的鴻海公司經理李步雲,今上午被搜救的警消人員尋獲、已無氣息。新北 地檢署檢察官今下午與法醫相驗,認定李男生前落水、無他殺嫌疑,李男家屬對死因無意見,並要求不解剖,檢方已將李男大體發交家屬善後。

李男失蹤期間,包括一同參賽的女藝人賈永婕等選手,均反映當天水溫偏低、差點撐不下去。檢方今相驗時查出,李男已繞過750公尺折返點往回續游約300公尺,不知何故溺水,大體外觀出現疑似血管堵塞導致腦中風或心肌梗塞跡象,可能是失溫所致,但檢方因已認定無他殺嫌疑,尊重家屬意見不解剖。(黃哲民/新北報導)

幼兒沿岸聲聲呼喚 鴻海經理遺體尋獲
中國時報 謝文瑄/新北報導 2014年03月18日 04:10

鴻海經理李步雲15日挑戰超鐵人三項賽第1關1.5公里長泳項目,疑因失溫休克沉入水底,警消出動大批人力搜索未果。年約10歲兒子17日上午現身,沿河岸低聲呼喊爸爸不久,在距終點約500米處河底發現李男遺體,家屬淚灑現場。

李步雲(44歲)與前妻育有1子,雖邁入中年,仍堅持每天長跑、慢泳鍛鍊身體。他曾參加長跑比賽,這是第1次參加鐵人賽。家屬指出,李男無任何病史,不太可能心肌梗塞;檢警昨相驗結果,李男為生前落水,無他殺嫌疑,因家屬要求不解剖,已將遺體交還家屬處理後事。

李男15日穿背心式防寒衣及壓縮褲,挑戰微風運河長泳1.5公里卻未上岸,家屬心急如焚報案,警消每天出動近百人搜救,前日還使用霸王勾打撈全無所獲。

「爸爸,你在哪裡?」李男兒子昨上午呆坐在河邊不久,與叔叔往百姓公的方向邊走邊喊爸爸,盼能盡早喚回李男。隆恩義消救生分隊同時在百姓公附近下水搜救,上午10時45分,果真在離岸約25米處發現李男遺體仰躺河底,未深陷泥濘或受藤蔓牽絆。

分隊長鄭膺志指出,從水流研判李男最有可能卡在百姓公附近河底,他們一行共6人昨日從岸邊緩緩往河中央搜索。但因河水水質混濁,能見度僅50公分;當在1米高的土堆旁發現粉紅色泳帽時「心想…就是了」。

因李男遺體發現地點距終點約500米,檢警研判,李男以自由式游直線750米後折返250米不久,疑不耐長時間處在16、17度的水溫而休克溺水。

超級鐵人運動發展協會祕書長龔家龍表示,主辦單位將依意外險理賠300萬元,近期也會慰問家屬並給予慰問金10萬元;另於下一場鐵人賽6月底在金山舉辦前,將針對防寒衣、救生人員等開會討論。

但他無奈地說,當水溫介於14度至25度間,「選手可穿、可不穿防寒衣」,無法強制規定一定要穿,只能呼籲選手愛惜身體、盡力而為。

Swimming deaths trouble triathlon officials
USA TODAY Sports
Frederick Dreier, Special for USA TODAY Sports 10:33 p.m. EDT May 15, 2013
2013-5-15-margaret-pometta-triathlon

Nanette Nanjo-Jones and Margaret Pometta were inseparable after they discovered the sport of triathlon in 2008. They trained together on hilly roads in San Mateo County, and at races they decorated their bicycles with colored flags and wore matching pink boas. Before each event, the two always snapped a photo together.

The photo from the 2012 Vineman Half Ironman in Guerneville, Calif., is the final image of the two together. Minutes after it was taken, Pometta, a 50-year-old mother of three, suffered a heart attack while swimming in the Russian River. She was pronounced dead a short time later.

Nanjo-Jones, 47, did not hear about her friend’s death until after she finished the race, which was comprised of a 1.2-mile swim, 56-mile bike ride and 13.1-mile run.

“I was shocked, it was so hard to process," she said. “I had this guilt. Maybe it was me who made her do these races."

One year after her friend’s death, Nanjo-Jones no longer blames herself. But she still doesn’t understand why Pometta — an experienced triathlete who never had showed signs of heart problems — collapsed and died doing the activity she loved.

Nanjo-Jones is not alone. There has been an uptick in the number of fatalities at triathlons, and the majority of deaths involve freak heart attacks during the swim. According to a recent study conducted by USA Triathlon, 12 deaths were recorded at U.S. triathlons in 2011, and nine of the victims died from heart attacks during the swim. Of the 45 total triathlon deaths between 2003 and 2011, 31 occurred from cardiac failure during the swim.

Rob Urbach, CEO of USA Triathlon, said the number of deaths simply reflects the sport’s rapid growth. Between 2003 and 2011, annual participants in U.S. triathlons grew from 193,000 to almost a half-million.

“We still feel the numbers are very low," Urbach said. “There isn’t a pattern except they are happening in the water."

With triathlon season in full swing, race officials in the sport are paying close attention to the issue of water safety. Last week, the World Triathlon Corporation, owners of the Ironman races (2.4-mile swim, 112-mile bike, 26.2-mile run), announced changes geared toward increased safety during the swim portions of their races.

But the USA Triathlon study does not explain why healthy, veteran athletes such as Pometta have suffered cardiac arrest. One of two dead at the 2011 New York City triathlon was Amy Martich, a 40-year-old mother of three who was a longtime swimmer and a dedicated athlete. Andy Naylor, who lost consciousness a few yards from shore at the 2012 Ironman New York City, was a longtime marathon runner. Texas trial lawyer Ross Ehlinger, 46, had raced half Ironmans and marathons for more than a decade.

A handful of theories explaining the deaths have circulated throughout the triathlon community. Cold water can constrict blood vessels, which must then circulate high volumes of blood quickly when the body begins moving, putting serious pressure on the heart. Tight wetsuits put pressure on arteries in the chest. The choppy water and chaos of the mass swim starts — some triathlons start 1,500 or more athletes at once — can cause anxiety and send an athlete’s heartbeat into overdrive.

Dr. Larry Creswell, who oversaw USA Triathlon’s study, thinks the trigger could come from minor genetic heart abnormalities that were undiagnosed. The stress of exercise can exacerbate these genetic defects, causing a heart attack. He advises triathletes to visit their doctors and have an electrocardiogram.

“Sudden cardiac arrest is an inherent feature of exercise; it probably happens 10 times a day," Creswell said. “When it happens in a running race, you see someone fall over, and rescuers can get on the scene quickly. But in a triathlon swim, it’s harder to identify someone having a problem."

Dr. Rudy Dressendorfer, a longtime triathlete, disagrees. He thinks the problems arise when athletes do not warm up before starting the swim. Going from a resting stage to a sprint can put pressure on the heart, and a violent escalation of blood flow can shatter capillaries in the lungs, causing pulmonary edema.

“If it was cardiac defects, then how come these victims have raced for years without symptoms?" Dressendorfer said. “There has to be another mechanism at play."

Retired professional triathlete Brad Kearns, who operates the Auburn triathlon in northern California, requires his racers to swim for at least 10 minutes in Folsom Lake before the official start of the race. Kearns said he has never had a swimming death at his event.

“The body doesn’t like to go from zero to 60 in six seconds; it likes to acclimatize to exercise," Kearns said. “Some racers jump from their car into a tight wetsuit and then into a cold body of water."

But not all races have the space to allow for warming up. Some have a staggered swim format, in which athletes start in waves, not at the same time. The New York City triathlon features a staggered start, but competitors must wait their turn on a dock before jumping into the Hudson River. And at San Francisco’s Escape from Alcatraz, competitors jump from a riverboat into the water.

The sport slowly is changing protocols around the swim. The World Triathlon Corporation announced it would have pre-race warmup at North American events and additional lifeguards and rest buoys along each race’s swim route. It also is changing the mass start format at Ironman races in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho; Mont Tremblant, Quebec;, Lake Tahoe, Calif.; and Florida.

“We felt there was more we could do to lessen athletes’ anxiety and stress before the swim," said Andrew Messick, CEO of World Triathlon Corporation.

According to Nanjo-Jones, Pometta didn’t warm up before plunging into the Russian River. Because of a traffic jam and long lines at the toilets, the two barely had time to put on their wetsuits and take their final photo before the race. And Nanjo-Jones said the crowded starting line did not have space for pre-race swimming.

Therese Block, Pometta’s sister, waited on the riverbank with Pometta’s daughter, Nancy. She said shortly after the start, she saw lifeguards bring a lifeless body to the beach. Recognizing the wetsuit design, Block knew it was Pometta and shielded her daughter’s view.

Block said her family still struggles to make sense of Pometta’s death. Before it took her life, triathlon had become Pometta’s passion.

“I suppose we’ll never know what happened," Block said. “My sister wasn’t superwoman. She was a regular Joe who did this for fun, and it still happened to her."

from http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2013/05/15/swimming-deaths-trouble-triathlon-officials/2164793/

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