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基础英语2第五单元答案

(2012-03-23 19:24:56)
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基础英语2

fourteen

steps

练习答案

教育

Unit 5 Fourteen Steps

 

Text Comprehension

IB.  II. 1. F;  2. T;  3. F;  4. T;  5. F.

 

III.

1. the second half of his first life.

2. the day when he was unable to climb those steps, and was to lie and die.

3. his challenge to continue living, and misery he had to accept and cope with in order to hold on to his sanity, his wife, his home and his job.

4. He first felt a bit sorry for them, but then felt relieved by the thought of paying.

5. the old man is blind but he helped him in the storm; while the writer assumed that a disabled man deserved other people’s help but never helped others.

6. he should always be ready to help others.

 

IV.

1. a sad man with little hope for his future, and everything depended on him to climb these 14 steps.

2. the writer was filled with great shame and horror and became speechless.

 

Structural analysis of the text

Part 1: Paragraph 1, 2—1st life;

Part 2: Paragraph 3, 4, 5—2nd life;

Part 3: Paragraph 6, 7, 8, 9—incident and reflection;

Part 4: Paragraph 10—new life, i.e. 3rd life.

 

Section Four Consolidation Activities

Part one. Vocabulary

I.

1. a slowly progressive disease = a disease that  gradually becae more and more serious

2. with the aid of = with the help of 在……的帮助下

 

3. peering at = looking very carefully and hard at 凝视

  

4. are all set = are ready 准备就绪,安排妥当

 

5. indifference to = not caring about 对……漠不关心

 

II.

1. tilted; 2. led up to; 3. hold on to; 4. care for; 5. is inclined to; 6. make a living; 7. follow, example; 8. to a degree.

 

III. Word derivation

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the given words.

1. You always follow your own inclination (incline) instead of thinking of our feeling.

2. The men stood in front of the bar, indifferent (indifference) to the argument that was going on across the road.

3. The company has had a successful first year at home but penetration (penetrate) of the international market has been slow.

4. We hadn’t seen her for many years and were very shocked by her frailty (frail).

5. He does not consider his deafness an affliction (afflict).

6. We were all very impressed by the excellence (excellent) of the design.

7. Her fever is getting progressively (progress) worse. I think we should call a doctor.

8. The honeymoon period was soon followed by the usual disillusionment (disillusion) with day-to-day reality.

 

1. incline v. 使有……倾向,易于;爱好

  inclination n. 倾向,意愿

  inclined a. 有……倾向的;倾斜的

 

2. indifference n. 不重视,无兴趣,漠不关心

  indifferent a. 漠不关心的,冷淡的

  indifferently ad. 不在乎地,冷淡地,淡然地

 

3. penetrate v. 穿透,渗透;看穿

  penetrating a. 敏锐的,尖锐的;穿透的,透彻的

  penetration n. 渗透,侵入,突破

 

4. frail a. 脆弱的,虚弱的

  frailty n. 脆弱,意志薄弱;弱点

 

5. afflict v. 使苦恼,折磨

  affliction n. 痛苦,苦恼,苦难

 

6. excellent a. 极好的杰出的

  excellence n. 优秀卓越优点

  excellently ad. 优秀地超群地

 

7. progress n. 进步,发展,前进

  progression n. 前进

  progressive a. 前进的,渐进的

 

8. disillusion n. 觉醒,幻灭

  disillusionment n. 幻灭感

  disillusioned a. 大失所望的,幻想破灭的

 

IV.

1. A;  2. C;  3. B;  4. D;  5. B;  6. A;  7. D;  8. B.

 

V. Synonym / Antonym

Give a synonym or an antonym of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used.

1. And I managed to keep my health and optimism, to a degree, because of 14 steps.

Antonym: pessimism

 

2. Not so. Here hobbled a bitterly disillusioned cripple, a man who held on to his sanity and his wife and his home and his job because of 14 miserable steps leading up to the back door from his garage.

Synonym: painfully, desperately

 

3. She went into the house and a moment later came out bundled in raincoat and hat, followed by a man who called a cheerful greeting.

Antonym: cheerless, unhappy, gloomy

 

4. I started the engine and thumped slowly along, keeping well over on the shoulder until I came to the dirt road, where I turned in thankfully.

Synonym: fortunately

 

5. He was an old man, stooped and frail-looking under his slicker.

Synonym: weak, delicate, feeble

 

6. As I became older, I became more disillusioned and frustrated.

Synonym: disappointed

 

7. I realized that I was filled to overflowing with self-pity, selfishness, indifference to the needs of others and thoughtlessness.

Antonym: selflessness, unselfishness

 

8. There followed a long interval of noises.

Synonym: period

 

VI. Compounding 

Write in each space the meaning of each given word.

1. likewise                 in the same way                     

2. underway               in progress                         

3. carefree                 with no concern                      

4. forthcoming                  coming soon                        

5. stand-by                something ready for use               

6. user-friendly          handy to use                        

7. soundproof            preventing the passage of sound         

8. landlocked             almost or entirely surrounded by land     

 

Part Two. Grammar Exercises

1. Numerals

Cardinal 基数numerals express integer 整数(whole) abstract numbers, or the number / amount of the determined nouns in literal form. In addition to being numerals determining nouns, cardinal numerals may also work as:

1. adjectives

2. nouns

3. numeral “one” can also be a pronoun

   The different ways to express “around”: around, about, nearly, some, more or less, or so, thereabouts, etc.

Ordinal 序数numerals are used to express an / the order in a series. In addition to being numerals determining nouns, ordinal numerals may also work as:

1. adjectives

2. nouns

3. adverbs

Ordinal numerals allow both articles ahead. Again, the article determines the noun only, not the numeral.

   Fractional numeral is used to express parts of a whole. Commonly, it takes two forms:

1. Common 普通分数/简分数fraction

Work according to the formula: Wholes + Numerator / Denominator

e. g. 1 2/3 = (is equal to or means) one (whole) and / plus two thirds

Note the “s” added to the denominator: “thirds”.

2. Decimal 小数numbers

Work according to the formula: Whole numbers (point) decimals

e. g. 12.15 = (is equal to or means) twelve fifteen, or twelve point fifteen

 

 Idifferent ways to express “around”.

1. About 100 students;  2. more or less 40 pages;  3. There are 30 or so questions;  4. two hours or thereabouts;  5. some four miles;  6. 50ish.

 

II.

1. a nap合一会儿眼;  2. very good indeed百里挑一;  3. in a mess乱七八糟;  4. on hands and knees四脚爬; 5. very much better than you are比你强十倍;  6. talking quickly and continuously;  7. very probably十有八九;  8. a lot ways千万条路子.

 

III. Correct the errors in the following sentences.

1. He was not due at the office for another three-quarter (attributive-adjective) (three quarters) of an hour.

2. was –were.

3. This is the worst disaster I can remember in my plus 25 years (25 years plus) as a police officer.

4. second time –a second time.

5. see –have seen. (present perfect)

6. It took him one and a half hours to finish the task.

7. Twenty-nine (beginning)

 

2. Determiners (both, each, either or neither, some, any)

Determiners are used in front of nouns to indicate whether you are referring to something specific or something of a particular type.

Both is used to indicate that the action or state denoted by the verb applies individually to each of the two entities. When both is used with and to link parallel elements in a sentence, the words or phrases that follow them should correspond grammatically. Both can only collocate with plural count nouns.

e. g. Both her fingers are broken.

Both Mary and Tom like reading English novels.

 

The phrase beginning with each identifies a set of items wherein the words following each identify the individual elements by their shared characteristics. The phrase is grammatically singular in number, so if the phrase is the subject of a sentence, its verb is conjugated into a third-person singular form. Similarly, any pronouns that refer to the noun phrase are singular.

e. g. Each candidate has 49 votes.

Each voter must decide for herself.

 

Either and neither are used in sentences concerning a possible choice between two items. Either can mean one or the other (of two) or each of two.

e.g. I’ve got tea and coffee, so you can have either. (one or the other)

The room has a door at either end. (both)

 

Neither means not the first one and not the second one.

e. g. Neither of the students were listening.

 

Both, some and any appear before nouns. Some and any may be used with countable and uncountable nouns.

e. g. He bought some sandwiches for lunch.

He didn’t see any stars when he visited Hollywood.

He ate some cheese with his sandwiches.

He never drinks any coffee at night because then he can’t sleep.

 

IV.

Both, both, Neither, either, neither.

both, each, either.

 

V.  Fill in each of the blanks with some, any or one of their compounds.

1. somewhat

2. The repairs will cost ____ something ____ in the region of $500.

3. I was amazed that ____some_____ 400 people came to the meeting to discuss the new scheme for a shopping center.

4. somehow, anything

5. anything, something

6. George ought to be able to tell whether that old plate is valuable. He is ___something___ of an expert on china.

7. What have you been up to? I haven’t seen ___anything___ of you for ages.

8. some

 

VI.

1. In spite of + noun--

2. It seemed to me that + clause--

 

Part Three. Translation exercises

I. English to Chinese

1. 常言道猫有九命,我信这话。因为我已经活第三回了,尽管我并不是猫。

2. 我只是一个一瘸一拐、幻想破灭的残疾人,一个凭着攀登车库和后门之间十四级令人痛苦的台阶而努力保持清醒的心智,伴随妻子、维持家庭和坚持工作的人。

3. 其后的几秒钟一切都好像凝滞了,那一刻的羞耻和惊诧深深的穿透了我的肺腑,我感到了一种从未有过的难受。

4. 我意识到自己极端自怜、自私,对别人的需要漠不关心,不为别人着想。

 

II. Chinese to english

1. 这位电影演员比大多数人更愿意帮助残疾人,因为他自己十年前曾中过风。(be inclined to

     This film actor is more inclined than most people to help the handicapped because he himself suffered a stroke ten years ago.

 

2. The old man is afflicted with rheumatism, but he still goes jogging and mountain-climbing every day.

 

3. 美国金融制度中的一些缺陷始终没有得到足够的重视,最终酿成了灾难性的后果。(lead to

Some of the flaws in the American financial system, which had never received due attention eventually led to disastrous consequences.

 

4. He held on to his shares of that company when the prices were dropping sharply ladt year. Noe he has made a fortune.

 

5. 赶快断了这个念头吧——这个想法太疯狂了,根本不值得考虑。(dismiss

Just dismiss the idea from your mind — it’s crazy and not worth thinking about at all.

 

6. We were all set to leave for the holiday in New York when the3 9/11 incident shook the whole world.

7. If you think I have a magic formula to solve the problem, you are bound to be disillusioned.

 

8. That Japanese company succeeded in penetrating the US TV market.

 

 

 

VI Writing Practice

Paragraph development — Analogy

Writers very often explain something that is new or difficult by comparing it to something that the reader already knows well. When such a comparison is carried through in detail, we call it an analogy.

Creative analogies are always impressive and inspiring. They arouse readers’ interest and make them want to read more. Some analogies may appear strange and weird at first sight, but they can open our minds to see our subject in new and interesting ways.

 

Exercises: Write two paragraphs based on the following topic sentences with the analogy strategy.

1. Elderly people are like babies.

Ideas for reference:

They need the care and intervention of others.

They rely on their families for emotional support.

Sample:

Elderly people are like babies. Babies come into the world with no teeth, the elderly leave with no teeth too. The most obvious similarity between elderly people and babies is that they need the care and intervention of others. They may depend upon someone for something as simple as moving from place to place. Many elderly people and infants cannot walk without assistance. A person weak with age may sit in a wheelchair all day and require others to push them. Most importantly, they both need others’ extra attention. They are not so socially active so they rely more on their families for emotional support. Babies and old people, you have to love them, they are the most lovable people in the world.

…………

Elderly people are like babies. First of all, elderly people are physically vulnerable just like babies. They are so easily taken ill whenever the weather changes drastically. When a cold wave strikes, elderly people are as likely to catch a cold as babies do and they may also have blood pressure problems or even develop other more serious conditions. Second, many people of advanced ages seem to return to the state of ignorance typical of the naïve child. That is why we have come across so many stories of criminal frauds that have victimized retired, elderly people. Last but not least, elderly people need their adult children’s extra attention just as much as babies want their parents’ love and care. They are no longer as socially active as they used to by; they rely ever more on their families for emotional support. However, in many domestic situations, they feel left out, and even deliberately ignored. When they are in emotional trouble, they are not able to handle it effectively and skillfully. They want their children’s company as much as their children’s babies, but in most cases they are too proud to say so.

 

2. Finding the right major is like finding the right person to marry.

Ideas for reference:

They both take two parties to make work.

Love really counts when we decide on the choice.

They are both hard to find.

Sample:

Finding the right major is like finding the right person to marry. A marriage takes two parties to make it work. Likewise, a successful college education depends on the relationship between the student and the major that they choose. The branch of learning that can supposedly prepare one for the financially most rewarding job is not necessarily the best choice for a particular person. Similarly, the most intelligent student is very often not among the right people to take the most competitive major. Just as in marriage, love really counts when we decide on the choice of major. Only when we have a passion for the particular field of knowledge will we be able to come out as excellent students and then start a highly profitable or emotionally rewarding career. Finding the right college major can also be as hard as finding the right person to marry. As much as appearances can be deceptive in relationships, many academic subjects can look appealing but often turn out to be most boring. So it is sensible for a college student to open their eyes wide when they shop around for the right major before they make up their minds.

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