# 加载中...

-引力场-与-空间场
---zgygyzg
• 博客等级：
• 博客积分：0
• 博客访问：101,388
• 关注人气：124
• 获赠金笔：0支
• 赠出金笔：0支
• 荣誉徽章：

## 产生“哈勃常数”的“空间条件”分析

(2015-02-25 09:21:46)

### 质点

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”

"Harbert constant" and "Space closed"

Email:ygyzg@126.com

Mingkun Yang 1，Yanxue Wang 2，Zhaoguo Yang 3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

“哈勃常数”的本质，就是质点（天体）的运动，满足“同点同时、同向同速”。在一个被“高维度”“封闭”的“低维空间”内，我们生活的“三维空间”，就是一个被“第四维度”“封闭”的“三维空间”：“球柱体”，质点之间满足“同向同速”，如果再满足“同点同时”，那么就会产生“哈勃常数效应”，而“奇点大爆炸”正好提供了“同点同时”的条件，于是就出现了“哈勃定律”。“暗能量”只是“第四维度的引力效应”，并不是我们在“三维球面”内，可以“找到”的“实体物质”——是“不可见的”。不是宇宙“膨胀”或“收缩”，而是物质（天体）在这个“固定的空间”(“三维球面”)内的“扩散”或“聚集”。

Abstract

The causes of "Harbert constant", is the particle (celestial) movement, "the same point at the same time, to meet with the same speed and direction". "High dimensional" "closed" "low dimensional space", "internal particles meet with the same speed and direction". We live in the "three-dimensional space", is a "fourth dimension" "closed" "three dimensional space": "the ball column". If meet "the same point at the same time", will produce "Harbert constant effect". "Big Bang" happened in the "same point at the same time", so, there is a "Harbert law". "Dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."The universe is not "expansion", is a Substance（celestial） body in this "fixed space" ("three-dimensional spherical") within the "diffusion".

Keywords

Harbert constant; space closure; three-dimensional spherical; singularity; big bang

1.引言

1. Introduction

We know, Harbert constant, also known as Harbert's law. In physical cosmology, Harbert's law shows that, from a distant galaxy redshift of light and the distance between them is proportional to. In equation V=H0D; wherein, V is measured by the redshift galaxies away from rate, HO is Harbert's constant, D is the distance between the galaxy and the observer.

So, produce "Harbert constant" of "space environment" is what kind of? Or, the celestial distribution how, in line with the movement condition how, can produce "Harbert constant effect"?

2.“同点同时、同向同速”

2."The same point at the same time, with the same speed and direction"

Particle A, B, C, D, E,... P, Q... At the same time, from the point of O, relative to the velocity of O points, in the same direction ("geodesic"), with the same velocity component (size v): "the same point at the same time, with the same speed and direction".

These particles, the original are concentrated at one point O, the velocity of O point to v, the particle "same time" from point O, under the inertia effect, have retained the original velocity component v.

Select the P (particle such as the earth) as the object of study, the velocity component along the v in the direction of the reverse extension to O1, such that the line segment PO1=PO=r, O1 relative to O is a stationary point. In addition, then the arbitrary selection of a particle B (arbitrary objects). And B in the P "as the particle particle velocity component to" the size is v1, make the line BN said the size of the v1, namely the movement velocity relative to O1 point B (particle size is v2), can be divided in the direction of O1P component (size v) and in the particle P "visual direction" the component (big small is v1), make the line BU said the size of the v2, is the line NU is v in size, and △O1BP∽△UBN, so v1/BP=v/r,For any particle B, and v/r is a constant. So, if the BP=D, then H0=v1/D=v1/BP=v/r is a constant.

Figure 1

Therefore, in line with the movement of objects "Hubble's Law" (ie, a "Hubble constant effect") condition is: "The same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed." Namely: That all Substance (celestial) of the space in the "same place, same time," begins to move, and that "all in the same direction (space" geodesic "direction), with the same velocity component."

在“三维空间”中，满足“同点同时、同向同速”的质点，所受的力是垂直于“同向的速度分量v”的，并且这些质点应该是“分布在同一平面上”的。但是，当这个“速度分量”v等于光速的时候，情形就不一样了：这些质点可以“分布在三维空间中”。

In the "three-dimensional space", "the same point at the same time, to meet with the same speed and direction" of the particle, the stress is perpendicular to the "velocity component v" the same direction, and these particles should be "distributed on the same plane". However, when the "velocity" V is equal to the speed of light, the situation is not the same: these particles can "distribution in three-dimensional space".

3.“空间弯曲”

3. "curved space"

In general relativity, gravity is described as a geometric property of space-time (curvature). ［1］

Therefore, "gravity" is a "space warp". Gravitational source to "quality", "gravity field" corresponds to "curved space". In essence, is the "quality" corresponds to "curved space": "the quality of curved space"!

4.“空间封闭”

4. "space closed"

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。

"High dimensional" to "low dimensional space is "closed .

4.1．“第二维度”对“一维空间”的“封闭”

4.1. "Second dimension" on the "one-dimensional" and "closed"

One-dimensional space, a pair of main directions: left and right.

If the one-dimensional (linear) outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, a distance to a one-dimensional space (a straight line) is R, then the one-dimensional (linear) will occur to P0 "bending."

If this particle of mass m P0 large enough to reach satisfying R=2Gm/c2 (G is the gravitational constant, c is the speed of light), then, when the mass m will be "one-dimensional linear" "bent" into "round ":" closed one-dimensional space "," second dimension "of" one-dimensional "and" closed ", R is the radius of particle Schwarzschild P0 so as to form a" two-dimensional ":" round face . "

At this time, the "one-dimensional": "substance" on "circle", should be based on "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

4.2．“第三维度”对“二维空间”的“封闭”

4.2. "Third dimension" on the "two-dimensional" and "closed"

Two-dimensional space, there are two pairs of main directions: left, front and rear. Direction is orthogonal to both pairs. From mathematics, they are two different axes x, y.

If in addition to the two-dimensional space (plane), there is a "center of mass" P0, from a two-dimensional space (plane) to as R, then the two-dimensional space (plane) will occur to P0 "bending."

If R is just the Schwarzschild radius of the particle P0, then, when the mass m will be "two-dimensional", "bending" became the "sphere": "closed-dimensional space", known as the "third dimension "Yes," two-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" three-dimensional ":" sphere. "

Figure 2

At this time, in the "two-dimensional": "substance" on "sphere", it should be based on "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

4.3．“第四维度”对“三维空间”的“封闭”

4.3. "Fourth Dimension" on the "three-dimensional" and "closed"

Three-dimensional space, there are three main directions: up and down (height), the north-south (latitude), East (longitude). This three pairs are orthogonal direction, that is, they twenty-two right angles. From mathematics, they are three different coordinate axes x, y, z.

Likewise, if the three-dimensional space ("ball") outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, the distance to three-dimensional space ("ball") is R, then the three-dimensional space ("ball") will occur to P0 "bent."

If R is the Schwarzschild radius of the particle just P0, then, when the particle mass P0 will "ball", "bent" into "a three-dimensional sphere": "closed three-dimensional space", known as the "fourth dimension "Yes," three-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" four-dimensional space ":" The ball cylinder "(sphere as" cover "of the cylinder).

Figure 3

At this time, in the "three-dimensional space": "substance" on "three-dimensional sphere", it should be all the "speed of light" campaign. Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

Mathematics, "a three-dimensional sphere" is the sphere of high-dimensional space analogy object. It consists of all points in the four-dimensional Euclidean space with a fixed center point equidistant from the composition. Unusual spherical (or two-dimensional sphere) is a two-dimensional surface, while the three-dimensional sphere is a geometric object with three dimensions.

In the four-dimensional Euclidean space, and there is the set of all points P0 point the same distance R can form a hypersurface, called three-dimensional sphere. This hypersurface to include space ("Ball cylinder": the sphere as "cover" in the column, "special", "cylindrical space") super volume: V=2π2R3.

Pure space of four-dimensional space and another one for the other three main directions perpendicular to the main direction. This pair is in another direction perpendicular to both the x, y, z-axis of the coordinate axes, commonly referred to as w axis. These additional direction is (virtually perpendicular to) we can observe the outside world in a three-dimensional direction. [2]

5.“宇宙空间”

5. "cosmic space"

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder."

Therefore, we can consider all of the "space" is a "special" "cylindrical space": the "three-dimensional sphere" for the border, that is the point P0 "event horizon" and "Ball cylinder": "underside radius Rs, height 2πRs (π is pi, Rs is the "fourth dimension of the center of mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however, only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident.

Figure 4

Figure 5

6.“三维球面”上的“哈勃常数”

6."Hubble constant" in "the Three-dimensional sphere"

6.1.“同点同时”

6.1. "The same point at the same time."

Our "universe" originated in a "singularity" "big bang."

100-200 million years ago, students of the universe in a "big bang", the material creation by the explosion. [3]

So our "universe" of all "material" are "the same point at the same time," began the movement, that is, "with points": "singularity", "while": "Big Bang."

6.2.“同向同速”

6.2."in the same direction at the same speed."

Sphere "Meridian" are "geodesic." "Meridian", "three-dimensional sphere" is also on the "geodesic."

As shown in Figure, Parallel lines (red) as shown, "the three-dimensional sphere" on the meridian (blue).

Figure 6

All material throughout the "singularity" of the original to the speed of light, after its "big bang" produced, will remain in the "same direction" ("Meridian") on the "speed of light weight." Or, P0 point of "substance", the velocity is "the speed of light."

As a result, the so-called "fourth dimension P0 point" on having a "quantum" features: "P0 point" all the time and where we are, "the three-dimensional space" and "every point" - any one of the "ordinary Substance (celestial)" Hold "with the distance" - "P0 point Schwarzschild radius RS".

In the "fourth dimension," there are "fixed physical" - "the fourth dimension physical": speed is the speed of light c, the quality of the quality points P0 m, energy mc2, momentum mc. Can it be said, "Theory of Relativity" is "Newton's classical physics'event horizon 'on' - must be considered for inclusion in the" fourth dimension of physical effects. "

Some theory that is the material around the "space" to the speed of light, so the "substance" itself relative to the "space" is to "speed of light": "any object (including our human observer) space around the speed of light radiant left movement".

6.3.“三维球面”上的“哈勃常数”

6.3."Hubble constant" in "the three-dimensional sphere"

From the foregoing, we are now where the "Space": "three-dimensional space," that is, "a three-dimensional sphere" to meet the "same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law" produced a "Hubble constant effect."

7.“暗能量”

7. "dark energy"

7.1．“不见”“暗能量”

7.1. "no See" "dark energy"

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。但是，“低维空间”对于“高维度”来说，只能感觉到“高维度”的“影响”，却不能“看到”“高维度里的物质”。

"High-dimensional" can be "low-dimensional space "were "closed." However, the "low-dimensional space" for the "high-dimensional", can only feel "high-dimensional" and "influence" but can not "see" the "high dimension in the matter."

For example, people living in a "three-dimensional sphere" on it, as "high-dimensional" - "fourth dimension" of the "quality" of "closed" this "three-dimensional sphere", the "" all on "material three-dimensional sphere "have the" same direction at the same speed "- all in the same direction (along the" geodesic "), are" speed of light "movement, and therefore considered to be a" full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe, "the "energy form", and is "isotropic, density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (i.e. electromagnetic, strong, weak interaction) does not react with ordinary matter." However, we can not see in this "three-dimensional sphere," actually, touched, measured, "the fourth dimension in the matter": that of "dark energy"!

Therefore, said: "dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."

7.2.“可见”“暗能量”

7.2. "Visible" "dark energy"

As the "energy sphere" or "sphere of energy," "speed of light substance" force for the formation of spherical or ball outside, with its focus on the center of the sphere that the force was "equivalent." Ie "energy sphere" or "energy sphere" interaction on the outside of the sphere or ball is a "whole" presentation - the equivalent of all concentrated in the center of the sphere (discussed in another paper - the author note).

Figure 7

If the above in the "fourth dimension" and "energy substances", all evenly distributed in the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional", it then these "energy substances" on the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional space" "The role of substance", with all the focus on the "fourth dimension" - P0 point "action" is "equivalent." Therefore, the "three-dimensional sphere" - the "three-dimensional space," "special" "speed of light substances", you can also have a "dark energy effect."

So, too, can be considered: the above in the "fourth dimension" and "energy substances", in fact, in the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional", it can make all the "substance", "three-dimensional sphere" on have the "same direction at the same speed" - all in the same direction (along the "geodesic"), are "speed of light" campaign, is a "full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe" and "forms of energy" and is "isotropic density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (ie, electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions) does not react with ordinary matter." Thus, the "dark energy" as a "special" "speed of light material" in our "three-dimensional space", it can "exist."

8. 不是“宇宙膨胀”，而是“物质扩散”

8. Not "cosmic expansion", but "mass diffusion"

Where we are, "space" - "three-dimensional" - "three-dimensional sphere" to meet "the same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law", resulting in "Hubble constant effect. "

However, this is only temporary. Because the universe is "limited unbounded" and "ball cylinder", when age of the universe, "beyond the 'three-dimensional sphere' of the 'Equator' ', it will become increasingly apparent:" blue shift. "

So instead of the Universe "expansion" or "shrink", but the Substance (celestial) in this "fixed space" ("Three-dimensional sphere") within the "proliferation" or "gathering."

Figure 8

It should be noted that, in this "diffusion" or "gathering" in the process, with the continuation of the time due to the "point of departure", "substance" of the "across" and "space", has been in "gradually expanding "- so this" ordinary matter across space "would" have been swell. "Also, due to the "velocity component of the same size," as time reference point P and the "pole" of the distance r increases, then the "Hubble constant" H0 = v / r will be "more small ", will be changed to" negative "-" blue shift. "

9.“洛伦兹因子”

9. "Lorentz factor"

Because of the speed of light c is the maximum speed, and the "big bang" in a "substance" and "in the same direction at the same speed" and "velocity component" is the "speed of light", so "radial velocity" v1 should be a component of the speed of light c, and at the same time on the "horizontal" (and "as the" vertical) also has a "weight", and its size is v0 =√c2-v12. This may be Lorentz factor 1 /√1- (v1/c) 2 resulting "root causes."

Figure 9

References

［1］于尔根·奈佛 ．爱因斯坦传：中央编译出版社 ，2013 ：153-157 ．

［2］Ray d'Inverno (1992), Introducing Einstein's Relativity, Clarendon Press,chp. 22.8 Geometry of 3-spaces of constant curvature, p.319ff, ISBN 0-19-859653-7

［3］罗先汉 ．天体演化 ．山西 ：山西科学技术出版社，2001-01 ：102-106 ．

0

• 评论加载中，请稍候...

发评论

以上网友发言只代表其个人观点，不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板　欢迎批评指正

新浪公司 版权所有