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(8)论“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”

(2015-03-13 10:30:26)
标签:

哈勃常数

球面

质点

第四维

三维空间

 

“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”

"Space closed" and "Harbert constant"

 

杨明昆1,王严学2,杨昭国3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

 

Mingkun Yang 1,Yanxue Wang 2,Zhaoguo Yang 3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

 

摘要

在一个“封闭空间”中,“哈勃常数”的本质,就是质点(天体)的运动,满足“同点同时、同向同速”。我们生活的“三维空间”,就是一个被“第四维度”“封闭”的“三维空间”:“球柱体”,质点之间满足“同向同速”,如果再满足“同点同时”,那么就会产生“哈勃常数效应”,而“奇点大爆炸”正好提供了“同点同时”的条件,于是就出现了“哈勃定律”。“暗能量”只是“第四维度的引力效应”,并不是我们在“三维球面”内,可以“找到”的“实体物质”——是“不可见的”。不是宇宙“膨胀”或“收缩”,而是物质(天体)在这个“固定的空间”——“固定的形状”、“固定的体积”(体积为2π2Rs3的“三维球面”)内的“扩散”或“聚集”。

Abstract

In a "closed space",the causes of "Harbert constant", is the particle (celestial) movement, "the same point at the same time, to meet with the same speed and direction".  We live in the "three-dimensional space", is a "fourth dimension" "closed" "three dimensional space": "the ball column". If meet "the same point at the same time", will produce "Harbert constant effect". "Big Bang" happened in the "same point at the same time", so, there is a "Harbert law"."Dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."The universe is not "expansion", is a Substance(celestial) body in this "fixed space" - "fixed shape", "fixed volume" (Volume is 2π2Rs3 the "three-dimensional sphere")within the "diffusion".

 

关键词

空间封闭;三维球面;哈勃常数;奇点;大爆炸;暗能量

Keywords

space closure; three-dimensional spherical; Harbert constant;singularity; big bang; Dark energy

 

1.“空间弯曲”

1. "curved space"

 

在广义相对论中,引力被描述为时空的一种几何属性(曲率)。[1]

In general relativity, gravity is described as a geometric property of space-time (curvature). [1]

 

因此,“引力”是一种“空间弯曲”。万有引力源于“质量”,“引力场”对应着“弯曲的空间”。从本质上来说,是“质量”对应着“空间弯曲”:“质量弯曲空间”!

Therefore, "gravity" is a "space warp". Gravitational source to "quality", "gravity field" corresponds to "curved space". In essence, is the "quality" corresponds to "curved space": "the quality of curved space"!

 

2.“空间封闭”

2. "space closed"

 

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。

"High dimensional" to "low dimensional space is "closed .

2.1.“第二维度”对“一维空间”的“封闭”

2.1. "Second dimension" on the "one-dimensional" and "closed"

 

一维空间里,有一对主要方向:左右。

One-dimensional space, a pair of main directions: left and right.

 

如果在一维空间(直线)之外,有一个“质量中心”P0,到一维空间(直线)的距离为R,那么这个一维空间(直线)就会向P0发生“弯曲”。  

If the one-dimensional (linear) outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, a distance to a one-dimensional space (a straight line) is R, then the one-dimensional (linear) will occur to P0 "bending."

 

假如这个质点P0的质量m足够大,达到了满足R=2Gm/c2(G为引力常量,c为光速),那么,这时的质量m就将“一维直线”“弯曲”成了“圆”:“封闭的一维空间”,称为“第二维度”对“一维空间”的“封闭”,R为质点P0的史瓦西半径,从而形成一个“二维空间”:“圆面”。

If this particle of mass m P0 large enough to reach satisfying R=2Gm/c2 (G is the gravitational constant, c is the speed of light), then, when the mass m will be "one-dimensional linear" "bent" into "round ":" closed one-dimensional space "," second dimension "of" one-dimensional "and" closed ", R is the radius of particle Schwarzschild P0 so as to form a" two-dimensional ":" round face . "

 

这时,在“一维空间”:“圆”上的“物质”,都应该是以“光速”运动。或者是P0点的“物质”以“光速”运动。

At this time, the "one-dimensional": "substance" on "circle", should be based on "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

 

2.2.“第三维度”对“二维空间”的“封闭”

2.2. "Third dimension" on the "two-dimensional" and "closed"

 

二维空间里,有两对主要方向:左右、前后。这两对方向是正交的。从数学方面讲,它们在两条不同的坐标轴xy上。

Two-dimensional space, there are two pairs of main directions: left, front and rear. Direction is orthogonal to both pairs. From mathematics, they are two different axes x, y.

 

如果在二维空间(平面)之外,有一个“质量中心”P0,到二维空间(平面)的距离为R,那么这个二维空间(平面)就会向P0发生“弯曲”。  

If in addition to the two-dimensional space (plane), there is a "center of mass" P0, from a two-dimensional space (plane) to as R, then the two-dimensional space (plane) will occur to P0 "bending."

 

假如R正好是这个质点P0的史瓦西半径,那么,这时的质量m就将“二维平面”“弯曲”成了“球面”:“封闭的二维空间”,称为“第三维度”对“二维空间”的“封闭”,形成了一个“三维空间”:“球体”。

If R is just the Schwarzschild radius of the particle P0, then, when the mass m will be "two-dimensional", "bending" became the "sphere": "closed-dimensional space", known as the "third dimension "Yes," two-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" three-dimensional ":" sphere. "

 

(8)论“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”
Figure 1

图1

这时,在“二维空间”:“球面”上的“物质”,也都应该是以“光速”运动。或者是P0点的“物质”以“光速”运动。

At this time, in the "two-dimensional": "substance" on "sphere", it should be based on "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

 

2.3.“第四维度”对“三维空间”的“封闭”

2.3. "Fourth Dimension" on the "three-dimensional" and "closed"

 

三维空间里,有三对主要方向:上下(高度),南北(纬度),东西(经度)。这三对方向两两正交,也就是说,它们两两成直角。从数学方面讲,它们在三条不同的坐标轴xyz上。

Three-dimensional space, there are three main directions: up and down (height), the north-south (latitude), East (longitude). This three pairs are orthogonal direction, that is, they twenty-two right angles. From mathematics, they are three different coordinate axes x, y, z.

 

同样地,如果在三维空间(“球体”)之外,有一个“质量中心”P0,到三维空间(“球体”)的距离为R,那么这个三维空间(“球体”)就会向P0发生“弯曲”。  

Likewise, if the three-dimensional space ("ball") outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, the distance to three-dimensional space ("ball") is R, then the three-dimensional space ("ball") will occur to P0 "bent."

 

假如R正好是这个质点P0的史瓦西半径,那么,质点P0的质量就将“球”“弯曲”成了“三维球面”:“封闭的三维空间”,称为“第四维度”对“三维空间”的“封闭”,形成一个“四维空间”:“球柱体”(球体为“盖”的柱体)。

If R is the Schwarzschild radius of the particle just P0, then, when the particle mass P0 will "ball", "bent" into "a three-dimensional sphere": "closed three-dimensional space", known as the "fourth dimension "Yes," three-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" four-dimensional space ":" The ball cylinder "(sphere as" cover "of the cylinder).

 

(8)论“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”
Figure 2

图2

这时,在“三维空间”:“三维球面”上的“物质”,也应该是都以“光速”运动。或者是P0点的“物质”以“光速”运动。

At this time, in the "three-dimensional space": "substance" on "three-dimensional sphere", it should be all the "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

 

数学中,“三维球面”是球面在高维空间中的类比客体。它由四维欧几里德空间中与一固定中心点等距离的所有点所组成。寻常的球面(或者说二维球面)是一个二维表面,而三维球面是一个具有三个维度的几何客体。

Mathematics, "a three-dimensional sphere" is the sphere of high-dimensional space analogy object. It consists of all points in the four-dimensional Euclidean space with a fixed center point equidistant from the composition. Unusual spherical (or two-dimensional sphere) is a two-dimensional surface, while the three-dimensional sphere is a geometric object with three dimensions.

 

在四维欧几里德空间中与P0点有相同距离R的所有点的集合能形成一个超曲面,称为三维球面。此超曲面之包含空间(“球柱体”:球体为“盖”的柱体,“特殊的”“圆柱状空间”)的超体积为:V=2π2R3

In the four-dimensional Euclidean space, and there is the set of all points P0 point the same distance R can form a hypersurface, called three-dimensional sphere. This hypersurface to include space ("Ball cylinder": the sphere as "cover" in the column, "special", "cylindrical space") super volume: V=2π2R3.

 

纯空间性的四维空间另有一对垂直于其他三个主要方向的主要方向。这一对方向处在另一条同时垂直于xyz轴的坐标轴上,通常称作w轴。这些额外的方向处于(实际上是垂直于)我们所能观察到的三维世界中的方向之外。[2]

Pure space of four-dimensional space and another one for the other three main directions perpendicular to the main direction. This pair is in another direction perpendicular to both the x, y, z-axis of the coordinate axes, commonly referred to as w axis. These additional direction is (virtually perpendicular to) we can observe the outside world in a three-dimensional direction. [2]

 

3.“哈勃常数”

3."Harbert constant"

 

我们知道,哈勃常数,也称哈勃定律。在物理宇宙学里,哈勃定律表明,来自遥远星系光线的红移与它们的距离成正比。以方程表示V=H0D;其中,V是由红移现象测得的星系远离速率,HO是哈勃常数,D是星系与观察者之间的距离。

We know, Harbert constant, also known as Harbert's law. In physical cosmology, Harbert's law shows that, from a distant galaxy redshift of light and the distance between them is proportional to. In equation V=H0D; wherein, V is measured by the redshift galaxies away from rate, HO is Harbert's constant, D is the distance between the galaxy and the observer.

 

那么,产生“哈勃常数”的“空间环境”是怎样的呢?或者说,怎样的天体分布、符合怎样的运动条件,才能产生“哈勃常数效应”呢?

So, produce "Harbert constant" of "space environment" is what kind of? Or, the celestial distribution how, in line with the movement condition how, can produce "Harbert constant effect"?

 

3.1.“测地线”

3.1. "Geodesic"

 

在大地测量学(测量地球的尺寸和形状的科学)中,测地线是连接地球表面两点的最短距离。近似地,这条线是一个大圆上的弧,比如经线和赤道。这些路径显然不是直的,因为它们沿着地球的弯曲的表面延伸。

In geodesy (measuring the size and shape of the Earth sciences), the geodesic connecting the shortest distance between two points on the earth's surface. Approximately, this line is a great circle on the arc, such as warp and equatorial. Obviously these paths are not straight, as they extend along the curved surface of the earth.

 

测地线的性质和直线是不一样的。例如,在平面中,平行线没有交点,但是地球表面的测地线却有交点:在赤道处平行的经线在极点处相交。

The nature and straight geodesic is not the same. For example, in a plane, parallel lines no intersection, but there geodesic intersection of the Earth's surface: In parallel to the equator at longitude intersect at the poles.

 

(8)论“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”
Figure 3

图3

3.2.“同点同时、同向同速”

3.2."The same point at the same time, with the same speed and direction"

 

在一个“封闭空间”中,若设从O点同时出发的质点A、B、C、D、E、…P、Q…,其相对于O点的运动速度,都在同一方向上(沿“测地线”)拥有相同的速度分量(大小为v):“同点同时、同向同速”。

In a "closed space",particle A, B, C, D, E,... P, Q... At the same time, from the point of O, relative to the velocity of O points, in the same direction ("geodesic"), with the same velocity component (size v): "the same point at the same time, with the same speed and direction".

 

可以认为,这些质点原来都集中于一点O,O点的运动速度为v,后来这些质点“同时”离开O点,在惯性作用下,都保留了原有的速度分量v。

These particles, the original are concentrated at one point O, the velocity of O point to v, the particle "same time" from point O, under the inertia effect, have retained the original velocity component v.

 

选取质点P(比如地球)为考察对象,沿其速度分量v所在的方向反向延长到O1,使得线段PO1=PO=r,点O1相对于O是静止的。另外,再任意选取一个质点B(任意天体)。并设质点B在质点P“视向”上的速度分量的大小为v1,令线段BN表示v1的大小,即质点B相对O1点的运动速度(大小为v2),可以分解为在O1P方向上的分量(大小为v)与在质点P“视向”上的分量(大小为v1),令线段BU表示v2的大小,则有线段NU就是v的大小,且有△O1BP∽△UBN,因此v1/BP=v/r,而对任意的质点B来说,v/r是一个常数。所以,若令BP=D,则有H0=v1/D=v1/BP=v/r是一个常数。

Select the P (particle such as the earth) as the object of study, the velocity component along the v in the direction of the reverse extension to O1, such that the line segment PO1=PO=r, O1 relative to O is a stationary point. In addition, then the arbitrary selection of a particle B (arbitrary objects). And B in the P "as the particle particle velocity component to" the size is v1, make the line BN said the size of the v1, namely the movement velocity relative to O1 point B (particle size is v2), can be divided in the direction of O1P component (size v) and in the particle P "visual direction" the component (big small is v1), make the line BU said the size of the v2, is the line NU is v in size, and △O1BP∽△UBN, so v1/BP=v/r, For any particle B, and v/r is a constant. So, if the BP=D, then H0=v1/D=v1/BP=v/r is a constant.

 

(8)论“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”
Figure 4

图4

因此,在一个“封闭空间”内,物体运动符合“哈勃定律”(即产生“哈勃常数效应”)的条件就是:“同点同时、同向同速”。即该空间内的所有物体(天体),在“同一地点、同一时间”开始运动,并且,“都在同一方向上(空间内的“测地线”方向)、拥有相同的速度分量”。

Therefore,in a "closed space",in line with the movement of objects "Hubble's Law" (ie, a "Hubble constant effect") condition is: "The same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed." Namely: That all Substance (celestial) of the space in the "same place, same time," begins to move, and that "all in the same direction (space" geodesic "direction), with the same velocity component."

   

4.“宇宙空间”

4. "cosmic space"

 

我们生活的“空间”就是一个“三维空间”:如果受到来自“第四维度”的引力影响,也可以被“第四维度”“封闭”,形成一个“四维空间”:“球柱体”。

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder."

 

因此,可以认为全部的“宇宙空间”就是一个“特殊的”“圆柱状空间”:以“三维球面”为边界,即P0点的“视界”的“球柱体”:“底面半径为Rs、高为2πRs(π为圆周率、Rs为“第四维度中心质量的史瓦西半径)的‘圆柱状空间’”,不过,只是该“圆柱状空间”的两端是重合的。

Therefore, we can consider all of the "space" is a "special" "cylindrical space": the "three-dimensional sphere" for the border, that is the point P0 "event horizon" and "Ball cylinder": "underside radius Rs, height 2πRs (π is pi, Rs is the "fourth dimension of the center of mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however, only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident.

 

(8)论“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”
Figure 5

图5

 

(8)论“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”
Figure 6

图6

5.“三维球面”上的“哈勃常数”

5."Hubble constant" in "the Three-dimensional sphere"

 

5.1.“同点同时”

5.1. "The same point at the same time."

 

我们的“宇宙”起源于一次“奇点”“大爆炸”。

Our "universe" originated in a "singularity" "big bang."

 

在100-200亿年之前,宇宙生之于一次“大爆炸”,物质都由爆炸中创生。[3]

所以我们的“宇宙”的所有“物质”都是“同点同时”开始运动的,即“同点”:“奇点”,“同时”:“大爆炸”。

100-200 million years ago, students of the universe in a "big bang", the material creation by the explosion. [3]

So our "universe" of all "material" are "the same point at the same time," began the movement, that is, "with points": "singularity", "while": "Big Bang."

 

5.2.“同向同速”

5.2."in the same direction at the same speed."

 

球面上的“子午线”都是“测地线”。“三维球面”上的“子午线”也是“测地线”。

如图,“三维球面”上的平行线(红色)、子午线(蓝色)。

Sphere "Meridian" are "geodesic." "Meridian", "three-dimensional sphere" is also on the "geodesic."

As shown in Figure, Parallel lines (red) as shown, "the three-dimensional sphere" on the meridian (blue).

 

(8)论“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”
Figure 7

图7

整个“奇点”原来以光速运动,其“大爆炸”后产生的所有物质,将仍然保留在“同一方向”(“子午线”)上的“光速分量”。或者是P0点的“物质”以“光速”运动。

All material throughout the "singularity" of the original to the speed of light, after its "big bang" produced, will remain in the "same direction" ("Meridian") on the "speed of light weight." Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

 

这样一来,所谓的“第四维的P0点”就具有了“量子化”的特点:“P0点”每时每刻都与我们所在的“三维空间里”的“每一个点”——任何一个“普通物质(天体)”保持“同距”——“P0点的史瓦西半径RS”。

As a result, the so-called "fourth dimension P0 point" on having a "quantum" features: "P0 point" all the time and where we are, "the three-dimensional space" and "every point" - any one of the "ordinary Substance (celestial)" Hold "with the distance" - "P0 point Schwarzschild radius RS".

 

在“第四维度”上有“固定的物理量”——“第四维度物理量”:速度为光速c,质量为P0点的质量m,能量为mc2,动量为mc。是否可以说,“相对论”就是“‘视界’上的牛顿经典物理”——必须考虑纳入“第四维度物理量的影响”。

In the "fourth dimension," there are "fixed physical" - "the fourth dimension physical": speed is the speed of light c, the quality of the quality points P0 m, energy mc2, momentum mc. Can it be said, "Theory of Relativity" is "Newton's classical physics'event horizon 'on' - must be considered for inclusion in the" fourth dimension of physical effects. "

 

5.3.“三维球面”上的“哈勃常数”

5.3."Hubble constant" in "the three-dimensional sphere"

 

由上述可知,我们现在所在的“空间”:“三维空间”亦即“三维球面”,满足了“同点同时、同向同速”的条件,所以天体之间的运动符合“哈勃定律”,产生了“哈勃常数效应”。

From the foregoing, we are now where the "Space": "three-dimensional space," that is, "a three-dimensional sphere" to meet the "same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law" produced a "Hubble constant effect."

 

6.“暗能量”

6. "Dark energy"

 

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。但是,“低维空间”对于“高维度”来说,只能感觉到“高维度”的“影响”,却不能“看到”“高维度里的物质”。

"High-dimensional" can be "low-dimensional space "were "closed." However, the "low-dimensional space" for the "high-dimensional", can only feel "high-dimensional" and "influence" but can not "see" the "high dimension in the matter."

 

比如,生活在“三维球面”上的人们来说,由于“高维度”——“第四维度”的“质量”“封闭”了这个“三维球面”,使得“三维球面”上的所有“物质”都具有了“同向同速”——都向同一个方向(沿“测地线”)、都以“光速”运动,因此就认为是一种“充溢空间的、增加宇宙膨胀速度”的“能量形式”,并且是“各向同性,密度非常小,不与通常物质发生任何除引力之外的已知的相互作用(即电磁、强、弱相互作用)”。但是,我们在这个“三维球面”里却无法看到、摸到、测到“第四维度里的物质”:谓之“暗能量”!

For example, people living in a "three-dimensional sphere" on it, as "high-dimensional" - "fourth dimension" of the "quality" of "closed" this "three-dimensional sphere", the "" all on "material three-dimensional sphere "have the" same direction at the same speed "- all in the same direction (along the" geodesic "), are" speed of light "movement, and therefore considered to be a" full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe, "the "energy form", and is "isotropic, density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (i.e. electromagnetic, strong, weak interaction) does not react with ordinary matter." However, we can not see in this "three-dimensional sphere," actually, touched, measured, "the fourth dimension in the matter": that of "dark energy"!

 

因此,可以认为:“暗能量”只是“第四维度的引力效应”,并不是我们在“三维球面”内,可以“找到”的“实体物质”——是“不可见的”。

Therefore, said: "dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."

 

7. 不是“宇宙膨胀”,而是“物质扩散”

7. Not "cosmic expansion", but "mass diffusion"

 

我们所在的“空间”——“三维空间”——“三维球面”,满足“同点同时、同向同速”的条件,所以天体之间的运动符合“哈勃定律”,产生了“哈勃常数效应”。

Where we are, "space" - "three-dimensional" - "three-dimensional sphere" to meet "the same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law", resulting in "Hubble constant effect. "

 

不过,这只是暂时的。由于宇宙是“有限无界”的“球柱体”,当宇宙年龄“超越‘三维球面’的‘赤道’”之后,就会越来越显现:“蓝移现象”。

However, this is only temporary. Because the universe is "limited unbounded" and "ball cylinder", when age of the universe, "beyond the 'three-dimensional sphere' of the 'Equator' ', it will become increasingly apparent:" blue shift. "

因此,不是宇宙“膨胀”或“收缩”,而是物质(天体)在这个“固定的空间”——“固定的形状”、“固定的体积”(体积为2π2Rs3的“三维球面”)内的“扩散”或“聚集”。

So instead of the Universe "expansion" or "shrink", but the Substance (celestial) in this "fixed space"- "fixed shape", "fixed volume" (Volume is 2π2Rs3 the "three-dimensional sphere") within the "proliferation" or "gathering."

需要指出的是,在这种“扩散”或“聚集”的过程中,随着时间的延续,由于从“一点出发”“物质”所“划过”的“空间”,一直都在“逐渐扩大”——所以这个“普通物质划过的空间”会“一直膨胀”。并且,由于“速度分量的大小不变”,随着时间的延续,参考点P与“极点”的距离r越来越大,那么“哈勃常数”H0=v/r将会“越来越小”,还将变为“负值”——发生“蓝移”。

It should be noted that, in this "diffusion" or "gathering" in the process, with the continuation of the time due to the "point of departure", "substance" of the "across" and "space", has been in "gradually expanding "- so this" ordinary matter across space "would" have been swell. "Also, due to the "velocity component of the same size," as time reference point P and the "pole" of the distance r increases, then the "Hubble constant" H0 = v / r will be "more small ", will be changed to" negative "-" blue shift. "

 

8.“洛伦兹因子”

8. "Lorentz factor"

 

由于光速c是最大速度,而“大爆炸”中产生“物质”的“同向同速”的“速度分量”就是“光速”,因此“视向速度”v1应该是光速c的一个分量,同时在“切向”(与“视向”垂直)上也有一个“分量”,其大小为v0=√c2-v12。这一点可能是洛伦兹因子1/√1-(v1/c)2 产生的“根源”。

Because of the speed of light c is the maximum speed, and the "big bang" in a "substance" and "in the same direction at the same speed" and "velocity component" is the "speed of light", so "radial velocity" v1 should be a component of the speed of light c, and at the same time on the "Tangential" (and "radial" vertical) also has a "weight", and its size is v0 =√c2-v12. This may be Lorentz factor 1 /√1- (v1/c) 2 resulting "root causes."

 

(8)论“空间封闭”与“哈勃常数”
Figure 8

图8

 

 

参考文献

References

[1]于尔根·奈佛 .爱因斯坦传 :中央编译出版社 ,2013 :153-157 .

[2]Ray d'Inverno (1992), Introducing Einstein's Relativity, Clarendon Press,chp. 22.8 Geometry of 3-spaces of constant curvature, p.319ff, ISBN 0-19-859653-7

[3]罗先汉 .天体演化.山西 :山西科学技术出版社 ,2001-01 :102-106 .

 

 

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