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美国5位前总统退休后各有各的活法--《环球时报》驻美国特派记者王如君Therearedifferentwaystoli

(2019-11-02 14:02:37)
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各有各的活法
  根据法律,美国退休总统仍然拥有保镖和优厚的薪水。但无论从哪方面来说,也都今非昔比。如何度过退休生活是每位美国总统面临的难题。目前,美国退休总统在世的共有5位,按执政前后排列是福特、卡特、里根、布什和克林顿。他们5位个人境况不尽相同。里根、福特年迈体衰,过了一年算一年;卡特、布什,人老不服老,各忙各的;50多岁的克林顿则是年富力强,戴着刚退休的“余光”一个劲儿扑腾,正在书写其“后白宫时代”的篇章。

福特:最悄无声息的前总统.主要原因有三:一是年事已高,今年88岁;二是为人不喜过多抛头露面;三是下台已久,早已淡出了政坛中心。

    自从1977年下台后,福特虽然也到处演讲、外出,但跟其他前总统相比,福特似乎更喜欢“不显山,不露水”的生活。福特大部分时间是在家中度过,尤其是近几年,他很少抛头露面。去年美国总统大选期间,小布什和戈尔打得难解难分。为了给本党小布什壮威,福特应邀出席了共和党在费城召开的全国代表大会。没想到,这险些要了他的命。参会期间,福特因中风住进医院。在手术之后才得到恢复。
福特是1974年在前总统尼克松因水门事件辞职后接任总统的,是美国历史上第一位因总统辞职而入主白宫的副总统。他在位期间政绩平平,给人印象不深。加上水门丑闻的影响,共和党的声望受到了打压。福特当政期间作出的最有影响的决定,是对前总统尼克松的“全面的赦免”。当时,尼克松已是声名狼藉,而福特则不顾给自己带来的负面影响,赦免了尼克松,这需要有极大的勇气。今年7月,福特因这一决定获得了2001年勇气奖。

    卡特:最拮据的前总统.在美国人的眼中,吉米·卡特当总统时没什么过人之处,但下台后却谱写出亮丽的篇章。1981年退休后,卡特回到了佐治亚州的老家普莱恩斯镇,发现自己欠下150万美元的债务。担任总统期间,卡特将自己的农场委托他人经营。由于适逢天旱,加之经营不善,不仅没赚,反而赔了不少。回忆到当时的退休心情,卡特曾说:“一种全新的、未曾料到的、极度空虚的生活在等待着我。”直到今天,卡特在经济上也算是最拮据的前总统。

    但卡特有他的长处。他于1982年成立了卡特中心,旨在促进世界和平、人权及医疗卫生事业。作为不拿报酬的董事长,卡特偕夫人跑遍了亚洲、非洲和拉丁美洲。他还不时作为美国总统的特使进行外交斡旋。由于成绩卓著,卡特曾七次获诺贝尔和平奖提名,并与妻子双双获总统自由勋章。另一成就是著书立说,卡特至今完成了14本著作,这在美国退休总统,甚至退休政治家中也是独一无二的。

    值得一提的是,卡特对中国有着特殊的感情。1978年,他担任总统期间,果断决定同中华人民共和国建交。近年来,他仍关注着中国的发展和进步,关注着中美关系。卡特中心对中国农村基层选举进行了深入的研究,向美国公众进行了比较客观、公正的介绍。

    卡特今年77岁,仍然十分健朗。对于自己的退休生活,他在一次接受采访时表示,“我生活得有滋有味。”

    里根:最不幸的前总统

    罗纳德·里根退休之初还很火,演讲费大把大把流入腰包。可是,病来如山倒。自从1994年被确诊得了老年痴呆症以后,里根便很少在公众场合露面。从起初每周到办公室一次、散散步、游游泳、看看球赛之类,到后来足不出户,静心养病。今年里根已是90高寿,精神状态每况愈下。除了还认识与自己耳鬓厮磨几十年的夫人南希,对其他人都认不得、想不起。

    更不幸的是,这位备受疾病折磨的前总统得不到几个儿女的亲情。除了他与前妻所生的女儿莫林能帮点南希的忙外,其他3个孩子一个也指望不上。据报道,女儿帕蒂、儿子罗恩以及养子迈克尔这几年到处利用里根的名声捞油水,里根退休之初,收入颇丰,他们每月可从南希手中拿到数量可观的“零用钱”,对父母也还表现出过得去的关爱。但在里根患上老年痴呆症后,为了支付昂贵的医疗费用,南希中断了定期发放的“零用钱”。这引起他们极端的不满,甚至将怨气发泄到重病中的老父身上。而8月8日,唯一还算孝顺的女儿莫林又不幸逝世,这无疑使这个家庭雪上加霜。

    值得欣慰的是,里根这两年的声望越来越高。他当政时的两大功绩:恢复了经济增长和赢得了冷战,至今是美国人津津乐道的“里根遗产”。有人称,如果美国评选20世纪3位最伟大的总统,里根定会名列其中。

    老布什:最得意的前总统

    去年的美国大选,布什家族中又添了位总统,这让老布什心花怒放。他的两个儿子有头有脸,一位当上美国总统,一位担任佛罗里达州州长,新政府中又有自己当政时的一大批旧臣,老布什算是最得意的退休总统了。

    退休之后,老布什深居简出。2000年,自己的儿子出马竞选总统,老布什在幕后费尽心机保驾护航,起到了极为重要的作用。有人说,去年的大选结果与其说是小布什赢了戈尔,不如说是老布什一洗8年前败给民主党的耻辱。

    就是在小布什入主白宫之后,老布什仍然时不时给儿子出谋划策。据报道,布什决定6月份恢复与朝鲜之间今年3月份中断的会谈,就是因为受到了“老爹的指点”。另据《纽约时报》报道,老布什在国务卿鲍威尔出访中东之前,曾经亲自打电话给沙特阿拉伯领导人,向对方保证美国与沙特目前的关系紧张并不会变成永久性问题。有人描绘得更为生动具体,说老布什打电话时,儿子总统就在身边听着。

    说得如此逼真,虽然有点让人起疑,但老布什往往在关键问题上,帮着儿子出个主意,确是不争的事实。

    克林顿:最会赚钱的前总统

    克林顿是美国最受争议的总统之一。自从今年1月20日离开白宫以后,克林顿似乎也能很快适应“美国前总统”的角色。在国内东奔西走,在国外也是马不停蹄。半年工夫,他访问了欧洲、拉美、亚洲,差不多跑遍了半个地球。不过,所有这一切都是为了赚钱,而且得赚大钱。

    克林顿执政时因绯闻案打了不少官司,离任时还欠400多万美元的律师债。他和夫人希拉里在华盛顿和纽约又买下两处房产,加起来也有四五百万美元,因而克林顿急需要钱。对他来说,最直接的赚钱门道是:演讲、著书或是出席某项活动。前不久,克林顿逛了趟欧洲,不到一个月,就赚了100多万美元的演讲费。

    克林顿目前正在撰写自己的回忆录,出版商所给的价码超过希里拉回忆录800万美元的天价,达到1000万美元。看来,还清那些债务,对他来说真是一碟小菜。

    除了赚钱之外,克林顿对推动地区和平表现出了浓厚的兴趣。前些日子还跑了趟北爱尔兰,对促进北爱和平进程说项。有评论家指出,克林顿最大的本钱是年轻,无论是赚钱,还是搞外交,他有的是精力和时间。以他能说会道的特长,克林顿极有可能成为美国历史上“最出风头的前总统”。  《环球时报》 (2001年08月14日第十版) 
Five former us presidents have different ways of living after retirement
Each has its own way of living
By law, the retired President of the United States still has a bodyguard and a good salary. But in every respect, it's not what it used to be. How to get through retirement is a conundrum for every American President. There are currently five living retired presidents in the United States, with ford, carter, Reagan, bush and Clinton ranked first and last. All five of them are in different situations. Ronald Reagan and Gerald ford were old and senile. Carter, bush, old not old, each busy each; Bill Clinton, in his 50s, is in the prime of his life, thrashing about in the twilight of his recent retirement, writing his "post-white house" chapter.

Ford: the most quiet former President. Second, people do not like too much publicity; Third, he has been out of power for a long time.

Since stepping down in 1977, ford has made speeches and been out and about, but compared with other former presidents, he seems to have preferred a life of anonymity. Ford spent most of his time at home, especially in recent years, when he was rarely seen in public. During last year's us presidential election, George w. bush and al gore were locked in a tight race. Ford was invited to the republican national convention in Philadelphia to give his party a boost. Unexpectedly, this nearly killed him. During the conference, ford was hospitalized after suffering a stroke. He recovered after surgery.
Ford took over the presidency in 1974 after former President Richard Nixon resigned over the watergate scandal. His achievements during his reign were unimpressive. Combined with the watergate scandal, the republican party's popularity has suffered. The most influential decision ford made during his administration was a "blanket pardon" for former President Richard Nixon. At that time, Nixon was already in disrepute, and ford, regardless of the negative impact on himself, spared Nixon, which required great courage. In July, ford received the 2001 courage award for that decision.

Jimmy Carter: former President with the most money: Jimmy Carter had nothing special in the eyes of americans when he was President, but he had a bright future after stepping down. After retiring in 1981, carter returned to his native plains, Georgia, and found himself $1.5 million in debt. As President, carter commissioned his own farm. Due to the drought, coupled with poor management, not only did not earn, but lost a lot. Recalling his retirement, carter said, "a new, unexpected, and utterly empty life was waiting for me." To this day, carter is the most financially challenged former President.

But carter has his strengths. He founded the carter center in 1982 to promote world peace, human rights and health care. As an unpaid chairman, carter accompanied his wife throughout Asia, Africa and Latin America. From time to time, he also conducted diplomatic mediation as the special envoy of the US President. Carter was nominated seven times for the Nobel peace prize and received the presidential medal of freedom along with his wife. Another achievement is writing books. Carter has written 14 books so far, which is unique among retired American presidents and even retired politicians.

It is worth mentioning that carter has a special affection for China. In 1978, when he was President, he decisively decided to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. In recent years, he has been following China's development and progress, as well as china-u.s. relations. The carter center has made an in-depth study of rural grassroots elections in China and made an objective and fair introduction to the American public.

At 77, carter is still very fit. About his retirement, he said in an interview, "I live with relish."

Reagan: the most unfortunate former President

Ronald Reagan started his retirement on a roll, spending a lot of money on speeches. But the illness came by the wayside. Reagan has made few public appearances since he was diagnosed with alzheimer's disease in 1994. From the beginning to the office once a week, a walk, swimming, watching the ball game and so on, to the rest of the house, quiet recovery. Reagan is turning 90 this year, and his mental state is deteriorating. Except for Nancy, who had been intimate with her for decades, she could not recognize or remember anyone else.

Unfortunately, the ailing former President has few sons or daughters. None of his three children are expected to help Nancy, except his daughter Maureen from a previous marriage. Daughter Patty, son RON, and adopted son Michael have reportedly cashed in on Reagan's reputation over the years. Reagan began his retirement on a high income, receiving generous monthly allowances from Nancy and showing their parents decent care. But after Reagan developed alzheimer's disease, Nancy cut off her regular allowance to pay for expensive medical care. This causes their extreme dissatisfaction, even vent their anger to the old father in serious illness. The death of Maureen, the family's only daughter, on August 8th was a further blow.

The good news is that Reagan's reputation has grown over the past two years. His two main achievements in office: restoring economic growth and winning the cold war are still remembered by americans as the Reagan legacy. It was said that if the United States chose the three greatest presidents of the 20th century, Reagan would be one of them.

Bush senior: the most proud former President

Last year's election, the bush family added a President, which made the elder bush elated. Two of his sons, one President of the United States, the other governor of Florida, and the new administration includes a large number of former officials from their time in office. The elder bush is the most proud retired President.

After retirement, bush sr. retired. When his son ran for President in 2000, George h.w. bush played an important role behind the scenes. Some say last year's election was not so much about George w. bush winning over al gore as it was about George h.w. bush shaking off the humiliation of losing to the Democrats eight years ago.

Even after George w. bush entered the White House, the elder bush continued to give advice to his son from time to time. Bush reportedly decided to resume talks with north Korea in June because of "daddy's instructions." According to the New York times, prior to secretary of state colin Powell's visit to the Middle East, bush personally called the leader of Saudi Arabia to assure him that the current tension between the United States and Saudi Arabia would not become a permanent problem. Some describe it more vividly, saying that his son, the President, was listening when bush called.

It is a truism, if a bit suspicious, that bush senior often helped his son advise on key issues.

Clinton: the former President who made the most money

Clinton is one of the most controversial presidents in the United States. Since leaving the White House on January 20, Clinton seems to have adapted quickly to the role of "former President of the United States." In the domestic movement, abroad is also non-stop. Within half a year, he had visited Europe, Latin America and Asia, almost halfway around the world. But it's all about making money, and making a lot of money.

Clinton fought a number of scandals during his presidency and left office with more than $4 million in debt to lawyers. He and his wife, Hillary, bought two more homes in Washington and New York, for a combined $4 or $5 million. For him, the most direct way to make money is to give a speech, write a book or attend an event. During a recent trip to Europe, Clinton earned more than $1 million in speaking fees in less than a month.

Clinton, who is writing her own memoir, is being offered $10 million, more than the $8 million sheera's memoir is worth. Paying off those debts was a piece of cake for him.

In addition to making money, Clinton has shown a strong interest in promoting regional peace. He also made a trip to Northern Ireland a few days ago to talk about promoting the peace process in Northern Ireland. Some critics point out that Clinton's biggest asset is his youth. Whether he is making money or conducting diplomacy, he has plenty of energy and time. With his gift of gab, Clinton is likely to be the "most flamboyant former President" in American history. Global times (10th edition, August 14, 2001)

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