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“科里奥利力”与“暗物质”讨论

(2015-02-17 14:06:36)

向心力

“科里奥利力”与“暗物质”

"The Coriolis force" and "Dark matter"

Email:ygyzg@126.com

Mingkun Yang 1，Yanxue Wang 2，Zhaoguo Yang 3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

“旋转体系”上的“科里奥利力”与离心力一样，都不是在惯性系中真实存在的力，而是惯性作用在非惯性系内的体现。同样地，“科里奥利加速度”，还可以看成“向心加速度”——产生了“暗物质效应”：产生这个“向心加速度”的“实体物质质量”是“不存在”的、“没有”的——系“旋转体系”产生的一种“作用效应”——可以称为“暗物质质量”或“暗质量”。如果我们生活的“三维空间”正好是一个“旋转体系”——“球柱体”绕其对称轴旋转，那么在这个“旋转体系”——“球柱体”上，也会产生“暗物质效应”，并呈现星系在“一半球”顺时针旋转，而在“另一半球”逆时针旋转。

Abstract

The Coriolis force and centrifugal force of a rotating system, not in the inertial system real force, is the embodiment of the inertial effect in non inertial system in. Similarly, "Coriolis acceleration", can be seen as the "centripetal acceleration" -- produced a "dark matter" effect: "rotation system" to produce a "effect", can be called "dark matter quality". We live in the "three-dimensional space", is a "rotation system": "the ball column" rotating on its axis of symmetry, in this "rotation system": "the ball column", also will have a "dark matter" effect, and presents the galaxy in "half ball" clockwise rotation, and in "the other half ball" counter clockwise rotation.

Keywords

rotating system; Coriolis force; space; dark matter; rotation curve

1.“科里奥利力” ［1］

1. "Coriolis force" [1]

Coriolis force, referred to as the Coriolis force, the rotation system is linear motion of the particle due to the rotational inertia of the system described with respect to a linear movement generated offset. Coriolis force from the movement of objects have inertia.

From a physical point of view, like the Coriolis force and centrifugal force, is not true in the inertial forces exist, but inertia is reflected in non-inertial frames.

Coriolis force formula:

Visible, the Coriolis force is always perpendicular to the direction of the particle velocity and the same particle, the "Coriolis force proportional to the velocity: the greater the speed, the greater the Coriolis force" in the same place .

Typically, observed in inertial Coriolis acceleration:

Thus, the direction of the Coriolis acceleration and the direction opposite to the Coriolis force. This is because the Coriolis acceleration is observed in the inertial system, generated by the force; and the Coriolis force is in the rotating reference frame observed acceleration it produces relative to the non-inertial Department of terms. Coriolis acceleration is not considered by the Coriolis force.

1.1．“科里奥利向心力” ［2］

1.1． "Coriolis solidarity" [2]

Due to the rotation of the Earth is not a inertial system, but a rotating frame of reference, so games on the particle surface is affected Coriolis force. Force direction left to right movement of objects in the northern hemisphere, the southern hemisphere to the movement of objects.

Tropical cyclones (appearing on the North Pacific called typhoons) influenced the formation of the Coriolis force, and rotated in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere in the counterclockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.

Figure 1

The "Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclone" for example, a macro perspective, the "low pressure area" near "material particle" campaign, are similar to the "circular motion."

Figure 2

Coriolis force is always perpendicular to the direction of the particle velocity, play is "centrifugal force" role "circumferential movement", and if the "Coriolis force" equal and opposite forces denoted F0, the "Coriolis acceleration" is generated F0. F0 direction, and it is perpendicular to the direction of the particle velocity, but played a "centripetal" role, called the "Coriolis centripetal force" and "centripetal force and velocity is proportional to the Coriolis: greater speed, Corey Orly greater solidarity. "

Figure 3

On Earth, has a horizontal component of motion in the direction of the object's surface, by the "Coriolis force centripetal force" in size: F0=2mvωsinΦ, m is mass of the object; v is the object of the horizontal velocity component; ω is the Earth's rotation angular velocity; sin is a sine function; Φ for objects which dimension(which is also ω direction and v direction Angle). Force direction movement of objects in the northern hemisphere to the left, to the right of the movement of objects in the southern hemisphere - act as a "centripetal" role - point "center of the cyclone."

Figure 4

Of course, here, from the "centripetal force" acting mainly "pressure gradient force."

1.2．“地球上的暗物质效应”

1.2． "dark matter effect on the earth."

1.2.1．“环绕运动”

1.2.1． "surround Movement"

Assuming for the sphere surround motion (circular motion) particle size velocity v, the center mass of m, the spherical radius r, G is the gravitational constant, the quality of the particle center Newtonian gravity is the "solidarity", there r=Gm/v2, ie v2=Gm/r.

Thus, in a galaxy near the middle or outside, the rotational speed of the planet outside the galaxy, the more the inside should be getting smaller and smaller, "galactic rotation velocity curve" with increasing distance, should be gradually decreased (A-line) .

Figure 5

1.2.2．“暗物质”

1.2.2． "dark matter"

American female astronomer Vera Rubin observing galaxies speed, the rotational speed of the planets discovered outside the galaxy faster than the expected Newtonian gravity (B line), suggesting that there is a huge amount of mass-energy ("dark matter") pulled outside of the galaxy composition, so not because of excessive centrifugal force from the galaxy.

In cosmology, the "dark matter" refers to electromagnetic waves can not be studied by observing, that is not an effect of matter and electromagnetic forces. It is currently only produced by the gravitational effects of that, and have discovered that the universe has a lot of "dark matter" exists.

1.2.3．“地球上的暗物质效应”

1.2.3． "dark matter effect on the earth."

F0=2mvωsinΦ From "Coriolis centripetal force", "Coriolis centripetal force" resulting acceleration a0=vωsinΦ. Particle can make happen "surround movement", as long as the particle velocity v, the "center" of the distance r satisfies: v2=a0r, namely v=(ωsinΦ)r.

Hutchison K1=ωsinΦ, K1 only with the Earth's "self-corner speed" ω and particle related to the latitude Φ. Therefore, in the vicinity of the same location on Earth, K1 can be regarded as a constant, referred to as "position constant." v and r is the "linear relationship."

From the "Coriolis centripetal force" F0=2mvωsinΦ=2mvK1, can be obtained: F0=Gm(2v3/(GK1))/r2 (G is the gravitational constant). If you remember M=(2/GK1)v3=(2K12/G)r3, there are "Coriolis centripetal" produced "surround speed", and the "surround center", "quality of M=2v3/(GK1) "Newton force generated, in effect is" equivalent "in.

Produce "quality M=2v3/(GK1)" of "real substance" is "do not exist". But one from the "rotating system" produced "The role of effect" - can be called "dark matter mass" or "dark quality."

On Earth, if we take ω=7.29×10-5rad/s , G=6.67×10-11 N • m 2/kg2, there GK1=GωsinΦ=4.86243×10-18sinΦ, then, 2/GK1=4.113169753×1017/sinΦ, due 0≤sinΦ≤1,2/GK1 values are relatively large, the 1018 magnitude, therefore, can be considered on Earth, the so-called "dark matter quality" is "there are a lot of . "

2.“暗物质常数”

2. "Dark Matter constant"

In M=(2/GK1)v3=(2K12/G)r3, if credited K0=2/GK1, there are M=K0v3, where K0=2/GK1=2/（GωsinΦ）only with "rotation system" itself "angular velocity" ω, and the particle in the "rotation system" and "spatial position" Φ related. If you live in the "spatial position" unchanged - could be considered "within a relatively small space," one - can be limited to a nearby "center of mass", then K0 value is unchanged, said K0=2/GK1=2/（GωsinΦ） for "dark matter constant."

3.“宇宙空间”

3. "cosmic space"

3.1.“空间弯曲”

3.1． "curved space"

The general theory of relativity that, due to the existence of matter, space and time are bent, and the gravitational field is actually a curved space-time.

In general relativity, gravity is described as a geometric property of space-time (curvature). ［1］

Therefore, "gravity" is a "space warp". Gravitational source to "quality", "gravity field" corresponds to "curved space". In essence, is the "quality" corresponds to "curved space": "the quality of curved space"!

3.2.“空间封闭”

3.2."space closed"

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。

"High dimensional" to "low dimensional space is" closed .

3.2.1.“第二维度”对“一维空间”的“封闭”

3.2.1. "Second dimension" on the "one-dimensional" and "closed"

One-dimensional space, a pair of main directions: left and right.

If the one-dimensional (linear) outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, a distance to a one-dimensional space (a straight line) is R, then the one-dimensional (linear) will occur to P0 "bending."

If this particle of mass m P0 large enough to reach satisfying R = 2Gm / c2 (G is the gravitational constant, c is the speed of light), then, when the mass m will be "one-dimensional linear" "bent" into "round ":" closed one-dimensional space "," second dimension "of" one-dimensional "and" closed ", R is the radius of particle Schwarzschild P0 so as to form a" two-dimensional ":" round face . "

At this time, the "one-dimensional": "substance" on "circle", should be based on "speed of light" campaign.

“圆”和“第二维度”，就构成了一个“二维空间”：“圆面”。这个“圆”称为“二维空间”：“圆面”的“视界”。

"Circle" and "second dimension", it constitutes a "two-dimensional": "round face." The "circle" is called "two-dimensional": "round face" and "event horizon."

3.2.2.“第三维度”对“二维空间”的“封闭”

3.2.2. "Third dimension" on the "two-dimensional" and "closed"

Two-dimensional space, there are two pairs of main directions: left, front and rear. Direction is orthogonal to both pairs. From mathematics, they are two different axes x, y.

If in addition to the two-dimensional space (plane), there is a "center of mass" P0, from a two-dimensional space (plane) to as R, then the two-dimensional space (plane) will occur to P0 "bending."

If R is just the Schwarzschild radius of the particle P0, then, when the mass m will be "two-dimensional", "bending" became the "sphere": "closed-dimensional space", known as the "third dimension "Yes," two-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" three-dimensional ":" sphere. "

Figure 6

At this time, in the "two-dimensional":  "substance" on "sphere", it should be based on "speed of light" campaign.

“球面”和“第三维度”，就构成了一个“三维空间”：“球体”。这个“球面”称为“三维空间”：“球体”的“视界”。

"Spherical" and "third dimension", it constitutes a "three-dimensional": "Sphere." The "sphere" as "three-dimensional space": "Sphere" and "event horizon."

3.2.3.“第四维度”对“三维空间”的“封闭”

3.2.3."Fourth Dimension" on the "three-dimensional" and "closed"

Three-dimensional space, there are three main directions: up and down (height), the north-south (latitude), East (longitude). This three pairs are orthogonal direction, that is, they twenty-two right angles. From mathematics, they are three different coordinate axes x, y, z.

Likewise, if the three-dimensional space ("ball") outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, the distance to three-dimensional space ("ball") is R, then the three-dimensional space ("ball") will occur to P0 "bent."

If R is the Schwarzschild radius of the particle just P0, then, when the particle mass m P0 will "ball", "bent" into "a three-dimensional sphere": "closed three-dimensional space", known as the "fourth dimension "Yes," three-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" four-dimensional space ":" The ball cylinder "(sphere as" cover "of the cylinder).

Figure 7

At this time, in the "three-dimensional space": "substance" on "three-dimensional sphere", it should be all the "speed of light" campaign.

“三维球面”和“第四维度”，就构成了一个“四维空间”：“球柱体”。这个“三维球面”称为“四维空间”：“球柱体”的“视界”。

"Three-dimensional sphere" and "fourth dimension", it constitutes a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder." This "three-dimensional sphere" as "four-dimensional space": "The ball cylinder" and "event horizon."

Mathematics, "a three-dimensional sphere" is the sphere of high-dimensional space analogy object. It consists of all points in the four-dimensional Euclidean space with a fixed center point equidistant from the composition. Unusual spherical (or two-dimensional sphere) is a two-dimensional surface, while the three-dimensional sphere is a geometric object with three dimensions.

In the four-dimensional Euclidean space, and there is the set of all points P0 point the same distance R can form a hypersurface, called three-dimensional sphere. This hypersurface to include space ("Ball cylinder": the sphere as "cover" in the column, "special", "cylindrical space") super volume: V=2π2R3.

Pure space of four-dimensional space and another one for the other three main directions perpendicular to the main direction. This pair is in another direction perpendicular to both the x, y, z-axis of the coordinate axes, commonly referred to as w axis. These additional direction is (virtually perpendicular to) we can observe the outside world in a three-dimensional direction. [2]

3.3.“宇宙空间”

3.3. "cosmic space"

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder."

Therefore, we can consider all of the "space" is a "special" "cylindrical space": the "three-dimensional sphere" for the border, that is the point P0 "event horizon " and "Ball cylinder": "underside radius Rs, height 2πRs (π is pi, Rs is the "fourth dimension of the center of mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however, only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident (Figures 6, 7 ).

Figure 8

Figure 9

4.“三维球面”上的“科里奥利力”

4. "Coriolis force" In "three-dimensional sphere"

Similarly, if the above "ball barrel" around his "axis of symmetry" - "pole" and "symmetry pole" Connection "rotation" - "four-dimensional rotation system", then its "sphere" - "three-dimensional sphere." "substances (celestial)" will also be on the "Coriolis force" - "not in the real inertial force, but the inertia effect in non-inertial frames embodied": a "dark matter effect . "

Figure 10

In the "three-dimensional sphere" on "within a certain space," such as, in our human life within the Milky Way, there are only the "objective conditions O-- silver Quality Center is located near the center of the nuclear" ("Cylinder "angular velocity ω, the spatial position Φ) relating to" dark matter constants "K0 and" constant position "K1, and, assuming that the distance r O particle (celestial bodies) in size velocity v, there is" dark matter quality " M=K0v3=（2/GK1）v3=(2K12/G )r3.

Figure 11

As the "dark matter constant" K0=2/GK1=2/（GωsinΦ）, and the "constant position" K1 related in "a different space 'latitude' Φ" where there is "a different constant dark matter", but compared in the "cosmic scale", we detect the "spatial scales" is still relatively small, so small differences in K0. It is possible that "small differences", resulting in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) temperature anisotropy, affecting the polarization power spectrum.

By M=K0v3=（2/GK1）v3 can know, "dark matter mass" M proportional to the cube of the particle velocity is determined by the velocity of the particle formation is the "particle velocity produced a 'dark matter effect'." Therefore, we can say, "There is substance" and "substance relative motion" place only "dark matter", so the "dark matter" always "dependent ordinary matter exists," and the greater the speed, the more obvious manifestations.

Dark matter is not omnipresent, they gather only in some places into lumps, but was dismissive of the other places. Secondly, with overlapping images of galaxies, we see galaxies and dark matter are consistent position. Where there is dark matter, there are stars and galaxies, dark matter is no place, no nothing.

By M=(2K12/G)r3=（3/4π）(2K12/G)V=（3K12/2πG）V, where the volume V=4πr3/3, can be considered "dark matter mass" M is was "uniformly distributed spherical "- the" dark matter halo ", [3] [4] and farther away from the center of the galaxy, the more the more evident in the performance of the periphery of the galaxy. For example, the "dark matter" in the periphery of the "bullet cluster" - the "large-scale" on "performance was" (blue): similar example is found only in a small number of huge clusters of galaxies - only occurs when there is a huge clusters of galaxies - that is when the monster hit each other. [5]

Figure 12

5.“星系旋转速度曲线”

5. "galactic rotation velocity curve."

If the quality of "center of mass" of m, the radius of the center of mass of celestial Q for r, Q size velocity v, then the factors affecting v There are two: one is "ordinary quality material" m, and the other is above "dark matter mass" M.

“普通物质质量”m，可以产生“环绕速度”v=√Gm/r，使得星系外侧“旋转曲线下降”（红线）。

"Ordinary quality material" m, can produce "surround speed" v=√Gm/r, so that the outer galaxy "rotation curves down" (red line).

Figure 13

“暗物质质量”M，满足v=K1r，v与r是“线性关系”，与“普通物质质量”m的共同影响下，使得星系外侧——“星系团”或“超星系团”等“中尺度”上，比如在银河系的中部或边缘部分，“旋转曲线平坦”（蓝线）。

"Dark matter mass" M, satisfies v=K1r, v and r is the combined effect of "linear", and "ordinary quality material" m so that the outer galaxy - "galaxies" or "superclusters" other "in scale ", and for example, in the middle or the edge portion of the Milky Way," flat rotation curve "(blue line).

Figure 14

6.星系在“一半球”顺时针旋转，而在“另一半球”逆时针旋转

6. galaxy in "a hemisphere" clockwise, and in the "other hemisphere" anticlockwise

If the entire universe is rotating, then located in the two hemispheres of the galaxies of the universe there must be a different direction.

Researchers from the University of Michigan's Michael Longo and his colleagues used the summit in New Mexico Apache 2.5 m telescope, namely the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), studied more than 15,000 galaxies in the universe after, in his report to the recounts: according to extensive research on the direction of rotation of the galaxy, either clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of the spiral galaxy, its direction of rotation is not random, but may be caused by the galaxy where the universe hemisphere of the decision. [6]

References

［1］科里奥利力．百度百科 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

［2］刘南威 ．自然地理学 ．北京 ：科学出版社 ，2000 ：55 ．

［3］研究称宇宙暗物质均匀散布在星系之中而非聚集．搜狐网．2011-10-26 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

［4］观测结果推翻传统观念暗物质并非集中于星系中心．新华网．2011-10-19 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

［5］科学家在子弹星团发现暗物质证据．凤凰科技．2014-05-08 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

［6］宇宙或存在神秘自转轴．新华网．凤凰科技．2011-07-12 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

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