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## "The Coriolis force" and "Dark matter"

(2015-03-06 10:51:56)

### corio

"The Coriolis force" and "Dark matter"

Mingkun Yang 1，Yanxue Wang 2，Zhaoguo Yang 3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

Abstract

The Coriolis force and centrifugal force of a rotating system, not in the inertial system real force, is the embodiment of the inertial effect in non inertial system in. Similarly, "Coriolis acceleration", can be seen as the "centripetal acceleration" -- produced a "dark matter" effect: "rotation system" to produce a "effect", can be called "dark matter quality". We live in the "three-dimensional space", is a "rotation system": "the ball column" rotating on its axis of symmetry, in this "rotation system": "the ball column", also will have a "dark matter" effect, and presents the galaxy in "half ball" clockwise rotation. This conclusion, and the current "astronomical" is consistent.

Keywords

rotating system; Coriolis force; space; dark matter; quality; distribution; rotation curve

1. "Coriolis force" [1]

Coriolis force, referred to as the Coriolis force, the rotation system is linear motion of the particle due to the rotational inertia of the system described with respect to a linear movement generated offset. Coriolis force from the movement of objects have inertia.

From a physical point of view, like the Coriolis force and centrifugal force, is not true in the inertial forces exist, but inertia is reflected in non-inertial frames.

Coriolis force formula:

Visible, the Coriolis force is always perpendicular to the direction of the particle velocity and the same particle, the "Coriolis force proportional to the velocity: the greater the speed, the greater the Coriolis force" in the same place .

Typically, observed in inertial Coriolis acceleration:

Thus, the direction of the Coriolis acceleration and the direction opposite to the Coriolis force. This is because the Coriolis acceleration is observed in the inertial system, generated by the force; and the Coriolis force is in the rotating reference frame observed acceleration it produces relative to the non-inertial Department of terms. Coriolis acceleration is not considered by the Coriolis force.

Due to the rotation of the Earth is not a inertial system, but a rotating frame of reference, so games on the particle surface is affected Coriolis force. Force direction left to right movement of objects in the northern hemisphere, the southern hemisphere to the movement of objects.［2］

Tropical cyclones (appearing on the North Pacific called typhoons) influenced the formation of the Coriolis force, and rotated in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere in the counterclockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.［2］

Figure 1

The "Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclone" for example, a macro perspective, the "low pressure area"near "material particle" campaign, are similar to the "circular motion."

Figure 2

Coriolis force is always perpendicular to the direction of the particle velocity, play is "centrifugal force" role "circumferential movement", and if the "Coriolis force" equal and opposite forces denoted F0, the "Coriolis acceleration" is generated F0. F0 direction, and it is perpendicular to the direction of the particle velocity, but played a "centripetal" role, called the "Coriolis centripetal force" and "centripetal force and velocity is proportional to the Coriolis: greater speed, Corey Orly greater solidarity. "

Figure 3

On Earth, has a horizontal component of motion in the direction of the object's surface, by the "Coriolis force centripetal force" in size: F0=2mvωsinΦ, m is mass of the object; v is the object of the horizontal velocity component; ω is the Earth's rotation angular velocity; sin is a sine function; Φ for objects which dimension(which is also ω direction and v direction Angle). Force direction movement of objects in the northern hemisphere to the left, to the right of the movement of objects in the southern hemisphere - act as a "centripetal" role - point "center of the cyclone." ［2］

Figure 4

Of course, here, from the "centripetal force" acting mainly "pressure gradient force."

2."surround Movement"

Assuming for the sphere surround motion (circular motion) particle size velocity v, the center mass of m, the spherical radius r, G is the gravitational constant, the quality of the particle center Newtonian gravity is the "solidarity", there r=Gm/v2, ie v2=Gm/r.

Thus, in a galaxy near the middle or outside, the rotational speed of the planet outside the galaxy, the more the inside should be getting smaller and smaller, "galactic rotation velocity curve" with increasing distance, should be gradually decreased (A-line) .

Figure 5

3．"Dark matter"

American female astronomer Vera Rubin observing galaxies speed, the rotational speed of the planets discovered outside the galaxy faster than the expected Newtonian gravity (B line), suggesting that there is a huge amount of mass-energy ("dark matter") pulled outside of the galaxy composition, so not because of excessive centrifugal force from the galaxy.

In cosmology, the "dark matter" refers to electromagnetic waves can not be studied by observing, that is not an effect of matter and electromagnetic forces. It is currently only produced by the gravitational effects of that, and have discovered that the universe has a lot of "dark matter" exists.

4．"dark matter effect on the earth."

F0=2mvωsinΦ From "Coriolis centripetal force", "Coriolis centripetal force" resulting acceleration a0=2vωsinΦ. Particle can make happen "surround movement", as long as the particle velocity v, the "center" of the distance r satisfies: v2=a0r, namely v=(2ωsinΦ)r.

Hutchison K1=2ωsinΦ, K1 only with the Earth's "self-corner speed" ω and particle related to the latitude Φ. Therefore, in the vicinity of the same location on Earth, K1 can be regarded as a constant, referred to as "position constant."

From the "Coriolis centripetal force" F0=2mvωsinΦ=mvK1, can be obtained: F0=Gm(vK1r2/G)/r2 (G is the gravitational constant). If you remember M=vK1r2/G=（K1/G）vr2, there are "Coriolis centripetal" produced "surround speed", and the "surround center", "quality of M=（K1/G）vr2 "Newton force generated, in effect is" equivalent "in.

Produce "quality M=（K1/G）vr2" of "real substance" is "do not exist". But one from the "rotating system" produced "The role of effect" - can be called "dark matter mass" or "dark quality."

On Earth, if we take ω=7.29×10-5rad/s , G=6.67×10-11 N • m 2/kg2, there K1/G=（2ωsinΦ）/ G =2.1859070465×106sinΦ, due 0≤sinΦ≤1, K1/G values are relatively large, the 105 magnitude, therefore, can be considered on Earth, the so-called "dark matter quality" is "there are a lot of . "

In M=（K1/G）vr2, if credited K0=K1/G, there are M=K0vr2, where K0=K1/G =（2ωsinΦ）/G only with "rotation system" itself "angular velocity" ω, and the particle in the "rotation system" and "spatial position" Φ related. If you live in the "spatial position" unchanged - could be considered "within a relatively small space," one - can be limited to a nearby "center of mass", then K0 value is unchanged, said K0=K1/G =（2ωsinΦ）/G for "dark matter constant."

5."cosmic space"

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder." [3]

Therefore, we can consider all of the "space" is a "special" "cylindrical space": the "three-dimensional sphere" for the border, that is the point P0 "event horizon " and "Ball cylinder": "underside radius Rs, height 2πRs (π is pi, Rs is the "fourth dimension of the center of mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however, only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident. [3]

Figure 6

Figure 7

6."Coriolis force" In "three-dimensional sphere"

Similarly, if the above "ball barrel" around his "axis of symmetry" - "pole" and "symmetry pole" Connection "rotation" - "four-dimensional rotation system", then its "sphere" - "three-dimensional sphere." "substances (celestial)" will also be on the "Coriolis force" - "not in the real inertial force, but the inertia effect in non-inertial frames embodied": a "dark matter effect . "

Figure 8

In the "three-dimensional sphere" on "within a certain space," such as, in our human life within the Milky Way, there are only the "objective conditions O-- silver Quality Center is located near the center of the nuclear" ("Cylinder "angular velocity ω, the spatial position Φ) relating to" dark matter constants "K0 and" constant position "K1, and, assuming that the distance r O particle (celestial bodies) in size velocity v, there is" dark matter quality "M=K0vr2=（K1/G）vr2. That is "dark matter mass formula":

Figure 9

7."consistent with astronomical observations."

7.1."dark matter constant"

As the "dark matter constant" K0=K1/G =（2ωsinΦ）/G, and the "constant position" K1 related in "a different space 'latitude' Φ" where there is "a different constant dark matter", but compared in the "cosmic scale", we detect the "spatial scales" is still relatively small, so small differences in K0. It is possible that "small differences", resulting in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) temperature anisotropy, affecting the polarization power spectrum.

7.2."dependent ordinary matter exists"

By M=K0vr2=（K1/G）vr2 can know, "dark matter mass" M proportional to the cube of the particle velocity is determined by the velocity of the particle formation is the "particle velocity produced a 'dark matter effect'." Therefore, we can say, "There is substance" and "substance relative motion" place only "dark matter", so the "dark matter" always "dependent ordinary matter exists," and the greater the speed, the more obvious manifestations.

Dark matter is not omnipresent, they gather only in some places into lumps, but was dismissive of the other places. Secondly, with overlapping images of galaxies, we see galaxies and dark matter are consistent position. Where there is dark matter, there are stars and galaxies, dark matter is no place, no nothing. ［4］

Figure 10

7.3. "Uniformly distributed spherical "

The figure shows that the so-called "rotation curve tracer," which is often used as the Milky Way galactic disk images. This tracer in blue and red, which is mainly by the relative motion of the sun relative to their decision. Spherically symmetric blue halo shows scientists suspect the existence of dark matter. ［5］

Figure 11

Outside of the "center of mass", The quality of the force generated by the center smaller and smaller, can think that the motion of a particle (celestial) affected only by "Coriolis force". At this time, approximately, to meet the v=K1r, v and r are "linear relationship". And there is：M=K0vr2= K0K1r3,can be considered "dark matter mass" M is was "uniformly distributed spherical "- the" dark matter halo ", [6] [7] and farther away from the center of the galaxy, the more the more evident in the performance of the periphery of the galaxy. For example, the "dark matter" in the periphery of the "bullet cluster" - the "large-scale" on "performance was" (blue): similar example is found only in a small number of huge clusters of galaxies - only occurs when there is a huge clusters of galaxies - that is when the monster hit each other. [8]

Figure 12

Measurement data shows two dark matter in dwarf galaxies evenly distributed across a larger area of a few hundred light-years. [6] [7]

Measurement of gas and stellar rotation rate allows astronomers can effectively "weigh" the host galaxy and determine its overall quality. These measurements show that the visible matter only explain a small part of the whole matter - the dominant material is dark matter. This technology will be applied to the Milky Way is possible, the peripheral part of the existence of dark matter galaxy is known. ［5］

Prior to this, scientists have always thought that this technology will be applied to the innermost region of the galaxy is very difficult, which is about 100,000 light-years wide. Now scientists have discovered Technical University of Munich innermost galaxy - including Earth location and our own "cosmic neighborhood" - direct observational evidence for the existence of dark matter inside. ［5］

Figure 13

They first created the most complete compilation of the measurement results of the galactic gas and stars of sport has been published. Then they compared the measured rotation rate and assuming the rate of rotation of the brightest galaxies in existence only when the substance. The results clearly show the contrast could not explain the measured rate of rotation, unless all around us, the presence of the central galaxy between us and a lot of dark matter. "We need to know that dark matter galaxy of stars and gas in order to ensure that we have observed in the rate of rotation." Conduct this analysis led by University of Munich • Pat Miguel (Miguel Pato) Dr. says. ［5］

7.4. "galactic rotation velocity curve."

If the quality of "center of mass" of m, the radius of the center of mass of celestial Q for r, Q size velocity v, then the factors affecting v There are two: one is "ordinary quality material" m, and the other is above "dark matter mass" M. That is: v2=G（m+M）/r=Gm/r +GM/r.

When the v is not big, In the vicinity of "center of mass", because the "dark matter quality" M=K0v3=（1/GK1）v3 small(compared to m), celestial body movement, mainly affected by "ordinary matter quality" m.

"Ordinary quality material" m, can produce "surround speed" v=√Gm/r, so that the outer galaxy "rotation curves down" (red line).

Figure 14

In the "medium scale", "dark matter mass" M satisfies v=K1r, v and r is the combined effect of "linear", and "ordinary quality material" m so that the outer galaxy - "galaxies" or "superclusters" other "medium scale", and for example, in the middle or the edge portion of the Milky Way," flat rotation curve "(blue line).

In the "larger scale", The quality of the force generated by the center smaller and smaller, because the v2=G（m+M）/r=Gm/r+GM/r,Gm/r≈0, then v2=G（m+M）/r=Gm/r +GM/r≈GM/r, and M=K0vr2=（K1/G）vr2, so v2≈GK0vr=G（K1/G）vr, that is v≈GK0r=K1r. "v" and "r" is proportional to. Therefore, the movement speed of celestial bodies, in "would be more large scale" is "up".

Figure 15

7.5. galaxy in "a hemisphere" clockwise, and in the "other hemisphere" anticlockwise

If the entire universe is rotating, then located in the two hemispheres of the galaxies of the universe there must be a different direction.

Researchers from the University of Michigan's Michael Longo and his colleagues used the summit in New Mexico Apache 2.5 m telescope, namely the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), studied more than 15,000 galaxies in the universe after, in his report to the recounts: according to extensive research on the direction of rotation of the galaxy, either clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of the spiral galaxy, its direction of rotation is not random, but may be caused by the galaxy where the universe hemisphere of the decision. [9]

References

［1］科里奥利力．百度百科 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

［2］刘南威 ．自然地理学 ．北京 ：科学出版社 ，2000 ：55 ．

3论“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”（作者的另一篇文章）．

［4］《暗物质》．百度百科 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

［5］科学家首次在银河系最内侧发现暗物质证据．凤凰科技．2015-02-11 [引用日期2015-02-21] ．

［6］研究称宇宙暗物质均匀散布在星系之中而非聚集．搜狐网．2011-10-26 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

［7］观测结果推翻传统观念暗物质并非集中于星系中心．新华网．2011-10-19 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

［8］科学家在子弹星团发现暗物质证据．凤凰科技．2014-05-08 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

［9］宇宙或存在神秘自转轴．新华网．凤凰科技．2011-07-12 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

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