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“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论

(2015-02-26 17:02:56)
标签:

科里奥利力

科里奥利

暗物质

质点

向心力

 

“科里奥利力”与“暗物质”

"The Coriolis force" and "Dark matter"

 

 

杨明昆1,王严学2,杨昭国3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

 

Mingkun Yang 1,Yanxue Wang 2,Zhaoguo Yang 3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

 

摘要

“旋转体系”上的“科里奥利力”与离心力一样,都不是在惯性系中真实存在的力,而是惯性作用在非惯性系内的体现。同样地,“科里奥利加速度”,还可以看成“向心加速度”——产生了“暗物质效应”:产生这个“向心加速度”的“实体物质质量”是“不存在”的、“没有”的——系“旋转体系”产生的一种“作用效应”——可以称为“暗物质质量”或“暗质量”。如果我们生活的“三维空间”正好是一个“旋转体系”——“球柱体”绕其对称轴旋转,那么在这个“旋转体系”——“球柱体”上,也会产生“暗物质效应”,并呈现星系在“一半球”顺时针旋转,而在“另一半球”逆时针旋转。

Abstract

The Coriolis force and centrifugal force of a rotating system, not in the inertial system real force, is the embodiment of the inertial effect in non inertial system in. Similarly, "Coriolis acceleration", can be seen as the "centripetal acceleration" -- produced a "dark matter" effect: "rotation system" to produce a "effect", can be called "dark matter quality". We live in the "three-dimensional space", is a "rotation system": "the ball column" rotating on its axis of symmetry, in this "rotation system": "the ball column", also will have a "dark matter" effect, and presents the galaxy in "half ball" clockwise rotation, and in "the other half ball" counter clockwise rotation.

关键词

旋转体系;科里奥利力;宇宙空间;暗物质;旋转曲线

Keywords

rotating system; Coriolis force; space; dark matter; rotation curve

 

1.“科里奥利力” [1]

1. "Coriolis force" [1]

 

科里奥利力,简称为科氏力,是对旋转体系中进行直线运动的质点由于惯性相对于旋转体系产生的直线运动的偏移的一种描述。科里奥利力来自于物体运动所具有的惯性。

Coriolis force, referred to as the Coriolis force, the rotation system is linear motion of the particle due to the rotational inertia of the system described with respect to a linear movement generated offset. Coriolis force from the movement of objects have inertia.

 

从物理学的角度考虑,科里奥利力与离心力一样,都不是在惯性系中真实存在的力,而是惯性作用在非惯性系内的体现。

From a physical point of view, like the Coriolis force and centrifugal force, is not true in the inertial forces exist, but inertia is reflected in non-inertial frames.

科里奥利力的计算公式:

Coriolis force formula:

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论

 

可见,科里奥利力总是垂直于质点的速度方向,并且对同一质点来说,在同一地点“科里奥利力与速度成正比:速度越大,科里奥利力就越大”。

Visible, the Coriolis force is always perpendicular to the direction of the particle velocity and the same particle, the "Coriolis force proportional to the velocity: the greater the speed, the greater the Coriolis force" in the same place .

 

通常,在惯性系中观察到的科里奥利加速度为:

Typically, observed in inertial Coriolis acceleration:

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论

 

于是,科里奥利加速度的方向与科里奥利力的方向相反。这是因为,科里奥利加速度是在惯性系中观察到的,由作用力产生;而科里奥利力则是在转动的参考系中观察到的,它产生的加速度是相对于非惯性系而言的。不能认为科里奥利加速度是由科里奥利力产生的。

Thus, the direction of the Coriolis acceleration and the direction opposite to the Coriolis force. This is because the Coriolis acceleration is observed in the inertial system, generated by the force; and the Coriolis force is in the rotating reference frame observed acceleration it produces relative to the non-inertial Department of terms. Coriolis acceleration is not considered by the Coriolis force.

 

1.1.“科里奥利向心力” [2]

1.1. "Coriolis solidarity" [2]

 

由于自转的存在,地球并非一个惯性系,而是一个转动参照系,因而地面上质点的运动会受到科里奥利力的影响。受力方向北半球向物体运动的右侧,南半球向物体运动的左侧。

Due to the rotation of the Earth is not a inertial system, but a rotating frame of reference, so games on the particle surface is affected Coriolis force. Force direction left to right movement of objects in the northern hemisphere, the southern hemisphere to the movement of objects.

 

热带气旋(北太平洋上出现的称为台风)的形成受到科里奥利力的影响,在北半球沿着逆时针方向而在南半球沿着顺时针方向旋转。

Tropical cyclones (appearing on the North Pacific called typhoons) influenced the formation of the Coriolis force, and rotated in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere in the counterclockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 1

图1

以“北半球热带气旋”为例,宏观地看,“低气压区”附近“物质质点”的运动,都近似于“圆周运动”。

The "Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclone" for example, a macro perspective, the "low pressure area" near "material particle" campaign, are similar to the "circular motion."

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 2

图2

科里奥利力总是垂直于质点的速度方向,起到的是“圆周运动”的“离心力”的作用,若把与“科里奥利力”大小相等、方向相反的力记作F0,则“科里奥利加速度”就是F0产生的。F0的方向,也是垂直于质点的速度方向,但是却起到了“向心力”的作用,称为“科里奥利向心力”,并且“科里奥利向心力与速度成正比:速度越大,科里奥利向心力就越大”。

Coriolis force is always perpendicular to the direction of the particle velocity, play is "centrifugal force" role "circumferential movement", and if the "Coriolis force" equal and opposite forces denoted F0, the "Coriolis acceleration" is generated F0. F0 direction, and it is perpendicular to the direction of the particle velocity, but played a "centripetal" role, called the "Coriolis centripetal force" and "centripetal force and velocity is proportional to the Coriolis: greater speed, Corey Orly greater solidarity. "

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 3

图3

在地球上,拥有水平于地面方向运动分量的物体,受“科里奥利力向心力”的大小为:F0=2mvωsinΦ,m为物体质量;v为物体的水平运动速度分量;ω为地球自转的角速度;sin是正弦函数;Φ为物件所处的维度(也是ω的方向与v的方向的夹角。受力方向北半球向物体运动的左侧,南半球向物体运动的右侧——起到“向心力”的作用——指向“气旋中心”。

On Earth, has a horizontal component of motion in the direction of the object's surface, by the "Coriolis force centripetal force" in size: F0=2mvωsinΦ, m is mass of the object; v is the object of the horizontal velocity component; ω is the Earth's rotation angular velocity; sin is a sine function; Φ for objects which dimension(which is also ω direction and v direction Angle). Force direction movement of objects in the northern hemisphere to the left, to the right of the movement of objects in the southern hemisphere - act as a "centripetal" role - point "center of the cyclone."

 “科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 4

图4

当然,在这里,起“向心力”作用的主要是“气压梯度力”。

Of course, here, from the "centripetal force" acting mainly "pressure gradient force."

 

1.2.“地球上的暗物质效应”

1.2. "dark matter effect on the earth."

1.2.1.“环绕运动”

1.2.1. "surround Movement"

 

若设在球面上作环绕运动(圆周运动)质点的速度大小为v,中心质量为m,球面半径为r,G为引力常数,中心质量对质点的牛顿引力就是“向心力”,则有r=Gm/v2,即v2=Gm/r。

Assuming for the sphere surround motion (circular motion) particle size velocity v, the center mass of m, the spherical radius r, G is the gravitational constant, the quality of the particle center Newtonian gravity is the "solidarity", there r=Gm/v2, ie v2=Gm/r.

 

因此,在一个星系中,靠近中部或外部,星系外侧的行星旋转速度,较内侧的应该是越来越小,“星系旋转速度曲线”随着距离的增大,应该是逐渐下降(A线)。

Thus, in a galaxy near the middle or outside, the rotational speed of the planet outside the galaxy, the more the inside should be getting smaller and smaller, "galactic rotation velocity curve" with increasing distance, should be gradually decreased (A-line) .

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 5

图5

1.2.2.“暗物质”

1.2.2. "Dark matter"

 

美国女天文学家薇拉· 鲁宾观测星系转速时,发现星系外侧的行星旋转速度较牛顿引力预期的快(B线),故推测是有数量庞大的质能(“暗物质”)拉住星系外侧组成,以使其不致因过大的离心力而脱离星系。

American female astronomer Vera Rubin observing galaxies speed, the rotational speed of the planets discovered outside the galaxy faster than the expected Newtonian gravity (B line), suggesting that there is a huge amount of mass-energy ("dark matter") pulled outside of the galaxy composition, so not because of excessive centrifugal force from the galaxy.

 

在宇宙学中,“暗物质”是指无法通过电磁波的观测进行研究,也就是不与电磁力产生作用的物质。人们目前只能通过引力产生的效应得知,而且已经发现宇宙中有大量“暗物质”的存在。

In cosmology, the "dark matter" refers to electromagnetic waves can not be studied by observing, that is not an effect of matter and electromagnetic forces. It is currently only produced by the gravitational effects of that, and have discovered that the universe has a lot of "dark matter" exists.

 

1.2.3.“地球上的暗物质效应”

1.2.3. "dark matter effect on the earth."

 

由“科里奥利向心力”F0=2mvωsinΦ可知,“科里奥利向心力”产生的加速度a0=2vωsinΦ。可以使得质点发生“环绕运动”,只要质点的速度v、到“中心”的距离r满足:v2=a0r,即v=(2ωsinΦ)r。

F0=2mvωsinΦ From "Coriolis centripetal force", "Coriolis centripetal force" resulting acceleration a0=2vωsinΦ. Particle can make happen "surround movement", as long as the particle velocity v, the "center" of the distance r satisfies: v2=a0r, namely v=(2ωsinΦ)r.

 

记K1=2ωsinΦ,K1只与地球的“自转角速”ω和质点所在的纬度Φ有关。故在地球上的同一地点附近,K1可以看成一个常数,称为“位置常数”。

Hutchison K1=2ωsinΦ, K1 only with the Earth's "self-corner speed" ω and particle related to the latitude Φ. Therefore, in the vicinity of the same location on Earth, K1 can be regarded as a constant, referred to as "position constant."

 

由“科里奥利向心力”F0=2mvωsinΦ=mvK1,可得:F0=Gm(vK1r2/G)/r2(G为引力常数)。若记M=vK1r2/G=(K1/G)vr2,则有“科里奥利向心力”产生的“环绕速度”,与在“环绕中心”“质量为M=(K1/G)vr2”产生的牛顿力,在作用效果上是“等效”的。

From the "Coriolis centripetal force" F0=2mvωsinΦ=mvK1, can be obtained: F0=Gm(vK1r2/G)/r2 (G is the gravitational constant). If you remember M=vK1r2/G=(K1/G)vr2, there are "Coriolis centripetal" produced "surround speed", and the "surround center", "quality of M=(K1/G)vr2 "Newton force generated, in effect is" equivalent "in.

 

产生“质量M=(K1/G)vr2”的“实体物质”是“不存在”的、“没有”的——系“旋转体系”产生的一种“作用效应”——可以称为“暗物质质量”或“暗质量”。

Produce "quality M=(K1/G)vr2" of "real substance" is "do not exist". But one from the "rotating system" produced "The role of effect" - can be called "dark matter mass" or "dark quality."

 

在地球上,若取ω=7.29×10-5弧度/秒,G=6.67×10-11牛顿·米2 /千克2,则有K1/G=(2ωsinΦ)/ G =2.1859070465×106sinΦ,由于0≤sinΦ≤1,K1/G的取值是比较大的,在105数量级,因此,可以认为在地球上,所谓的“暗物质质量”是“大量存在的”。

On Earth, if we take ω=7.29×10-5rad/s , G=6.67×10-11 N • m 2/kg2, there K1/G=(2ωsinΦ)/ G =2.1859070465×106sinΦ, due 0≤sinΦ≤1, K1/G values are relatively large, the 105 magnitude, therefore, can be considered on Earth, the so-called "dark matter quality" is "there are a lot of . "

 

在M=(K1/G)vr2中,若记K0=K1/G,则有M=K0 vr2,其中K0=K1/G =(2ωsinΦ)/G只与“旋转体系”本身的“角速度”ω,以及质点在“旋转体系”的“空间位置”Φ有关。如果所处的“空间位置”不变——可以考虑在一个“相对较小的空间内”——可限于一个“质量中心”附近,那么K0值就不变,称K0=K1/G =(2ωsinΦ)/G为“暗物质常数”。

In M=(K1/G)vr2, if credited K0=K1/G, there are M=K0vr2, where K0=K1/G =(2ωsinΦ)/G only with "rotation system" itself "angular velocity" ω, and the particle in the "rotation system" and "spatial position" Φ related. If you live in the "spatial position" unchanged - could be considered "within a relatively small space," one - can be limited to a nearby "center of mass", then K0 value is unchanged, said K0=K1/G =(2ωsinΦ)/G for "dark matter constant."

 

2.“宇宙空间”

2. "Cosmic space"

2.1.“空间弯曲”

2.1. "Curved space"

 

在广义相对论中,引力被描述为时空的一种几何属性(曲率)。[1]

In general relativity, gravity is described as a geometric property of space-time (curvature). [1]

 

因此,“引力”是一种“空间弯曲”。万有引力源于“质量”,“引力场”对应着“弯曲的空间”。从本质上来说,是“质量”对应着“空间弯曲”:“质量弯曲空间”!

Therefore, "gravity" is a "space warp". Gravitational source to "quality", "gravity field" corresponds to "curved space". In essence, is the "quality" corresponds to "curved space": "the quality of curved space"!

 

2.2.“空间封闭”

2.2."space closed"

 

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。

"High dimensional" to "low dimensional space is" closed .

 

2.2.1.“第二维度”对“一维空间”的“封闭”

2.2.1."Second dimension" on the "one-dimensional" and "closed"

 

一维空间里,有一对主要方向:左右。

One-dimensional space, a pair of main directions: left and right.

如果在一维空间(直线)之外,有一个“质量中心”P0,到一维空间(直线)的距离为R,那么这个一维空间(直线)就会向P0发生“弯曲”。  

If the one-dimensional (linear) outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, a distance to a one-dimensional space (a straight line) is R, then the one-dimensional (linear) will occur to P0 "bending."

 

假如这个质点P0的质量m足够大,达到了满足R=2Gm/c2(G为引力常量,c为光速),那么,这时的质量m就将“一维直线”“弯曲”成了“圆”:“封闭的一维空间”,称为“第二维度”对“一维空间”的“封闭”,R为质点P0的史瓦西半径,从而形成一个“二维空间”:“圆面”。

If this particle of mass m P0 large enough to reach satisfying R = 2Gm / c2 (G is the gravitational constant, c is the speed of light), then, when the mass m will be "one-dimensional linear" "bent" into "round ":" closed one-dimensional space "," second dimension "of" one-dimensional "and" closed ", R is the radius of particle Schwarzschild P0 so as to form a" two-dimensional ":" round face . "

 

这时,在“一维空间”:“圆”上的“物质”,都应该是以“光速”运动。或者是P0点的“物质”以“光速”运动。

At this time, the "one-dimensional": "substance" on "circle", should be based on "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

 

2.2.2.“第三维度”对“二维空间”的“封闭”

2.2.2."Third dimension" on the "two-dimensional" and "closed"

 

二维空间里,有两对主要方向:左右、前后。这两对方向是正交的。从数学方面讲,它们在两条不同的坐标轴xy上。

Two-dimensional space, there are two pairs of main directions: left, front and rear. Direction is orthogonal to both pairs. From mathematics, they are two different axes x, y.

 

如果在二维空间(平面)之外,有一个“质量中心”P0,到二维空间(平面)的距离为R,那么这个二维空间(平面)就会向P0发生“弯曲”。  

If in addition to the two-dimensional space (plane), there is a "center of mass" P0, from a two-dimensional space (plane) to as R, then the two-dimensional space (plane) will occur to P0 "bending."

 

假如R正好是这个质点P0的史瓦西半径,那么,这时的质量m就将“二维平面”“弯曲”成了“球面”:“封闭的二维空间”,称为“第三维度”对“二维空间”的“封闭”,形成了一个“三维空间”:“球体”。

If R is just the Schwarzschild radius of the particle P0, then, when the mass m will be "two-dimensional", "bending" became the "sphere": "closed-dimensional space", known as the "third dimension "Yes," two-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" three-dimensional ":" sphere. "

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 6

图6

这时,在“二维空间”:“球面”上的“物质”,也都应该是以“光速”运动。或者是P0点的“物质”以“光速”运动。

At this time, in the "two-dimensional":  "substance" on "sphere", it should be based on "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

 

2.2.3.“第四维度”对“三维空间”的“封闭”

2.2.3."Fourth Dimension" on the "three-dimensional" and "closed"

 

三维空间里,有三对主要方向:上下(高度),南北(纬度),东西(经度)。这三对方向两两正交,也就是说,它们两两成直角。从数学方面讲,它们在三条不同的坐标轴xyz上。

Three-dimensional space, there are three main directions: up and down (height), the north-south (latitude), East (longitude). This three pairs are orthogonal direction, that is, they twenty-two right angles. From mathematics, they are three different coordinate axes x, y, z.

 

同样地,如果在三维空间(“球体”)之外,有一个“质量中心”P0,到三维空间(“球体”)的距离为R,那么这个三维空间(“球体”)就会向P0发生“弯曲”。  

Likewise, if the three-dimensional space ("ball") outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, the distance to three-dimensional space ("ball") is R, then the three-dimensional space ("ball") will occur to P0 "bent."

 

假如R正好是这个质点P0的史瓦西半径,那么,这时质点P0的质量m就将“球”“弯曲”成了“三维球面”:“封闭的三维空间”,称为“第四维度”对“三维空间”的“封闭”,形成一个“四维空间”:“球柱体”(球体为“盖”的柱体)。

If R is the Schwarzschild radius of the particle just P0, then, when the particle mass m P0 will "ball", "bent" into "a three-dimensional sphere": "closed three-dimensional space", known as the "fourth dimension "Yes," three-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" four-dimensional space ":" The ball cylinder "(sphere as" cover "of the cylinder).

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 7

图7

这时,在“三维空间”:“三维球面”上的“物质”,也应该是都以“光速”运动。或者是P0点的“物质”以“光速”运动。

At this time, in the "three-dimensional space": "substance" on "three-dimensional sphere", it should be all the "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

 

数学中,“三维球面”是球面在高维空间中的类比客体。它由四维欧几里德空间中与一固定中心点等距离的所有点所组成。寻常的球面(或者说二维球面)是一个二维表面,而三维球面是一个具有三个维度的几何客体。

Mathematics, "a three-dimensional sphere" is the sphere of high-dimensional space analogy object. It consists of all points in the four-dimensional Euclidean space with a fixed center point equidistant from the composition. Unusual spherical (or two-dimensional sphere) is a two-dimensional surface, while the three-dimensional sphere is a geometric object with three dimensions.

 

在四维欧几里德空间中与P0点有相同距离R的所有点的集合能形成一个超曲面,称为三维球面。此超曲面之包含空间(“球柱体”:球体为“盖”的柱体,“特殊的”“圆柱状空间”)的超体积为:V=2π2R3

In the four-dimensional Euclidean space, and there is the set of all points P0 point the same distance R can form a hypersurface, called three-dimensional sphere. This hypersurface to include space ("Ball cylinder": the sphere as "cover" in the column, "special", "cylindrical space") super volume: V=2π2R3.

 

纯空间性的四维空间另有一对垂直于其他三个主要方向的主要方向。这一对方向处在另一条同时垂直于xyz轴的坐标轴上,通常称作w轴。这些额外的方向处于(实际上是垂直于)我们所能观察到的三维世界中的方向之外。[2]

Pure space of four-dimensional space and another one for the other three main directions perpendicular to the main direction. This pair is in another direction perpendicular to both the x, y, z-axis of the coordinate axes, commonly referred to as w axis. These additional direction is (virtually perpendicular to) we can observe the outside world in a three-dimensional direction. [2]

 

2.3.“宇宙空间”

2.3."cosmic space"

 

我们生活的“空间”就是一个“三维空间”:如果受到来自“第四维度”的引力影响,也可以被“第四维度”“封闭”,形成一个“四维空间”:“球柱体”。

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder."

 

因此,可以认为全部的“宇宙空间”就是一个“特殊的”“圆柱状空间”:以“三维球面”为边界,即P0点的“视界”的“球柱体”:“底面半径为Rs、高为2πRs(π为圆周率、Rs为“第四维度中心质量的史瓦西半径)的‘圆柱状空间’”,不过,只是该“圆柱状空间”的两端是重合的。

Therefore, we can consider all of the "space" is a "special" "cylindrical space": the "three-dimensional sphere" for the border, that is the point P0 "event horizon " and "Ball cylinder": "underside radius Rs, height 2πRs (π is pi, Rs is the "fourth dimension of the center of mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however, only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident.

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 8

图8

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 9

图9

3.“三维球面”上的“科里奥利力”

3."Coriolis force" In "three-dimensional sphere"

 

类似地,如果上述“球柱体”围绕其“对称轴”——“极点”与“对称极点”连线“自转”——“四维旋转体系”,那么其“球面”——“三维球面”上的“物质(天体)”也会受到“科里奥利力”——“不是在惯性系中真实存在的力,而是惯性作用在非惯性系内的体现的影响”:产生“暗物质效应”。

Similarly, if the above "ball barrel" around his "axis of symmetry" - "pole" and "symmetry pole" Connection "rotation" - "four-dimensional rotation system", then its "sphere" - "three-dimensional sphere." "substances (celestial)" will also be on the "Coriolis force" - "not in the real inertial force, but the inertia effect in non-inertial frames embodied": a "dark matter effect . "

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 10

图10

在“三维球面”上的“一定的空间范围内”,比如,就在我们人类生活的银河系内,也存在只与“所在的质量中心O——银核中心附近的客观条件”(“球柱体”的角速度ω、空间位置Φ)有关的“暗物质常数”K0和“位置常数”K1,并且,若设到O距离为r的质点(天体)的运动速度大小为v,则存在“暗物质质量”M=K0vr2=(K1/G)vr2。即有“暗物质质量公式”:

 “科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论

In the "three-dimensional sphere" on "within a certain space," such as, in our human life within the Milky Way, there are only the "objective conditions O-- silver Quality Center is located near the center of the nuclear" ("Cylinder "angular velocity ω, the spatial position Φ) relating to" dark matter constants "K0 and" constant position "K1, and, assuming that the distance r O particle (celestial bodies) in size velocity v, there is" dark matter quality "M=K0vr2=(K1/G)vr2. That is "dark matter mass formula":

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 11

图11

4.“与天文观测一致”

4."consistent with astronomical observations."

4.1.“暗物质常数”

4.1."dark matter constant"

 

由于“暗物质常数”K0=K1/G =(2ωsinΦ)/G,与“位置常数”K1有关,在“不同的空间‘纬度’Φ”的地方,有“不同的暗物质常数”,但是在相比于“宇宙尺度”上,我们探测的“空间尺度”还是比较小的,因此K0的差别很小。可能正是这“很小的差别”,造成了宇宙微波背景辐射(CMB)温度的各向异性,影响了极化功率谱。

As the "dark matter constant" K0=K1/G =(2ωsinΦ)/G, and the "constant position" K1 related in "a different space 'latitude' Φ" where there is "a different constant dark matter", but compared in the "cosmic scale", we detect the "spatial scales" is still relatively small, so small differences in K0. It is possible that "small differences", resulting in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) temperature anisotropy, affecting the polarization power spectrum.

 

4.2.“依附普通物质而存在”

4.2."dependent ordinary matter exists"

 

由M=K0vr2=(K1/G)vr2可以知道,“暗物质质量”M与质点速度有关,是由质点的运动速度形成的,是“质点的速度产生了‘暗物质效应’”。因此,可以说,“有物质”并且“物质有相对运动”的地方才有“暗物质”,所以“暗物质”总是“依附普通物质而存在”,并且速度越大表现越明显。

By M=K0vr2=(K1/G)vr2 can know, "dark matter mass" M proportional to the cube of the particle velocity is determined by the velocity of the particle formation is the "particle velocity produced a 'dark matter effect'." Therefore, we can say, "There is substance" and "substance relative motion" place only "dark matter", so the "dark matter" always "dependent ordinary matter exists," and the greater the speed, the more obvious manifestations.

 

暗物质并不是无所不在,它们只在某些地方聚集成团状,而对另一些地方却不屑一顾。其次,将星系的图片与之重叠,我们看到星系与暗物质的位置基本吻合。有暗物质的地方,就有恒星和星系,没有暗物质的地方,就什么都没有。[3]

Dark matter is not omnipresent, they gather only in some places into lumps, but was dismissive of the other places. Secondly, with overlapping images of galaxies, we see galaxies and dark matter are consistent position. Where there is dark matter, there are stars and galaxies, dark matter is no place, no nothing. [3]

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 12

图12

下图中显示的是所谓的“旋转曲线示踪剂”,它常被用作银河系银盘的图片。这一示踪剂以蓝色和红色显示,这主要是由它们相对太阳的相对运动所决定的。球形对称的蓝色光晕显示了科学家们怀疑存在的暗物质。[4]

The figure shows that the so-called "rotation curve tracer," which is often used as the Milky Way galactic disk images. This tracer in blue and red, which is mainly by the relative motion of the sun relative to their decision. Spherically symmetric blue halo shows scientists suspect the existence of dark matter. [4]

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 13 "rotation curve tracer"

图13“旋转曲线示踪剂”

 

4.3.“球状均匀分布”

4.3. "Uniformly distributed spherical "

 

在“质量中心”的外侧,比如星系的外侧,中心质量的作用力越来越小,可以认为运动质点(天体)只受到“科里奥利力”的影响。这时候,近似地,满足v=K1r,v与r是“线性关系”。且有:M=K0vr2= K0K1r3,可以认为“暗物质质量”M是呈“球状均匀分布”的——“暗物质晕”,[5][6]并且离星系中心越远、越是在星系的外围表现越明显。比如,“暗物质”在“子弹星团”的外围——“大尺度”上“表现明显”(蓝色):相似的例子只发现于少数巨大星系团——只发生在存在巨大星系团时——也就是庞然大物相互撞击时。[7]

Outside of the "center of mass", The quality of the force generated by the center smaller and smaller, can think that the motion of a particle (celestial) affected only by "Coriolis force". At this time, approximately, to meet the v=K1r, v and r are "linear relationship". And there is:M=K0vr2= K0K1r3,can be considered "dark matter mass" M is was "uniformly distributed spherical "- the" dark matter halo ", [5] [6] and farther away from the center of the galaxy, the more the more evident in the performance of the periphery of the galaxy. For example, the "dark matter" in the periphery of the "bullet cluster" - the "large-scale" on "performance was" (blue): similar example is found only in a small number of huge clusters of galaxies - only occurs when there is a huge clusters of galaxies - that is when the monster hit each other. [7]

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 14

图14

测量数据显示,两个矮星系的暗物质均匀地分布在横跨几百光年的较大区域中。[5][6]

Measurement data shows two dark matter in dwarf galaxies evenly distributed across a larger area of a few hundred light-years. [5] [6]

 

测量气体和恒星的旋转速率使得天文学家可以有效地“称重”宿主星系并确定它的整体质量。这些测量显示了可见物质只解释了整体物质的一小部分——主导物质是暗物质。将这一技术应用于银河系是可能的,众所周知银河系外围部分存在暗物质。[4]

Measurement of gas and stellar rotation rate allows astronomers can effectively "weigh" the host galaxy and determine its overall quality. These measurements show that the visible matter only explain a small part of the whole matter - the dominant material is dark matter. This technology will be applied to the Milky Way is possible, the peripheral part of the existence of dark matter galaxy is known. [4]

 

在此之前,科学家们一直认为将这一技术应用于银河系最内部区域是非常困难的,后者大约10万光年宽。现在慕尼黑理工大学的科学家发现了银河系最内部——包括地球所处的位置和我们自身的“宇宙邻居”——里暗物质存在的直接观测证据。[4]

Prior to this, scientists have always thought that this technology will be applied to the innermost region of the galaxy is very difficult, which is about 100,000 light-years wide. Now scientists have discovered Technical University of Munich innermost galaxy - including Earth location and our own "cosmic neighborhood" - direct observational evidence for the existence of dark matter inside. [4]

 

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 15

图15 银河系最内端暗物质的证据

他们首先创造了对有关银河系气体和恒星运动已发表的测量结果的最完整汇编。然后他们对比了测量到的旋转速率以及假设星系里只有最明亮物质存在时的旋转速率。对比结果清晰的显示了无法解释测量到的旋转速率,除非我们周围、我们之间以及星系中央存在大量暗物质。“我们知道银河系需要暗物质来保证恒星和气体以我们观测到的速率旋转。”带领进行这项分析的慕尼黑理工大学的米格尔•帕特(Miguel Pato)博士这样说道。[4]

They first created the most complete compilation of the measurement results of the galactic gas and stars of sport has been published. Then they compared the measured rotation rate and assuming the rate of rotation of the brightest galaxies in existence only when the substance. The results clearly show the contrast could not explain the measured rate of rotation, unless all around us, the presence of the central galaxy between us and a lot of dark matter. "We need to know that dark matter galaxy of stars and gas in order to ensure that we have observed in the rate of rotation." Conduct this analysis led by University of Munich • Pat Miguel (Miguel Pato) Dr. says. [4]

 

4.4.“星系旋转速度曲线”

4.4. "galactic rotation velocity curve."

 

如果“质量中心”的质量为m,天体Q到质量中心的半径为r,Q的速度大小为v,那么对v产生影响的因素有两个:一个是“普通物质质量”m,另一个就是上述的“暗物质质量”M。即有:v2=G(m+M)/r=Gm/r +GM/r。

If the quality of "center of mass" of m, the radius of the center of mass of celestial Q for r, Q size velocity v, then the factors affecting v There are two: one is "ordinary quality material" m, and the other is above "dark matter mass" M. That is: v2=G(m+M)/r=Gm/r +GM/r.

 

当v不大时,又在“质量中心”附近,由于“暗物质质量”M=K0vr2=(K1/G)vr2较小(相对于m来说),天体运动主要受到来自“普通物质质量”m的影响。

When the v is not big, In the vicinity of "center of mass", because the "dark matter quality" M=K0v3=(1/GK1)v3 small(compared to m), celestial body movement, mainly affected by "ordinary matter quality" m.

 

“普通物质质量”m,可以产生“环绕速度”v=√Gm/r,使得星系外侧“旋转曲线下降”(红线)。

"Ordinary quality material" m, can produce "surround speed" v=√Gm/r, so that the outer galaxy "rotation curves down" (red line).

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 16

图16

在“中尺度”上,“暗物质质量”M与“普通物质质量”m的共同影响下,使得星系外侧——“星系团”或“超星系团”等“中尺度”上,比如在银河系的中部或边缘部分,“旋转曲线平坦”(蓝线)。

In the "medium scale", "dark matter mass" M satisfies v=K1r, v and r is the combined effect of "linear", and "ordinary quality material" m so that the outer galaxy - "galaxies" or "superclusters" other "medium scale", and for example, in the middle or the edge portion of the Milky Way," flat rotation curve "(blue line).

 

在“更大尺度”上,中心质量的作用力越来越小,由于v2=G(m+M)/r=Gm/r+GM/r中的Gm/r可以忽落不计视为0,于是v2=G(m+M)/r=Gm/r +GM/r≈GM/r,而M=K0vr2=(K1/G)vr2,所以v2≈GK0vr=G(K1/G)vr,即v≈GK0r=K1r。这时的“环绕速度的大小v”与“天体到星系中心的距离r”成正比。因此,天体的运动速度,在“更大尺度”上将是“上升”的。

In the "larger scale", The quality of the force generated by the center smaller and smaller, because the v2=G(m+M)/r=Gm/r+GM/r,Gm/r≈0, then v2=G(m+M)/r=Gm/r +GM/r≈GM/r, and M=K0vr2=(K1/G)vr2, so v2≈GK0vr=G(K1/G)vr, that is v≈GK0r=K1r. "v" and "r" is proportional to. Therefore, the movement speed of celestial bodies, in "would be more large scale" is "up".

 

“科里奥利力”的“作用表现”讨论
Figure 17

图17

4.5.星系在“一半球”顺时针旋转,而在“另一半球”逆时针旋转

4.5. galaxy in "a hemisphere" clockwise, and in the "other hemisphere" anticlockwise

 

如果整个宇宙是在旋转的话,那么位于宇宙两个半球的星系必然存在不同的旋转方向。

If the entire universe is rotating, then located in the two hemispheres of the galaxies of the universe there must be a different direction.

 

来自密歇根大学的研究人员Michael Longo与他的同事使用位于新墨西哥州阿帕奇顶峰的2.5米口径望远镜,即斯隆数字巡天(SDSS),研究宇宙中超过15000个星系后,在其提交的报告中叙述到:根据对星系的旋转方向的深入研究,不论是顺时针旋转还是逆时针旋转的螺旋星系,其旋转方向并不是随机的,而是可能由这个星系所在的宇宙半球所决定的。[8]

Researchers from the University of Michigan's Michael Longo and his colleagues used the summit in New Mexico Apache 2.5 m telescope, namely the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), studied more than 15,000 galaxies in the universe after, in his report to the recounts: according to extensive research on the direction of rotation of the galaxy, either clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of the spiral galaxy, its direction of rotation is not random, but may be caused by the galaxy where the universe hemisphere of the decision. [8]

 

 

参考文献

References

[1]科里奥利力.百度百科 [引用日期2015-02-12] .

[2]刘南威 .自然地理学 .北京 :科学出版社 ,2000 :55 .

[3]《暗物质》.百度百科 [引用日期2015-02-12] .

[4]科学家首次在银河系最内侧发现暗物质证据.凤凰科技.2015-02-11 [引用日期2015-02-21] .

[5]研究称宇宙暗物质均匀散布在星系之中而非聚集.搜狐网.2011-10-26 [引用日期2015-02-12] .

[6]观测结果推翻传统观念暗物质并非集中于星系中心.新华网.2011-10-19 [引用日期2015-02-12] .

[7]科学家在子弹星团发现暗物质证据.凤凰科技.2014-05-08 [引用日期2015-02-12] .

[8]宇宙或存在神秘自转轴.新华网.凤凰科技.2011-07-12 [引用日期2015-02-12] .

[9]相关资料请参考《“引力场”与“空间场”

(杨明昆 王严学 杨昭国期待您的交流、讨论  ygyzg@126.com)

 

 

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