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英语词类手册介词分册第三章第二节英语介词of用法例析(上)

(2018-12-15 22:13:34)
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英语介词of

分类: 英语语法词类


 

英语词类手册介词分册 第三章 英语介词fromof的用法

 

第二节 英语介词of用法例析()

 

编者  四川大竹  张有樑

 

(续前:一、介词of通常表达的词义 1. of结构表达的各种关系 of结构表示部分与总体的关系)

of结构表人或事物的某种属性

of结构表人出身於某一家庭背景——of此功能类似 fromout of的类似功能。

例:That was a woman of royal descent. 那是一个皇家血统的女人。【出身贵贱】

American President Lincoln was a man of humble birth. 美国总统林肯出身低微。

His father used to be a miner of Wales. 他的父亲曾经是个威尔士矿工。【出身家庭】

He used to be a child of a farmer’s family. 是一个农民家庭的孩子。

He was born in a poor family of the United States. 他出生在美国一个贫民家庭。

orHe was born in a poor family in the United States of America.【美国/美利坚合众国】

 

of也表某人“出自于/居住于”何地——此of功能亦为类似fromout of

例:He was a graduate of Hawaii University. 他是夏威夷大学的毕业生。【出自于】

She is a femalestudent of Harvard University. 她是哈佛大学的生。

They are not the inhabitants of the area. 他们不是该地区的居民。【居住于】

The inhabitants of the island were friendly. 那岛上的居民十分友好。

Indians were the indigenous inhabitants of America. 印第安人是美洲的土著居民。

Johnny, what do you call the inhabitants of Moscow? 约翰,你怎么称呼莫斯科的居民?

 

of结构表“为主题的由某人创作的【文学或艺术作品等】——表of后名词是of前名词意义上的内容或作者。

a).若是单幅作品或单本书名,其前用不定冠词aan,即指of前为可数名词个体;如:an old chart of weather (一幅旧的天气图)A Tale of Two City(双城记)等;当然,必要时单数名词前也可用定冠词,如:The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson(傻瓜威尔逊的悲剧)等。

例:She wrote a book of poems last year. 她去年写了本诗集。poemsbook的内容】

He drew a picture of wintry scene. 他画了一幅冬天景色的画。【某人的作品及其内容】

I’d like to draw a simple map of China. 我想画一张简易中国地图。

It is a well-known story of adventure. 这是个著名的冒险故事。【只说的作品主题内容】

There is a pictu re of the sickle on the flag. 旗帜上有镰刀的图案。

Have you seen the film of Lei Feng? 你看过(关于)雷锋的电影吗?【前用定冠词】

The Meteorologist likes to refer to an old chart of weather. 【前用不定冠词an

那位气象学者爱参考一张旧的天气图。

The book entitled “A Tale of Two Cities”. 这本书的题目是《双城记》。【书名中单数形式】

Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities is a literary classic. 狄更斯的《双城记》是文学名著。

The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson” is Mark Twin’s novel. 【书名中单数名词前用定冠词】

《傻瓜威尔逊的悲剧》是马克·吐温的小说。

 

b).of由某人创作的作品”有的是指全部而言,故通常为复数且多带定冠词【有时也见不用冠词者】。如:the works of Shakespeare(莎士比亚的著作)the paintings of Picasso(毕加索的画)等。

例:I’ve read several poems of John Lennon. 我读过约翰·列侬的几首诗。【作品的作者】

Are you acquainted with the works of Shakespeare? 你对莎士比亚的作品熟悉吗?

I will lend him the complete works of Shakespeare. 我要借给他莎士比亚全集。

Can you recognize the original paintings of Picasso? 你能认出毕加索的原创画作吗?

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was written by Mark Twain. 【书名中复数形式】

《汤姆·索耶历险记》是马克·吐温写的。

Have you read about the adventures of Marco Polo? 你读过马可·波罗的冒险经历吗?

They took many pictures of the waterfall yesterday. 昨天他们拍了许多瀑布的照片。

He has a good collection of (the) original paintings of Picasso. 【没用冠词】

他收藏了好多张毕加索的原创画作。

 

of表由… (材料成分)组成或构成——of后名词或数词表of前名词所指物的构成质地或组成数量。

例:Our class is a class of 45. 我们班是个45个人的班。【组成数量; 作后置定语】

His family of three had a photo taken. 他的三口之家有一张合影照。

Next door to my house is a family of five. 我家隔壁住着一个五口之家。

She bought a dress of silk. 她买了一件丝质连衣裙。【物品构成质地】

It’s a bridge of steel framework. 那是座钢铁结构的桥梁。

There is a table of wood in the room. 房间里有一张木头桌子。

His clothes are of synthetic fibers. 他那衣服是合成纤维的。【作表语;下节还例述】

The house over there is of stone. 那边那座房子是用石头建的。

 

of结构中的逻辑语法关系【即一个名词词组中的彼此关系】——of前名词是中心词,of介词短语是其后置修饰语。

of结构中的“主谓关系”——of前是动作类名词或动名词,of后名词是of前名词动作意义上的逻辑主语,即两者间有类似句子主语同谓语动词的关系(the relationship between the subject and the predicate verb)

例:I have the complete works of Shakespeare. 我有莎士比亚全集of前动作类名词】

We waited for the arrival of the next bus. 我们等待下一班汽车的到来。

This survey is the work of a real professional. 这份调查是真正内行人做的。

He has got the news of the death of her grandma. 他已知他奶奶去世的消息。

 

Do not think that I am a lover of crooked ways. 别以为我喜欢这些歪门邪道。

Search of knowledge and love of study are inseparable. 追求知识与爱好学习密不可分。

The shooting of the hunters disturbed us  猎人的射击使我们不安。of前动名词】

She has the makings of a fine teacher. 她具备做一个优秀教师的素质。

It sounds like the breathing of a large beast! 听上去像一个大型野兽的呼吸声!

 

of结构中的动宾关系——of前是动作类名词或动名词,of后名词成为of前名词动作意义上的逻辑宾语;即of前后两者间有类似句子谓语与宾语的关系 (the verb-object relationship)

例:I hate the sight of him. 我讨厌看到他。of前动作类名词】

It is simply a waste of time. 这简直是浪费时间。

His criticism of her is serious. 他对她的批评是严肃的。

He expressed deep love of his country. 他抒发了强烈的爱国热情。

He gave a description of what he had seen. 他描述了他所见到的一切。

Loss of health is worse than loss of wealth. 失去健康比失去财富更糟糕。

He gave a lecture on the use of solar energy. 他就太阳能的利用作了一场讲演。

The love of the country holds the nation together. 爱国心使全国上下团结一致。

Columbus’ discovery of America occurred in 1492. 哥伦布于1492年发现美洲。

The Party pays great attention to the education of children. 党对儿童教育非常重视。

The writing of the letter took me three hours. 写这封信花了我3个小时。of前动名词】

The telling of lies is not his consistent behavior. 说谎话可不是他的一贯行为。

 

of结构中的状关系——of后名词或动名词具有动作含意;of前的抽象名词对of后的动作性名词,具有类似于副词对动词的目的状语或时间状语之类的作用,因而我们将此种情况名之为名状关系(the relationship between nouns and adverbials)

例:What is the purpose of his visit? 他来访的目的是什么?of宾语是动作性名词】

The purpose of life is the life of purpose. 生活的目的就在于有目的地生活。【目的】

The time of arrival is indicated on the screen. 屏幕上显示出到达时间。【时间】

I want to make certain of the time of his arrival. 我想确切知道他到达的时间。

I’ll make sure of the time of the flight. 我要核实一下这班飞机的时间。

I have no intention of admiting defeat. 我不打算承认失败。of宾语是动名词短语

There was no thought of coming home early. 没想到提早回了家。

Black clouds are an unmistakable sign of coming rain. 乌云是下雨的明显前兆。

 

of结构中的同位关系——of前后名词在意义上处于同等位置关系,或者说of前后两者所指为同一事物或同一概念;所以of前后名词间具有同位关系(the appositive relationship)

例:He came to New York at the age of ten. 他在十岁时来到纽约。

There he laid out the city of San Juan. 他在那里营建了圣胡安城。

She teaches English at the University of Wales. 她在威尔士大学教英语。

The Acropolis dominates the city of Athens. 雅典的卫城高耸於雅典全城之上。

The city of Harbin is a big city in Northeast China. 哈尔滨市是中国东北的一个大城市。

The island of Hong Kong is a great trading centre.香港这个岛屿是一个重要的贸易中心。

The cities of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang are often referred to as Wuhan.

武昌、汉口和汉阳常统称武汉。

 

of结构表时间、空间之类用法

of前序数词,of后月份,表日期。——“the +序数词+ of +月份”也可“月份+序数词”。

例:The first of MayMay first is International Labour Day. 五月一日是国际劳动节。

The Fourth of July; Independence Day.【省略句】 74日,美国独立纪念日

On the 2nd of May, we went to the countryside. 52日那天,我们去了乡下。

The fifteenth of July was a broiling hot day. 七月十五那天,天热得发了狂。

October first is the National Day of China. 十月一日是中国的国庆节。

Is it the ninth or the tenth of October? 今天是十月九号还是十号?

Today’s date is the 23rd of June, 2015. 今天是2015623日。

I was born on the 6th of September, nineteen eighty-one. 我是198196日生的。

There are two flights to Shanghai on the tenth of Nov. 十一月十日有两个航班飞往上海。

By the first of October, most of the leaves have turned.

到十月一日的时候,大部分叶子都已变了颜色。

 

of结构表事物或时间的开始、中途、结尾阶段;类似用法也表地点、位置。

例:It was the beginning of a tornado. 这是龙卷风的雏形。the beginning of…

I missed the beginning of the film. 电影的开头部分我没有看到。

The sea was calm at the beginning of our voyage. 我们出海时,海上风平浪静。

I start shearing the sheep at the beginning of July. 我一般在7月初开始剪羊毛。

The cold weather broke at the beginning of April. 寒冷的天气到四月初开始变暖了。

I wish everybody good luck at the beginning of the year. 我预祝大家岁首大吉。

It is already the middle of summer. 现在已是仲夏了。the middle of…

She came in the middle of the day. 她在中午的时候来了。

I returned to China in the middle of June. 我于八月中旬回到中国。

She has dropped out in the middle of the race. 她中途退出了比赛。

He broke off in the middle of a sentence. 他一句话只说了一半就停住了。

He is standing in the middle of the classroom. 他正站在教室中间。

He planted roses in the middle of the garden. 他在花园中间种上玫瑰。

The current is strongest in the middle of the river. 河中央的水流最急。

Put the tea things right in the middle of the table. 把茶具放在桌子正中。

The whistle goes at the end of the match. 比赛结束时哨声响了。the end of…

The defeat signalled the end of the war. 那一次失败标志着战争的结束。

You need to enrol before the end of August. 你必须在八月底前注册。

By the end of September we had completed the work.月底我们就完成了这项工作。

The students have all pair off by the end of term. 到学期末,学生都已成双结对了。

Go to the end of the road and turn right. 走到路的尽头,然后向右拐弯。

His office is at the end of the passage. 他的办公室在走廊的尽头。

 

有时见用of代替to表钟点;有时也见of代替in表“在上午、下午或傍晚”;of也可能代替for,表示年龄或友谊关系等的持续时间。

例:It’s 10 (minutes) of 6. 现在是6点差10分钟。6点差10分通常写成ten minutes to six

It’s three minutes of twelve o’clock.It’s 3 minutes to 12.3分钟就到12点了。【表钟点】

He always likes to go swimming of an evening. 他总喜欢晚上去游泳。【经常在期间】

We used to play basketball of an afternoon. 我们过去经常在下午打篮球。

He is my friend of 50 years. 他是我有50年交情的老朋友。【此of处常用for

They both are a couple of 40 years. 他俩是有40年婚龄的夫妻。

She became a director in the nineties of the twentieth Century.of结构表世纪年代】

她在第二十世纪九十年代成为导演。【另20世纪90年代:in the 1990sin the nineteen nineties..

 

of+Sunday”或of与上午、下午、傍晚时段连用作状语,指出某行为经常发生的时间,如:of a Sunday=on Sundays(总在星期天)of an evening=in the evening(往往在晚上)of an afternoon (常常在下午)of a morning (往往在早上)

例:They used to visit me of a Sunday. 从前他们每星期日都来看我。

He will often climb a mountain of a Sunday. 他常要在礼拜天去爬山。

We would often have a walk of an evening. 我们过去常在晚上散步。

He always likes to go swimming of an evening. 他总喜欢晚上去游泳。

Often, of an evening, we’d hear the sirens. 我们常常在傍晚听到警报声。

What time do they get up of a morning? 他们早晨几点钟起床?

He is a watchman and sleeps of a morning. 他是夜间警卫,所以上午常睡觉。

We used to play basketball of an afternoon. 我们过去经常在下午打篮球。

 

of表示位置、方向、距离、隔开等——of结构能帮助句子表达这类句意。

例:The hospital is in the east of the city. 医院在城市的东部。

The village is to the north of the woods. 那村庄就在那树林北面。

The chemical works lies in the west of the city. 这家化工厂位于城西。

The temple lies at the bottom of the mountain. 这个寺庙座落在山脚下。

It lies abouttwo miles south of the city center. 在市中心以南约两英里处。

The village lay just around the shoulder of the hill. 村子恰好坐落在山肩处。

The village lies within a kilometer of the town. 那个村子离城镇不到一里。

The campus is within half a mile of the city center.校园离市中心有不到半英里的距离。

A deep gorge separates the two halves of the city. 有一道深谷把这座城市分成两部分。

 

of结构可表达的其它含意

of结构表示某些数量概念——of后名词表某物质量,of前名词表其数量。

例:We dug up 180 cubic metres of earth. 我们挖了180立方米的土。

She cuts off a metre of cloth from the roll. 她从那卷布上剪下一米来。

He grounded his ship in two metres of water. 他使船在水深两米的地方搁浅了。

Three inches of rain fell in Manchester last night. 曼彻斯特市昨夜降雨三英寸。

 

of结构还有名词形象表达动作的功能,a fear of (的恐惧)the whistlewhistling of (而生的呼啸之声)the patter(ing) of (发出急促的轻拍声嗒嗒声)【这类结构有时是用作另一介词的宾语,或与前面词语有配合联系,此时便需结合前面词语理解其意】

例:Fear of the consequences preyed on her mind. 她担心其后果而惴惴不安。

He dare not do it for fear of parental rebuke. 他怕父母训斥,不敢为之。

The thief went in constant fear of discovery. 那个贼时刻都在担心被发现。

She was constantly spurred on by a fear of failure. 对失败的恐惧不断地激励着她。

We heard the whistle of a train. 我们听到了火车的汽笛声。

The whistling of cold wind was heard all the night. 一整夜都听到寒风怒号。

The whistle of the steam engine is louder and louder. 蒸汽发动机的汽笛声越来越大。

She clearly heard the patter of rain on the rooftops. 她清晰地听到屋顶上雨点的敲打声。

The pattering of drizzle has been going on for a whole day. 滴沥的小雨已经下了一整天。

Just then came the whistle of a police car. 就在那时,传来了警笛声。【主谓倒装句】

Then came a little pattering of feet on the stairs. 接着传来楼梯上细碎的脚步声。

 

有些作表语的of结构,表示就某点而言——限制描述的范围。

例:Passions are hard of control. 感情是难以控制的。

That statement is true of him. 那种说法对他是适用的。

I thought you were hard of hearing. 我以为你没听见呢。

The old man is slow of speech and hard of hearing. 这老人说话缓慢,耳有点聋。

Because she was deaf in one ear, she was hard of hearing.

因为她有一只耳朵聋了,所以听力不佳。

 

在少数几个动词【如dodie后面,of介词短语可指出动作的原因。【原因】

例:I did that of necessity. 我出于需要做了那事。

These measures grow out of necessity. 采取这些措施是由于需要。

He did so under the stress of necessity. 他受情势所需的压迫而这样做。

My friend died of a heart attack. 我朋友因心脏病而死。

He died of a rupture of blood-vessels. 他血管破裂而死。

His father is dying of a liver disease. 他的父亲因肝病而生命垂危。

 

在方言或非标准用语中,of也可用作助动词(auxiliary v.),相当于完成时态中的have,主要用于虚拟语气。

例:He should of gone.He should have gone. 他该走了吧。

I should of gone straight home. 我得赶快直接回家去。

Once I took a wife I should of put down roots. 我一旦娶了老婆,就该过安定的生活了。

I should of joined cheerleading a long time ago. 我应该早一点参加带领啦啦队的培训课。

 

古语中,of=by,意即被动语态句中的“被”。

例:This tree has been eaten hollow of worms. 这棵树被虫子蛀空了。

A lot of grapes have been eaten of birds. 好些葡萄都被小鸟吃掉了。

Elizabeth was consumed of the book. 伊丽莎白为这本书变得憔悴了。

 

(未完待续)

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