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## "Harbert constant" and "Space closed"

(2015-03-06 10:41:44)

### spac

"Harbert constant" and "Space closed"

Mingkun Yang 1，Yanxue Wang 2，Zhaoguo Yang 3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

Abstract

The causes of "Harbert constant", is the particle (celestial) movement, "the same point at the same time, to meet with the same speed and direction". "High dimensional" "closed" "low dimensional space", "internal particles meet with the same speed and direction". We live in the "three-dimensional space", is a "fourth dimension" "closed" "three dimensional space": "the ball column". If meet "the same point at the same time", will produce "Harbert constant effect". "Big Bang" happened in the "same point at the same time", so, there is a "Harbert law"."Dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."The universe is not "expansion", is a Substance（celestial） body in this "fixed space" - "fixed shape", "fixed volume" (Volume is 2π2Rs3 the "three-dimensional sphere")within the "diffusion".

Keywords

Harbert constant; space closure; three-dimensional spherical; singularity; big bang; Dark energy

1. Introduction

We know, Harbert constant, also known as Harbert's law. In physical cosmology, Harbert's law shows that, from a distant galaxy redshift of light and the distance between them is proportional to. In equation V=H0D; wherein, V is measured by the redshift galaxies away from rate, HO is Harbert's constant, D is the distance between the galaxy and the observer.

So, produce "Harbert constant" of "space environment" is what kind of? Or, the celestial distribution how, in line with the movement condition how, can produce "Harbert constant effect"?

2."The same point at the same time, with the same speed and direction"

Particle A, B, C, D, E,... P, Q... At the same time, from the point of O, relative to the velocity of O points, in the same direction ("geodesic"), with the same velocity component (size v): "the same point at the same time, with the same speed and direction".

These particles, the original are concentrated at one point O, the velocity of O point to v, the particle "same time" from point O, under the inertia effect, have retained the original velocity component v.

Select the P (particle such as the earth) as the object of study, the velocity component along the v in the direction of the reverse extension to O1, such that the line segment PO1=PO=r, O1 relative to O is a stationary point. In addition, then the arbitrary selection of a particle B (arbitrary objects). And B in the P "as the particle particle velocity component to" the size is v1, make the line BN said the size of the v1, namely the movement velocity relative to O1 point B (particle size is v2), can be divided in the direction of O1P component (size v) and in the particle P "visual direction" the component (big small is v1), make the line BU said the size of the v2, is the line NU is v in size, and △O1BP∽△UBN, so v1/BP=v/r, For any particle B, and v/r is a constant. So, if the BP=D, then H0=v1/D=v1/BP=v/r is a constant.

Figure 1

Therefore, in line with the movement of objects "Hubble's Law" (ie, a "Hubble constant effect") condition is: "The same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed." Namely: That all Substance (celestial) of the space in the "same place, same time," begins to move, and that "all in the same direction (space" geodesic "direction), with the same velocity component."

In the "three-dimensional space", "the same point at the same time, to meet with the same speed and direction" of the particle, the stress is perpendicular to the "velocity component v" the same direction, and these particles should be "distributed on the same plane". However, when the "velocity" V is equal to the speed of light, the situation is not the same: these particles can "distribution in three-dimensional space".

3. "curved space"

In general relativity, gravity is described as a geometric property of space-time (curvature). ［1］

Therefore, "gravity" is a "space warp". Gravitational source to "quality", "gravity field" corresponds to "curved space". In essence, is the "quality" corresponds to "curved space": "the quality of curved space"!

4. "space closed"

"High dimensional" to "low dimensional space is "closed .

4.1. "Second dimension" on the "one-dimensional" and "closed"

One-dimensional space, a pair of main directions: left and right.

If the one-dimensional (linear) outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, a distance to a one-dimensional space (a straight line) is R, then the one-dimensional (linear) will occur to P0 "bending."

If this particle of mass m P0 large enough to reach satisfying R=2Gm/c2 (G is the gravitational constant, c is the speed of light), then, when the mass m will be "one-dimensional linear" "bent" into "round ":" closed one-dimensional space "," second dimension "of" one-dimensional "and" closed ", R is the radius of particle Schwarzschild P0 so as to form a" two-dimensional ":" round face . "

At this time, the "one-dimensional": "substance" on "circle", should be based on "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

4.2. "Third dimension" on the "two-dimensional" and "closed"

Two-dimensional space, there are two pairs of main directions: left, front and rear. Direction is orthogonal to both pairs. From mathematics, they are two different axes x, y.

If in addition to the two-dimensional space (plane), there is a "center of mass" P0, from a two-dimensional space (plane) to as R, then the two-dimensional space (plane) will occur to P0 "bending."

If R is just the Schwarzschild radius of the particle P0, then, when the mass m will be "two-dimensional", "bending" became the "sphere": "closed-dimensional space", known as the "third dimension "Yes," two-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" three-dimensional ":" sphere. "

Figure 2

At this time, in the "two-dimensional": "substance" on "sphere", it should be based on "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

4.3. "Fourth Dimension" on the "three-dimensional" and "closed"

Three-dimensional space, there are three main directions: up and down (height), the north-south (latitude), East (longitude). This three pairs are orthogonal direction, that is, they twenty-two right angles. From mathematics, they are three different coordinate axes x, y, z.

Likewise, if the three-dimensional space ("ball") outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, the distance to three-dimensional space ("ball") is R, then the three-dimensional space ("ball") will occur to P0 "bent."

If R is the Schwarzschild radius of the particle just P0, then, when the particle mass P0 will "ball", "bent" into "a three-dimensional sphere": "closed three-dimensional space", known as the "fourth dimension "Yes," three-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" four-dimensional space ":" The ball cylinder "(sphere as" cover "of the cylinder).

Figure 3

At this time, in the "three-dimensional space": "substance" on "three-dimensional sphere", it should be all the "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

Mathematics, "a three-dimensional sphere" is the sphere of high-dimensional space analogy object. It consists of all points in the four-dimensional Euclidean space with a fixed center point equidistant from the composition. Unusual spherical (or two-dimensional sphere) is a two-dimensional surface, while the three-dimensional sphere is a geometric object with three dimensions.

In the four-dimensional Euclidean space, and there is the set of all points P0 point the same distance R can form a hypersurface, called three-dimensional sphere. This hypersurface to include space ("Ball cylinder": the sphere as "cover" in the column, "special", "cylindrical space") super volume: V=2π2R3.

Pure space of four-dimensional space and another one for the other three main directions perpendicular to the main direction. This pair is in another direction perpendicular to both the x, y, z-axis of the coordinate axes, commonly referred to as w axis. These additional direction is (virtually perpendicular to) we can observe the outside world in a three-dimensional direction. [2]

5. "cosmic space"

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder."

Therefore, we can consider all of the "space" is a "special" "cylindrical space": the "three-dimensional sphere" for the border, that is the point P0 "event horizon" and "Ball cylinder": "underside radius Rs, height 2πRs (π is pi, Rs is the "fourth dimension of the center of mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however, only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident.

Figure 4

Figure 5

6."Hubble constant" in "the Three-dimensional sphere"

6.1. "The same point at the same time."

Our "universe" originated in a "singularity" "big bang."

100-200 million years ago, students of the universe in a "big bang", the material creation by the explosion. [3]

So our "universe" of all "material" are "the same point at the same time," began the movement, that is, "with points": "singularity", "while": "Big Bang."

6.2."in the same direction at the same speed."

Sphere "Meridian" are "geodesic." "Meridian", "three-dimensional sphere" is also on the "geodesic."

As shown in Figure, Parallel lines (red) as shown, "the three-dimensional sphere" on the meridian (blue).

Figure 6

All material throughout the "singularity" of the original to the speed of light, after its "big bang" produced, will remain in the "same direction" ("Meridian") on the "speed of light weight." Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

As a result, the so-called "fourth dimension P0 point" on having a "quantum" features: "P0 point" all the time and where we are, "the three-dimensional space" and "every point" - any one of the "ordinary Substance (celestial)" Hold "with the distance" - "P0 point Schwarzschild radius RS".

In the "fourth dimension," there are "fixed physical" - "the fourth dimension physical": speed is the speed of light c, the quality of the quality points P0 m, energy mc2, momentum mc. Can it be said, "Theory of Relativity" is "Newton's classical physics'event horizon 'on' - must be considered for inclusion in the" fourth dimension of physical effects. "

6.3."Hubble constant" in "the three-dimensional sphere"

From the foregoing, we are now where the "Space": "three-dimensional space," that is, "a three-dimensional sphere" to meet the "same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law" produced a "Hubble constant effect."

7. "Dark energy"

"High-dimensional" can be "low-dimensional space "were "closed." However, the "low-dimensional space" for the "high-dimensional", can only feel "high-dimensional" and "influence" but can not "see" the "high dimension in the matter."

For example, people living in a "three-dimensional sphere" on it, as "high-dimensional" - "fourth dimension" of the "quality" of "closed" this "three-dimensional sphere", the "" all on "material three-dimensional sphere "have the" same direction at the same speed "- all in the same direction (along the" geodesic "), are" speed of light "movement, and therefore considered to be a" full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe, "the "energy form", and is "isotropic, density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (i.e. electromagnetic, strong, weak interaction) does not react with ordinary matter." However, we can not see in this "three-dimensional sphere," actually, touched, measured, "the fourth dimension in the matter": that of "dark energy"!

Therefore, said: "dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."

8. Not "cosmic expansion", but "mass diffusion"

Where we are, "space" - "three-dimensional" - "three-dimensional sphere" to meet "the same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law", resulting in "Hubble constant effect. "

However, this is only temporary. Because the universe is "limited unbounded" and "ball cylinder", when age of the universe, "beyond the 'three-dimensional sphere' of the 'Equator' ', it will become increasingly apparent:" blue shift. "

So instead of the Universe "expansion" or "shrink", but the Substance (celestial) in this "fixed space"- "fixed shape", "fixed volume" (Volume is 2π2Rs3 the "three-dimensional sphere") within the "proliferation" or "gathering."

Figure 7

It should be noted that, in this "diffusion" or "gathering" in the process, with the continuation of the time due to the "point of departure", "substance" of the "across" and "space", has been in "gradually expanding "- so this" ordinary matter across space "would" have been swell. "Also, due to the "velocity component of the same size," as time reference point P and the "pole" of the distance r increases, then the "Hubble constant" H0 = v / r will be "more small ", will be changed to" negative "-" blue shift. "

9. "Lorentz factor"

Because of the speed of light c is the maximum speed, and the "big bang" in a "substance" and "in the same direction at the same speed" and "velocity component" is the "speed of light", so "radial velocity" v1 should be a component of the speed of light c, and at the same time on the  "Tangential" (and "radial" vertical) also has a "weight", and its size is v0 =√c2-v12. This may be Lorentz factor 1 /√1- (v1/c) 2 resulting "root causes."

Figure 8

References

［1］于尔根·奈佛 ．爱因斯坦传：中央编译出版社 ，2013 ：153-157 ．

［2］Ray d'Inverno (1992), Introducing Einstein's Relativity, Clarendon Press,chp. 22.8 Geometry of 3-spaces of constant curvature, p.319ff, ISBN 0-19-859653-7

［3］罗先汉 ．天体演化 ．山西 ：山西科学技术出版社，2001-01 ：102-106 ．

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