标签：
## 球面## 第四维## 暗能量## 物质## 三维空间 |

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**"Dark energy" discussion**

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Mingkun Yang ^{1}，Yanxue Wang ^{2}，Zhaoguo Yang
^{3}

Email:ygyzg@126.com

Abstract

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder.""Dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."The universe is not "expansion", is a Substance（celestial） body in this "fixed space" ("three-dimensional spherical") within the "diffusion".

space closure; three-dimensional spherical; Dark energy

1. "cosmic space"

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder."

Therefore, we can consider all of the "space" is a "special"
"cylindrical space": the "three-dimensional sphere" for the border,
that is the point P_{0} "event horizon" and "Ball
cylinder": "underside radius R_{s}, height 2πR_{s}
(π is pi, R_{s} is the "fourth dimension of the center of
mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however,
only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident. ［1］

2. "dark energy"

2.1. "no See" "dark energy"

"High-dimensional" can be "low-dimensional space "were "closed." However, the "low-dimensional space" for the "high-dimensional", can only feel "high-dimensional" and "influence" but can not "see" the "high dimension in the matter."

For example, people living in a "three-dimensional sphere" on it, as "high-dimensional" - "fourth dimension" of the "quality" of "closed" this "three-dimensional sphere", the "" all on "material three-dimensional sphere "have the" same direction at the same speed "- all in the same direction (along the" geodesic "), are" speed of light "movement, and therefore considered to be a" full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe, "the "energy form", and is "isotropic, density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (i.e. electromagnetic, strong, weak interaction) does not react with ordinary matter." However, we can not see in this "three-dimensional sphere," actually, touched, measured, "the fourth dimension in the matter": that of "dark energy"!

Therefore, said: "dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."

2.2. "Visible" "dark energy"

As the "energy sphere" or "sphere of energy," "speed of light substance" force for the formation of spherical or ball outside, with its focus on the center of the sphere that the force was "equivalent." Ie "energy sphere" or "energy sphere" interaction on the outside of the sphere or ball is a "whole" presentation - the equivalent of all concentrated in the center of the sphere (discussed in another paper - the author note). ［2］

If the above in the "fourth dimension" and "energy substances", all evenly distributed in the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional", it then these "energy substances" on the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional space" "The role of substance", with all the focus on the "fourth dimension" - P0 point "action" is "equivalent." Therefore, the "three-dimensional sphere" - the "three-dimensional space," "special" "speed of light substances", you can also have a "dark energy effect."

So, too, can be considered: the above in the "fourth dimension" and "energy substances", in fact, in the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional", it can make all the "substance", "three-dimensional sphere" on have the "same direction at the same speed" - all in the same direction (along the "geodesic"), are "speed of light" campaign, is a "full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe" and "forms of energy" and is "isotropic density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (ie, electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions) does not react with ordinary matter." Thus, the "dark energy" as a "special" "speed of light material" in our "three-dimensional space", it can "exist."

3. Not "cosmic expansion", but "mass diffusion"

Where we are, "space" - "three-dimensional" - "three-dimensional sphere" to meet "the same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law", resulting in "Hubble constant effect. "

However, this is only temporary. Because the universe is "limited unbounded" and "ball cylinder", when age of the universe, "beyond the 'three-dimensional sphere' of the 'Equator' ', it will become increasingly apparent:" blue shift. "

So instead of the Universe "expansion" or "shrink", but the Substance (celestial) in this "fixed space" ("Three-dimensional sphere") within the "proliferation" or "gathering."

It should be noted that, in this "diffusion" or "gathering" in the process, with the continuation of the time due to the "point of departure", "substance" of the "across" and "space", has been in "gradually expanding "- so this" ordinary matter across space "would" have been swell. "Also, due to the "velocity component of the same size," as time reference point P and the "pole" of the distance r increases, then the "Hubble constant" H0 = v / r will be "more small ", will be changed to" negative "-" blue shift. "

4. "Lorentz factor"

Because of the speed of light c is the maximum speed, and the
"big bang" in a "substance" and "in the same direction at the same
speed" and "velocity component" is the "speed of light", so "radial
velocity" v_{1} should be a component of the speed of light
c, and at the same time on the "horizontal" (and "as the" vertical)
also has a "weight", and its size is v_{0}
=√c^{2}-v_{1}^{2}. This may be Lorentz
factor 1 /√1- (v_{1}/c) ^{2} resulting "root
causes."

References

［1］产生 “哈勃常数”的“空间条件”．（作者的另一篇文章）．

［2］“光子球面”对“引力”的“屏蔽效应” ．（作者的另一篇文章）．

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