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-引力场-与-空间场
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## “哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论

(2015-02-17 13:56:30)

### 三维空间

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”

"Harbert constant" and "Space closed"

Email:ygyzg@126.com

Mingkun Yang 1，Yanxue Wang 2，Zhaoguo Yang 3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

“哈勃常数”的本质，就是质点（天体）的运动，满足“同点同时、同向同速”。在一个被“高维度”“封闭”的“低维空间”内，我们生活的“三维空间”，就是一个被“第四维度”“封闭”的“三维空间”：“球柱体”，质点之间满足“同向同速”，如果再满足“同点同时”，那么就会产生“哈勃常数效应”，而“奇点大爆炸”正好提供了“同点同时”的条件，于是就出现了“哈勃定律”。“暗能量”只是“第四维度的引力效应”，并不是我们在“三维球面”内，可以“找到”的“实体物质”——是“不可见的”。不是宇宙“膨胀”或“收缩”，而是物质（天体）在这个“固定的空间”(“三维球面”)内的“扩散”或“聚集”。

Abstract

The causes of "Harbert constant", is the particle (celestial) movement, "the same point at the same time, to meet with the same speed and direction". "High dimensional" "closed" "low dimensional space", "internal particles meet with the same speed and direction". We live in the "three-dimensional space", is a "fourth dimension" "closed" "three dimensional space": "the ball column". If meet "the same point at the same time", will produce "Harbert constant effect". "Big Bang" happened in the "same point at the same time", so, there is a "Harbert law". "Dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."The universe is not "expansion", is a Substance（celestial） body in this "fixed space" ("three-dimensional spherical") within the "diffusion".

Keywords

harbert constant; space closure; three-dimensional spherical; singularity; big bang

1.    引言

1. Introduction

We know, Harbert constant, also known as Harbert's law. In physical cosmology, Harbert's law shows that, from a distant galaxy redshift of light and the distance between them is proportional to. In equation V=H0D; wherein, V is measured by the redshift galaxies away from rate, HO is Harbert's constant, D is the distance between the galaxy and the observer.

So, produce "Harbert constant" of "space environment" is what kind of? Or, the celestial distribution how, in line with the movement condition how, can produce "Harbert constant effect"?

2.产生“哈勃常数”的条件

2."Harbert's constant" producing condition

2.1.“平面”上的“哈勃常数”

2.1. "Harbert constant" in  "the plane "

As shown in Figure 1, in the plane, if a particle of P from the O1 point of view, the velocity component size in the direction of O1P is v, a particle is B, from O1 point and P at the same time of particle, the velocity of V2 in the direction of O1P component size is v: "the same point at the same time, with the same speed and direction, and a" B P "as the particle particle velocity component to" the size is v1, i.e. motion speed relative to the O1 point particle B (size v2), can be divided in the direction of O1P component (size v) and particle velocity components in P "as to" the (size v1), then v/r=v1/BP. Let BP=D, v1/D=H0, with H0=v1/D=v1/BP=v/r.

Figure 1

2.2“球面”上的“哈勃常数”

2.2 "Harbert constant" in "the sphere"

2.2.1．“测地线”

2.2.1. "Geodesic"

In geodesy (measuring the size and shape of the Earth sciences), the geodesic connecting the shortest distance between two points on the earth's surface. Approximately, this line is a great circle on the arc, such as warp and equatorial. Obviously these paths are not straight, as they extend along the curved surface of the earth.

The nature and straight geodesic is not the same. For example, in a plane, parallel lines no intersection, but there geodesic intersection of the Earth's surface: In parallel to the equator at longitude intersect at the poles.

Figure 2

2.2.2．“球面上的‘哈勃常数’”

2.2.2. "Hubble constant" in "the sphere"

As shown in Figure 2, in the sphere, assuming that the particle P from O1 point (called the "pole") starting on O1P direction "geodesic" is v, and another one at any particle B, is from O1 at the same time the starting point and the particle P, the velocity component along the direction of the size of the "geodesic" is also v: "the same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed", and set the particle velocity component B on the particle P "radial" in the size is v1, there v/arc O1P=v1/arc BP. Order arc BP=D, v1/D=H0, therefore H0=v1 /D=v1 /arc BP=v/arc O1P (Arc: great circle arc."Great circle" -- "Geodesic" -- " Meridian").

Figure 3

In summary, in a space, in line with the movement of objects "Hubble's Law" (ie, a "Hubble constant effect") condition is: "The same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed." Namely: That all  Substance (celestial) of the space in the "same place, same time," begins to move, and that "all in the same direction (space" geodesic "direction), with the same velocity component."

3.“空间弯曲”

3. "curved space"

The general theory of relativity that, due to the existence of substance, space and time are bent, and the gravitational field is actually a curved space-time.

In general relativity, gravity is described as a geometric property of space-time (curvature). ［1］

Therefore, "gravity" is a "space warp". Gravitational source to "quality", "gravity field" corresponds to "curved space". In essence, is the "quality" corresponds to "curved space": "the quality of curved space"!

4.“空间封闭”

4. "space closed"

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。

"High dimensional" to "low dimensional space is" closed .

4.1．“第二维度”对“一维空间”的“封闭”

4.1. "Second dimension" on the "one-dimensional" and "closed"

One-dimensional space, a pair of main directions: left and right.

If the one-dimensional (linear) outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, a distance to a one-dimensional space (a straight line) is R, then the one-dimensional (linear) will occur to P0 "bending."

If this particle of mass m P0 large enough to reach satisfying R=2Gm/c2 (G is the gravitational constant, c is the speed of light), then, when the mass m will be "one-dimensional linear" "bent" into "round ":" closed one-dimensional space "," second dimension "of" one-dimensional "and" closed ", R is the radius of particle Schwarzschild P0 so as to form a" two-dimensional ":" round face . "

At this time, the "one-dimensional": "substance" on "circle", should be based on "speed of light" campaign.

“圆”和“第二维度”，就构成了一个“二维空间”：“圆面”。这个“圆”称为“二维空间”：“圆面”的“视界”。

"Circle" and "second dimension", it constitutes a "two-dimensional": "round face." The "circle" is called "two-dimensional": "round face" and "event horizon."

4.2．“第三维度”对“二维空间”的“封闭”

4.2. "Third dimension" on the "two-dimensional" and "closed"

Two-dimensional space, there are two pairs of main directions: left, front and rear. Direction is orthogonal to both pairs. From mathematics, they are two different axes x, y.

If in addition to the two-dimensional space (plane), there is a "center of mass" P0, from a two-dimensional space (plane) to as R, then the two-dimensional space (plane) will occur to P0 "bending."

If R is just the Schwarzschild radius of the particle P0, then, when the mass m will be "two-dimensional", "bending" became the "sphere": "closed-dimensional space", known as the "third dimension "Yes," two-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" three-dimensional ":" sphere. "

Figure 4

At this time, in the "two-dimensional": "substance" on "sphere", it should be based on "speed of light" campaign.

“球面”和“第三维度”，就构成了一个“三维空间”：“球体”。这个“球面”称为“三维空间”：“球体”的“视界”。

"Spherical" and "third dimension", it constitutes a "three-dimensional": "Sphere." The "sphere" as "three-dimensional space": "Sphere" and "event horizon."

4.3．“第四维度”对“三维空间”的“封闭”

4.3. "Fourth Dimension" on the "three-dimensional" and "closed"

Three-dimensional space, there are three main directions: up and down (height), the north-south (latitude), East (longitude). This three pairs are orthogonal direction, that is, they twenty-two right angles. From mathematics, they are three different coordinate axes x, y, z.

Likewise, if the three-dimensional space ("ball") outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, the distance to three-dimensional space ("ball") is R, then the three-dimensional space ("ball") will occur to P0 "bent."

If R is the Schwarzschild radius of the particle just P0, then,when the particle mass P0 will "ball", "bent" into "a three-dimensional sphere":"closed three-dimensional space", known as the "fourth dimension "Yes," three-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" four-dimensional space ":" The ball cylinder "(sphere as" cover "of the cylinder).

Figure 5

At this time, in the "three-dimensional space": "substance"on "three-dimensional sphere", it should be all the "speed of light" campaign.

“三维球面”和“第四维度”，就构成了一个“四维空间”：“球柱体”。这个“三维球面”称为“四维空间”：“球柱体”的“视界”。

"Three-dimensional sphere" and "fourth dimension", it constitutes a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder." This "three-dimensional sphere" as "four-dimensional space": "The ball cylinder" and "event horizon."

Mathematics, "a three-dimensional sphere" is the sphere of high-dimensional space analogy object. It consists of all points in the four-dimensional Euclidean space with a fixed center point equidistant from the composition. Unusual spherical (or two-dimensional sphere) is a two-dimensional surface, while the three-dimensional sphere is a geometric object with three dimensions.

In the four-dimensional Euclidean space, and there is the set of all points P0 point the same distance R can form a hypersurface, called three-dimensional sphere. This hypersurface to include space ("Ball cylinder": the sphere as "cover" in the column, "special", "cylindrical space") super volume: V=2π2R3.

Pure space of four-dimensional space and another one for the other three main directions perpendicular to the main direction. This pair is in another direction perpendicular to both the x, y, z-axis of the coordinate axes, commonly referred to as w axis. These additional direction is (virtually perpendicular to) we can observe the outside world in a three-dimensional direction. [2]

5.“宇宙空间”

5. "cosmic space"

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder."

Therefore, we can consider all of the "space" is a "special" "cylindrical space": the "three-dimensional sphere" for the border, that is the point P0 "event horizon" and "Ball cylinder": "underside radius Rs, height 2πRs (π is pi, Rs is the "fourth dimension of the center of mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however, only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident (Figures 6, 7 ).

Figure 6

Figure 7

6.“三维球面”上的“哈勃常数”

6."Hubble constant" in "the Three-dimensional sphere"

We may in the above "three-dimensional sphere": "Ball cylinder" and "event horizon" into it?

6.1．“能量奇点”

6.1. "Energy singularity"

6.1.1.“湮灭”与“出现”

6.1.1. "Annihilation" and "appears"

“湮灭”是指当物质和它的反物质相遇时，会发生完全的物质-能量转换，产生能量（如以光子的形式）的过程。一个正电子和一个电子碰撞后“湮灭”，通过光子的形式释放能量。即有：粒子+反粒子→“湮灭”→“光子”能量。

"annihilation" is when matter and antimatter meet it occurs entirely matter - energy conversion, energy production (eg in the form of photons) process. After a positron and an electron collision "annihilation", releasing energy in the form of photons. Namely: particle + antiparticle → "annihilation" → "photon" of energy.

Since the substance and its antimatter meet, the occurrence of "annihilation" becomes "the photon energy," then "photon energy" should be under certain conditions, can become "material" and "antimatter": "appear." Thus, we believe that when the "big bang", may consume the "photon energy," and produced a "particle" and "antiparticle", only today we colorful, vibrant "universe." It can be said that, under certain conditions, "annihilation" is "reversible." Namely: the photon energy → "big bang": "appears" → particle + antiparticle (Figure 8).

Figure 8

6.1.2.“光变物质”

6.1.2. "Optically variable substances"

Global Science May 21, 2014 report, physicists discovered a fairly straightforward method to light into matter: by making a bunch of high-intensity gamma rays bombarding a tiny gold cylinder photon cloud, let gal Ma blackbody radiation bombardment vacuum chamber X-ray photons cloud to produce electrons and positrons.

6.1.3.“奇点物质”

6.1.3. "Singularity substance"

First, from the "big bang" and "product" look. "Substance" may "annihilation" for the "light": "material change of light", "light" can "appear" as "material": "optical variable substances", "Oblivion" and "appears" is "reversible." Our universe: all the "cosmic matter (particles)" and both are from the "one point" ("singularity") "big bang" produced by. Therefore, we have reason to believe that there is "photon energy" inside "singularity", or "photon energy" is the "singularity substance."

Second, from the "singularity" of the "Features" look. Due to the volume of "singularity" of the infinitely small, and in the known "substance", only the "photon" may "wavelength shortening", such as "blue shift" that can be "infinitely compressed." Therefore, the "singularity substance" may be "the photon energy." "Singularity" should be called "Energy singularity."

Therefore, the "singularity" may be the speed of light.

6.2.“同点同时”

6.2. "The same point at the same time."

Our "universe" originated in a "singularity" "big bang."

100-200 million years ago, students of the universe in a "big bang", the material creation by the explosion. [3]

So our "universe" of all "material" are "the same point at the same time," began the movement, that is, "with points": "singularity", "while": "Big Bang."

6.3.“同向同速”

6.3."in the same direction at the same speed."

Sphere "Meridian" are "geodesic." "Meridian", "three-dimensional sphere" is also on the "geodesic."

As shown in Figure 9, Parallel lines (red) as shown, "the three-dimensional sphere" on the meridian (blue).

Figure 9

All material throughout the "singularity" of the original to the speed of light, after its "big bang" produced, will remain in the "same direction" ("Meridian") on the "speed of light weight."

Motion is relative. If the composition of the fourth dimension "center of mass" P0 "material" is all substance "photon energies" (based on "mass-energy equation," showing the appropriate "quality"), about the "three-dimensional sphere" is the speed of light within the movement, it will have a "three-dimensional sphere" in "P0 event horizon" in effect.

Figure 10

If the "three-dimensional sphere" as "a point O1", then the "point O1" and "point P0" "relative speed is the speed of light C". "Point O1" and "point P0", can be said to be "mutually 'energy singularity'"  "each other 'horizon'." Therefore, "we in the 'event horizon' into ', only the" theoretical argument and meaning. "

Figure 11

“点O1”与“点P0”的“运动轨迹”，在平面上的投影就是“一个圆”——互为“圆心”与“圆周”。

"Point O1" and "Point P0" of the "trajectory", onto the plane is "a circle" - each other "center" and "circumference."

Figure 12

So, we are in the "event horizon" ("relative") among.

As a result, the so-called "fourth dimension P0 point" on having a "quantum" features: "P0 point" all the time and where we are, "the three-dimensional space" and "every point" - any one of the "ordinary Substance (celestial)" Hold "with the distance" - "P0 point Schwarzschild radius RS".

In the "fourth dimension," there are "fixed physical" - "the fourth dimension physical": speed is the speed of light c, the quality of the quality points P0 m, energy mc2, momentum mc. Can it be said, "Theory of Relativity" is "Newton's classical physics'event horizon 'on' - must be considered for inclusion in the" fourth dimension of physical effects. "

Some theory that is the material around the "space" to the speed of light, so the "substance" itself relative to the "space" is to "speed of light": "any object (including our human observer) space around the speed of light radiant left movement. "

6.4.“三维球面”上的“哈勃常数”

6.4."Hubble constant" in  "the three-dimensional sphere"

From the foregoing, we are now where the "Space": "three-dimensional space," that is, "a three-dimensional sphere" to meet the "same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law" produced a "Hubble constant effect."

7.“暗能量”

7. "dark energy"

7.1．“不见”“暗能量”

7.1. "no See" "dark energy"

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。但是，“低维空间”对于“高维度”来说，只能感觉到“高维度”的“影响”，却不能“看到”“高维度里的物质”。

"High-dimensional" can be "low-dimensional space" were "closed." However, the "low-dimensional space" for the "high-dimensional", can only feel "high-dimensional" and "influence" but can not "see" the "high dimension in the matter."

For example, people living in a "three-dimensional sphere" on it, as "high-dimensional" - "fourth dimension" of the "quality" of "closed" this "three-dimensional sphere", the "" all on "material three-dimensional sphere "have the" same direction at the same speed "- all in the same direction (along the" geodesic "), are" speed of light "movement, and therefore considered to be a" full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe, "the "energy form", and is "isotropic, density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (i.e. electromagnetic, strong, weak interaction) does not react with ordinary matter." However, we can not see in this "three-dimensional sphere," actually, touched, measured, "the fourth dimension in the matter": that of "dark energy"!

Therefore, said: "dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."

7.2.“可见”“暗能量”

7.2."no See" "dark energy"

As the "energy sphere" or "sphere of energy," "speed of light substance" force for the formation of spherical or ball outside, with its focus on the center of the sphere that the force was "equivalent." Ie "energy sphere" or "energy sphere" interaction on the outside of the sphere or ball is a "whole" presentation - the equivalent of all concentrated in the center of the sphere (discussed in another paper - the author note).

Figure 13

If the above in the "fourth dimension" and "energy substances", all evenly distributed in the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional", it then these "energy substances" on the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional space" "The role of substance", with all the focus on the "fourth dimension" - P0 point "action" is "equivalent." Therefore, the "three-dimensional sphere" - the "three-dimensional space," "special" "speed of light substances", you can also have a "dark energy effect."

So, too, can be considered: the above in the "fourth dimension" and "energy substances", in fact, in the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional", it it can make all the "substance", "three-dimensional sphere" on have the "same direction at the same speed" - all in the same direction (along the "geodesic"), are "speed of light" campaign, is a "full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe" and "forms of energy" and is "isotropic density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (ie, electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions) does not react with ordinary matter." Thus, the "dark energy" as a "special" "speed of light material" in our "three-dimensional space", it can "exist."

8.“有限无界”

8. "limited unbounded"

Our "space" is "fixed": "shape fix", is a "ball cylinder"; "fixed volume", as V = 2π2Rs3. Our "three-dimensional space" is a "three-dimensional sphere", so "limited unbounded."

9. 不是“宇宙膨胀”，而是“物质扩散”

9. Not "cosmic expansion", but "mass diffusion"

Where we are, "space" - "three-dimensional" - "three-dimensional sphere" to meet "the same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law", resulting in "Hubble constant effect. "

However, this is only temporary. Because the universe is "limited unbounded" and "ball cylinder", when age of the universe, "beyond the 'three-dimensional sphere' of the 'Equator' ', it will become increasingly apparent:" blue shift. "

So instead of the Universe "expansion" or "shrink", but the Substance (celestial) in this "fixed space" ("Three-dimensional sphere") within the "proliferation" or "gathering."

Figure 14

It should be noted that, in this "diffusion" or "gathering" in the process, with the continuation of the time due to the "point of departure", "substance" of the "across" and "space", has been in "gradually expanding "- so this" ordinary matter across space "would" have been swell. "Also, due to the "velocity component of the same size," as time reference point P and the "pole" of the distance r increases, then the "Hubble constant" H0 = v / r will be "more small ", will be changed to" negative "-" blue shift. "

10.“各向同性”

10. "isotropic"

“三维球面”里，在大尺度上是“均匀”和“各向同性”的。由于“第四维度质量的史瓦西半径Rs的值足够大，致使P0的“视界”曲率很小几乎为0，所以“三维球面”还具有“高度平坦性”。

"Three-dimensional sphere" where, on a large scale is the "uniform" and "isotropic" in. As the "value of the Schwarzschild radius Rs of the fourth dimension is large enough mass, resulting in P0"event horizon"is almost zero curvature is small, so the" three-dimensional sphere "also has a" high degree of flatness. "

11.“洛伦兹因子”

11. "Lorentz factor"

In the "three-dimensional sphere" on a "Lorentz factor." Because of the speed of light c is the maximum speed, and the "big bang" in a "substance" and "in the same direction at the same speed" and "velocity component" is the "speed of light", so "radial velocity" v1 should be a component of the speed of light c, and at the same time on the "horizontal" (and "as the" vertical) also has a "weight", and its size is v0 =√c2-v12. This may be Lorentz factor 1 /√1- (v1/c) 2 resulting "root causes."

Figure 15

12.“静止能量”

12. "rest energy"

In the "three-dimensional sphere", and the "rest energy." "Rest mass" of m objects with the "rest energy" E=mc2. Can explain "mass-energy equation." Because we are in the "event horizon" on, so the quality of the object m of the total energy E=mgh+mc2/2. There h as the center of mass M that Schwarzschild radius R,h=R, c is the speed of light, R=2GM/c2, g=GM/R2, and therefore there is: E=mgh+mc2/2=mc2 that E=mc2 .

13.“静止动量”

13. "stationary momentum"

In the "three-dimensional sphere," there are "still momentum." "Rest mass" for m particle, with "static momentum" mc (c is the speed of light). Momentum is a vector.

In the "radial" v1, momentum p1=mv1 to time t, the first order derivative of dp1/dt=d (mv1) /dt=mdv1/dt+v1dm/dt, as in the non relativistic case, dm/dt is almost zero, so often the momentum of a t of a derivative Jane writing: dp1/dt=mdv1/dt, this is "the differential form of Newton's second law": F=dp/dt=mdv1/dt=ma, where a=dv1/dt is the acceleration.

In the "horizontal", v0=√c2-v12, momentum p0=mv0 to time t, the first order derivative of dp0/dt=d (mv0) /dt=mdv0/dt+v0dm/dt=md(√c2-v12)/dt+(√c2-v12) dm/dt. If F0=md(√c2-v12)/dt, then F0=-m(dv1/dt)/(√(c/v1)2-1). By F=mdv1/dt=ma, available F0=-F/ (√(c/v1)2-1). Visible, in the "tangent" direction on existence "force" role. And, with the increasing speed of v1, the "tangent" direction on existence "force" role will be more "obvious", which also contributes a part of "dark matter effect".［4］

References

［1］于尔根·奈佛 ．爱因斯坦传：中央编译出版社 ，2013 ：153-157 ．

［2］Ray d'Inverno (1992), Introducing Einstein's Relativity, Clarendon Press, chp. 22.8 Geometry of 3-spaces of constant curvature, p.319ff, ISBN 0-19-859653-7

［3］罗先汉 ．天体演化 ．山西 ：山西科学技术出版社，2001-01 ：102-106 ．

［4］动量 ．维基百科 [引用日期2015-02-12] ．

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