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## harbertconstant## spac |

** **

**"Harbert constant" and "Space closed"**

Mingkun Yang ^{1}，Yanxue Wang
^{2}，Zhaoguo Yang ^{3}

Email:ygyzg@126.com

Abstract

^{2}R_{s}^{3} the "three-dimensional
sphere")within the "diffusion".

Keywords

1. Introduction

_{0}D; wherein, V is measured by the redshift
galaxies away from rate, H_{O} is Harbert's constant, D is
the distance between the galaxy and the observer.

2."The same point at the same time, with the same speed and direction"

_{1}, such that the line segment
PO_{1}=PO=r, O_{1} relative to O is a stationary
point. In addition, then the arbitrary selection of a particle B
(arbitrary objects). And B in the P "as the particle particle
velocity component to" the size is v_{1}, make the line BN
said the size of the v_{1}, namely the movement velocity
relative to O_{1} point B (particle size is v_{2}),
can be divided in the direction of O_{1}P component (size
v) and in the particle P "visual direction" the component (big
small is v_{1}), make the line BU said the size of the
v_{2}, is the line NU is v in size, and
△O_{1}BP∽△UBN, so v_{1}/BP=v/r, For any particle B,
and v/r is a constant. So, if the BP=D, then
H_{0}=v_{1}/D=v_{1}/BP=v/r is a
constant.

3. "curved space"

4. "space closed"

4.1. "Second dimension" on the "one-dimensional" and "closed"

_{0}, a distance to a one-dimensional space (a
straight line) is R, then the one-dimensional (linear) will occur
to P_{0} "bending."

_{0} large enough to reach
satisfying R=2Gm/c^{2} (G is the gravitational constant, c
is the speed of light), then, when the mass m will be
"one-dimensional linear" "bent" into "round ":" closed
one-dimensional space "," second dimension "of" one-dimensional
"and" closed ", R is the radius of particle Schwarzschild
P_{0} so as to form a" two-dimensional ":" round face .
"

_{0}
point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

4.2. "Third dimension" on the "two-dimensional" and "closed"

_{0}, from a two-dimensional space
(plane) to as R, then the two-dimensional space (plane) will occur
to P_{0} "bending."

_{0}, then, when the mass m will be "two-dimensional",
"bending" became the "sphere": "closed-dimensional space", known as
the "third dimension "Yes," two-dimensional "and" closed ", the
formation of a" three-dimensional ":" sphere. "

_{0}
point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

4.3. "Fourth Dimension" on the "three-dimensional" and "closed"

_{0}, the distance to three-dimensional
space ("ball") is R, then the three-dimensional space ("ball") will
occur to P_{0} "bent."

_{0}, then, when the particle mass P_{0} will
"ball", "bent" into "a three-dimensional sphere": "closed
three-dimensional space", known as the "fourth dimension "Yes,"
three-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a"
four-dimensional space ":" The ball cylinder "(sphere as" cover "of
the cylinder).

_{0} point of "substance", the velocity is
"the speed of light."

_{0} point the same distance R can form a
hypersurface, called three-dimensional sphere. This hypersurface to
include space ("Ball cylinder": the sphere as "cover" in the
column, "special", "cylindrical space") super volume:
V=2π^{2}R^{3}.

5. "cosmic space"

_{0} "event horizon" and "Ball
cylinder": "underside radius R_{s}, height 2πR_{s}
(π is pi, R_{s} is the "fourth dimension of the center of
mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however,
only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident.

6."Hubble constant" in "the Three-dimensional sphere"

6.1. "The same point at the same time."

6.2."in the same direction at the same speed."

As shown in Figure, Parallel lines (red) as shown, "the three-dimensional sphere" on the meridian (blue).

_{0} point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of
light."

_{0} point"
on having a "quantum" features: "P_{0} point" all the time
and where we are, "the three-dimensional space" and "every point" -
any one of the "ordinary Substance (celestial)" Hold "with the
distance" - "P_{0} point Schwarzschild radius
R_{S}".

_{0} m, energy mc^{2}, momentum
mc. Can it be said, "Theory of Relativity" is "Newton's classical
physics'event horizon 'on' - must be considered for inclusion in
the" fourth dimension of physical effects. "

6.3."Hubble constant" in "the three-dimensional sphere"

7. "Dark energy"

8. Not "cosmic expansion", but "mass diffusion"

So instead of the Universe "expansion" or "shrink", but the
Substance (celestial) in this "fixed space"- "fixed shape", "fixed
volume" (Volume is 2π^{2}R_{s}^{3} the
"three-dimensional sphere") within the "proliferation" or
"gathering."

9. "Lorentz factor"

_{1} should be a component of the speed of light
c, and at the same time on
the _{0} =√c^{2}-v_{1}^{2}. This may
be Lorentz factor 1 /√1- (v_{1}/c) ^{2} resulting
"root causes."

References

［1］于尔根·奈佛 ．爱因斯坦传：中央编译出版社 ，2013 ：153-157 ．

［2］Ray d'Inverno (1992), *Introducing Einstein's
Relativity*,
Clarendon Press,chp. 22.8 *Geometry of 3-spaces of constant
curvature*, p.319ff,
ISBN 0-19-859653-7

［3］罗先汉 ．天体演化 ．山西 ：山西科学技术出版社，2001-01 ：102-106 ．

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