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“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论

(2015-02-17 13:56:30)
标签:

球面

哈勃常数

第四维

物质

三维空间

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”

"Harbert constant" and "Space closed"

  

杨明昆1,王严学2,杨昭国3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

 

Mingkun Yang 1,Yanxue Wang 2,Zhaoguo Yang 3

Email:ygyzg@126.com

 

摘要

“哈勃常数”的本质,就是质点(天体)的运动,满足“同点同时、同向同速”。在一个被“高维度”“封闭”的“低维空间”内,我们生活的“三维空间”,就是一个被“第四维度”“封闭”的“三维空间”:“球柱体”,质点之间满足“同向同速”,如果再满足“同点同时”,那么就会产生“哈勃常数效应”,而“奇点大爆炸”正好提供了“同点同时”的条件,于是就出现了“哈勃定律”。“暗能量”只是“第四维度的引力效应”,并不是我们在“三维球面”内,可以“找到”的“实体物质”——是“不可见的”。不是宇宙“膨胀”或“收缩”,而是物质(天体)在这个“固定的空间”(“三维球面”)内的“扩散”或“聚集”。

 

Abstract

The causes of "Harbert constant", is the particle (celestial) movement, "the same point at the same time, to meet with the same speed and direction". "High dimensional" "closed" "low dimensional space", "internal particles meet with the same speed and direction". We live in the "three-dimensional space", is a "fourth dimension" "closed" "three dimensional space": "the ball column". If meet "the same point at the same time", will produce "Harbert constant effect". "Big Bang" happened in the "same point at the same time", so, there is a "Harbert law". "Dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."The universe is not "expansion", is a Substance(celestial) body in this "fixed space" ("three-dimensional spherical") within the "diffusion".

 

关键词

哈勃常数;空间封闭;三维球面;奇点;大爆炸

Keywords

harbert constant; space closure; three-dimensional spherical; singularity; big bang

 

1.    引言

1. Introduction

 

我们知道,哈勃常数,也称哈勃定律。在物理宇宙学里,哈勃定律表明,来自遥远星系光线的红移与它们的距离成正比。以方程表示V=H0D;其中,V是由红移现象测得的星系远离速率,HO是哈勃常数,D是星系与观察者之间的距离。

We know, Harbert constant, also known as Harbert's law. In physical cosmology, Harbert's law shows that, from a distant galaxy redshift of light and the distance between them is proportional to. In equation V=H0D; wherein, V is measured by the redshift galaxies away from rate, HO is Harbert's constant, D is the distance between the galaxy and the observer.

 

那么,产生“哈勃常数”的“空间环境”是怎样的呢?或者说,怎样的天体分布、符合怎样的运动条件,才能产生“哈勃常数效应”呢?

So, produce "Harbert constant" of "space environment" is what kind of? Or, the celestial distribution how, in line with the movement condition how, can produce "Harbert constant effect"?

 

2.产生“哈勃常数”的条件

2."Harbert's constant" producing condition

 

2.1.“平面”上的“哈勃常数”

2.1. "Harbert constant" in  "the plane "

 

如图1,在平面上,若设从O1点出发的质点P,在O1P方向上的速度分量大小为v,另有一质点B,是从O1点与质点P同时出发的,其运动速度v2在O1P方向上的分量大小也是v:“同点同时、同向同速”,并设质点B在质点P“视向”上的速度分量的大小为v1,即质点B相对O1点的运动速度(大小为v2),可以分解为在O1P方向上的分量(大小为v)与在质点P“视向”上的速度分量(大小为v1),则有v/r=v1/BP。令BP=D,v1/D=H0,因此有H0=v1/D=v1/BP=v/r。

As shown in Figure 1, in the plane, if a particle of P from the O1 point of view, the velocity component size in the direction of O1P is v, a particle is B, from O1 point and P at the same time of particle, the velocity of V2 in the direction of O1P component size is v: "the same point at the same time, with the same speed and direction, and a" B P "as the particle particle velocity component to" the size is v1, i.e. motion speed relative to the O1 point particle B (size v2), can be divided in the direction of O1P component (size v) and particle velocity components in P "as to" the (size v1), then v/r=v1/BP. Let BP=D, v1/D=H0, with H0=v1/D=v1/BP=v/r.

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 1

图1

2.2“球面”上的“哈勃常数”

2.2 "Harbert constant" in "the sphere"

 

2.2.1.“测地线”

2.2.1. "Geodesic"

 

在大地测量学(测量地球的尺寸和形状的科学)中,测地线是连接地球表面两点的最短距离。近似地,这条线是一个大圆上的弧,比如经线和赤道。这些路径显然不是直的,因为它们沿着地球的弯曲的表面延伸。

In geodesy (measuring the size and shape of the Earth sciences), the geodesic connecting the shortest distance between two points on the earth's surface. Approximately, this line is a great circle on the arc, such as warp and equatorial. Obviously these paths are not straight, as they extend along the curved surface of the earth.

 

测地线的性质和直线是不一样的。例如,在平面中,平行线没有交点,但是地球表面的测地线却有交点:在赤道处平行的经线在极点处相交。

The nature and straight geodesic is not the same. For example, in a plane, parallel lines no intersection, but there geodesic intersection of the Earth's surface: In parallel to the equator at longitude intersect at the poles.

 

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 2

图2

2.2.2.“球面上的‘哈勃常数’”

2.2.2. "Hubble constant" in "the sphere"

 

如图2,在球面上,若设从O1点(称为“极点”)出发的质点P,在O1P方向上沿“测地线”的速度分量大小为v,另有一任意质点B,是从O1点与质点P同时出发的,其运动速度沿“测地线”方向上的分量大小也是v:“同点同时、同向同速”,并设质点B在质点P“视向”上的速度分量的大小为v1,则有v/弧O1P=v1/弧BP。令弧BP=D,v1/D=H0,因此有H0=v1/D=v1/弧BP=v/弧O1P(弧:系大圆上的弧。球面上的“大圆”——“测地线”——“子午线”)。

As shown in Figure 2, in the sphere, assuming that the particle P from O1 point (called the "pole") starting on O1P direction "geodesic" is v, and another one at any particle B, is from O1 at the same time the starting point and the particle P, the velocity component along the direction of the size of the "geodesic" is also v: "the same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed", and set the particle velocity component B on the particle P "radial" in the size is v1, there v/arc O1P=v1/arc BP. Order arc BP=D, v1/D=H0, therefore H0=v1 /D=v1 /arc BP=v/arc O1P (Arc: great circle arc."Great circle" -- "Geodesic" -- " Meridian").

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 3

图3

综上所述,在一个空间内,物体运动符合“哈勃定律”(即产生“哈勃常数效应”)的条件就是:“同点同时、同向同速”。即该空间内的所有物体(天体),在“同一地点、同一时间”开始运动,并且“都在同一方向上(空间内的“测地线”方向)、拥有相同的速度分量”。

In summary, in a space, in line with the movement of objects "Hubble's Law" (ie, a "Hubble constant effect") condition is: "The same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed." Namely: That all  Substance (celestial) of the space in the "same place, same time," begins to move, and that "all in the same direction (space" geodesic "direction), with the same velocity component."

 

3.“空间弯曲”

3. "curved space"

 

广义相对论认为,由于有物质的存在,空间和时间会发生弯曲,而引力场实际上是一个弯曲的时空。

The general theory of relativity that, due to the existence of substance, space and time are bent, and the gravitational field is actually a curved space-time.

在广义相对论中,引力被描述为时空的一种几何属性(曲率)。[1]

In general relativity, gravity is described as a geometric property of space-time (curvature). [1]

因此,“引力”是一种“空间弯曲”。万有引力源于“质量”,“引力场”对应着“弯曲的空间”。从本质上来说,是“质量”对应着“空间弯曲”:“质量弯曲空间”!

Therefore, "gravity" is a "space warp". Gravitational source to "quality", "gravity field" corresponds to "curved space". In essence, is the "quality" corresponds to "curved space": "the quality of curved space"!

 

4.“空间封闭”

4. "space closed"

 

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。

"High dimensional" to "low dimensional space is" closed .

4.1.“第二维度”对“一维空间”的“封闭”

4.1. "Second dimension" on the "one-dimensional" and "closed"

 

一维空间里,有一对主要方向:左右。

One-dimensional space, a pair of main directions: left and right.

 

如果在一维空间(直线)之外,有一个“质量中心”P0,到一维空间(直线)的距离为R,那么这个一维空间(直线)就会向P0发生“弯曲”。  

If the one-dimensional (linear) outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, a distance to a one-dimensional space (a straight line) is R, then the one-dimensional (linear) will occur to P0 "bending."

 

假如这个质点P0的质量m足够大,达到了满足R=2Gm/c2(G为引力常量,c为光速),那么,这时的质量m就将“一维直线”“弯曲”成了“圆”:“封闭的一维空间”,称为“第二维度”对“一维空间”的“封闭”,R为质点P0的史瓦西半径,从而形成一个“二维空间”:“圆面”。

If this particle of mass m P0 large enough to reach satisfying R=2Gm/c2 (G is the gravitational constant, c is the speed of light), then, when the mass m will be "one-dimensional linear" "bent" into "round ":" closed one-dimensional space "," second dimension "of" one-dimensional "and" closed ", R is the radius of particle Schwarzschild P0 so as to form a" two-dimensional ":" round face . "

 

这时,在“一维空间”:“圆”上的“物质”,都应该是以“光速”运动。

At this time, the "one-dimensional": "substance" on "circle", should be based on "speed of light" campaign.

 

“圆”和“第二维度”,就构成了一个“二维空间”:“圆面”。这个“圆”称为“二维空间”:“圆面”的“视界”。

"Circle" and "second dimension", it constitutes a "two-dimensional": "round face." The "circle" is called "two-dimensional": "round face" and "event horizon."

 

4.2.“第三维度”对“二维空间”的“封闭”

4.2. "Third dimension" on the "two-dimensional" and "closed"

 

二维空间里,有两对主要方向:左右、前后。这两对方向是正交的。从数学方面讲,它们在两条不同的坐标轴xy上。

Two-dimensional space, there are two pairs of main directions: left, front and rear. Direction is orthogonal to both pairs. From mathematics, they are two different axes x, y.

 

如果在二维空间(平面)之外,有一个“质量中心”P0,到二维空间(平面)的距离为R,那么这个二维空间(平面)就会向P0发生“弯曲”。  

If in addition to the two-dimensional space (plane), there is a "center of mass" P0, from a two-dimensional space (plane) to as R, then the two-dimensional space (plane) will occur to P0 "bending."

 

假如R正好是这个质点P0的史瓦西半径,那么,这时的质量m就将“二维平面”“弯曲”成了“球面”:“封闭的二维空间”,称为“第三维度”对“二维空间”的“封闭”,形成了一个“三维空间”:“球体”。

If R is just the Schwarzschild radius of the particle P0, then, when the mass m will be "two-dimensional", "bending" became the "sphere": "closed-dimensional space", known as the "third dimension "Yes," two-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" three-dimensional ":" sphere. "

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 4

图4

这时,在“二维空间”:“球面”上的“物质”,也都应该是以“光速”运动。

At this time, in the "two-dimensional": "substance" on "sphere", it should be based on "speed of light" campaign.

 

“球面”和“第三维度”,就构成了一个“三维空间”:“球体”。这个“球面”称为“三维空间”:“球体”的“视界”。

"Spherical" and "third dimension", it constitutes a "three-dimensional": "Sphere." The "sphere" as "three-dimensional space": "Sphere" and "event horizon."

 

4.3.“第四维度”对“三维空间”的“封闭”

4.3. "Fourth Dimension" on the "three-dimensional" and "closed"

 

三维空间里,有三对主要方向:上下(高度),南北(纬度),东西(经度)。这三对方向两两正交,也就是说,它们两两成直角。从数学方面讲,它们在三条不同的坐标轴xyz上。

Three-dimensional space, there are three main directions: up and down (height), the north-south (latitude), East (longitude). This three pairs are orthogonal direction, that is, they twenty-two right angles. From mathematics, they are three different coordinate axes x, y, z.

 

同样地,如果在三维空间(“球体”)之外,有一个“质量中心”P0,到三维空间(“球体”)的距离为R,那么这个三维空间(“球体”)就会向P0发生“弯曲”。  

Likewise, if the three-dimensional space ("ball") outside, there is a "center of mass" P0, the distance to three-dimensional space ("ball") is R, then the three-dimensional space ("ball") will occur to P0 "bent."

 

假如R正好是这个质点P0的史瓦西半径,那么,质点P0的质量就将“球”“弯曲”成了“三维球面”:“封闭的三维空间”,称为“第四维度”对“三维空间”的“封闭”,形成一个“四维空间”:“球柱体”(球体为“盖”的柱体)。

If R is the Schwarzschild radius of the particle just P0, then,when the particle mass P0 will "ball", "bent" into "a three-dimensional sphere":"closed three-dimensional space", known as the "fourth dimension "Yes," three-dimensional "and" closed ", the formation of a" four-dimensional space ":" The ball cylinder "(sphere as" cover "of the cylinder).

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 5

图5

这时,在“三维空间”:“三维球面”上的“物质”,也应该是都以“光速”运动。

At this time, in the "three-dimensional space": "substance"on "three-dimensional sphere", it should be all the "speed of light" campaign.

 

“三维球面”和“第四维度”,就构成了一个“四维空间”:“球柱体”。这个“三维球面”称为“四维空间”:“球柱体”的“视界”。

"Three-dimensional sphere" and "fourth dimension", it constitutes a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder." This "three-dimensional sphere" as "four-dimensional space": "The ball cylinder" and "event horizon."

 

数学中,“三维球面”是球面在高维空间中的类比客体。它由四维欧几里德空间中与一固定中心点等距离的所有点所组成。寻常的球面(或者说二维球面)是一个二维表面,而三维球面是一个具有三个维度的几何客体。

Mathematics, "a three-dimensional sphere" is the sphere of high-dimensional space analogy object. It consists of all points in the four-dimensional Euclidean space with a fixed center point equidistant from the composition. Unusual spherical (or two-dimensional sphere) is a two-dimensional surface, while the three-dimensional sphere is a geometric object with three dimensions.

 

在四维欧几里德空间中与P0点有相同距离R的所有点的集合能形成一个超曲面,称为三维球面。此超曲面之包含空间(“球柱体”:球体为“盖”的柱体,“特殊的”“圆柱状空间”)的超体积为:V=2π2R3

In the four-dimensional Euclidean space, and there is the set of all points P0 point the same distance R can form a hypersurface, called three-dimensional sphere. This hypersurface to include space ("Ball cylinder": the sphere as "cover" in the column, "special", "cylindrical space") super volume: V=2π2R3.

 

纯空间性的四维空间另有一对垂直于其他三个主要方向的主要方向。这一对方向处在另一条同时垂直于xyz轴的坐标轴上,通常称作w轴。这些额外的方向处于(实际上是垂直于)我们所能观察到的三维世界中的方向之外。[2]

Pure space of four-dimensional space and another one for the other three main directions perpendicular to the main direction. This pair is in another direction perpendicular to both the x, y, z-axis of the coordinate axes, commonly referred to as w axis. These additional direction is (virtually perpendicular to) we can observe the outside world in a three-dimensional direction. [2]

 

5.“宇宙空间”

5. "cosmic space"

 

我们生活的“空间”就是一个“三维空间”:如果受到来自“第四维度”的引力影响,也可以被“第四维度”“封闭”,形成一个“四维空间”:“球柱体”。

We live in "space" is a "three-dimensional space": if subjected to gravitational influence from the "fourth dimension", but also can be the "fourth dimension", "closed", the formation of a "four-dimensional space": "Ball cylinder."

 

因此,可以认为全部的“宇宙空间”就是一个“特殊的”“圆柱状空间”:以“三维球面”为边界,即P0点的“视界”的“球柱体”:“底面半径为Rs、高为2πRs(π为圆周率、Rs为“第四维度中心质量的史瓦西半径)的‘圆柱状空间’”,不过,只是该“圆柱状空间”的两端是重合的(图6、7)。

Therefore, we can consider all of the "space" is a "special" "cylindrical space": the "three-dimensional sphere" for the border, that is the point P0 "event horizon" and "Ball cylinder": "underside radius Rs, height 2πRs (π is pi, Rs is the "fourth dimension of the center of mass Schwarzschild radius) of the 'cylindrical space' ', however, only the ends of the" cylindrical space "is coincident (Figures 6, 7 ).

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 6

图6

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 7

图7

6.“三维球面”上的“哈勃常数”

6."Hubble constant" in "the Three-dimensional sphere"

 

我们有可能在上述的“三维球面”:“球柱体”的“视界”之中吗?

We may in the above "three-dimensional sphere": "Ball cylinder" and "event horizon" into it?

 

6.1.“能量奇点”

6.1. "Energy singularity"

6.1.1.“湮灭”与“出现”

6.1.1. "Annihilation" and "appears"

 

“湮灭”是指当物质和它的反物质相遇时,会发生完全的物质-能量转换,产生能量(如以光子的形式)的过程。一个正电子和一个电子碰撞后“湮灭”,通过光子的形式释放能量。即有:粒子+反粒子→“湮灭”→“光子”能量。

"annihilation" is when matter and antimatter meet it occurs entirely matter - energy conversion, energy production (eg in the form of photons) process. After a positron and an electron collision "annihilation", releasing energy in the form of photons. Namely: particle + antiparticle → "annihilation" → "photon" of energy.

 

既然物质与其反物质相遇,发生“湮灭”成为“光子能量”,那么,“光子能量”也应该在一定条件下,可以成为“物质”和“反物质”:“出现”。于是,我们认为,“大爆炸”时,可能就是消耗了“光子能量”,而产生了“粒子”和“反粒子”,才有了我们今天五彩缤纷、生机勃勃的“宇宙”。所以可以说,在一定条件下,“湮灭”是“可逆的”。即有:光子能量→“大爆炸”:“出现”→粒子+反粒子(图8)。

Since the substance and its antimatter meet, the occurrence of "annihilation" becomes "the photon energy," then "photon energy" should be under certain conditions, can become "material" and "antimatter": "appear." Thus, we believe that when the "big bang", may consume the "photon energy," and produced a "particle" and "antiparticle", only today we colorful, vibrant "universe." It can be said that, under certain conditions, "annihilation" is "reversible." Namely: the photon energy → "big bang": "appears" → particle + antiparticle (Figure 8).

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 8

图8

6.1.2.“光变物质”

6.1.2. "Optically variable substances"

 

环球科学2014年5月21日报道,物理学家发现了一种相当直接的把光转化为物质的方法:通过使一束高强度伽马射线轰击一个微型金线圆柱中的光子云,让伽马射线轰击黑体真空腔中的X射线光子云,以产生正电子与电子。

Global Science May 21, 2014 report, physicists discovered a fairly straightforward method to light into matter: by making a bunch of high-intensity gamma rays bombarding a tiny gold cylinder photon cloud, let gal Ma blackbody radiation bombardment vacuum chamber X-ray photons cloud to produce electrons and positrons.

 

 

6.1.3.“奇点物质”

6.1.3. "Singularity substance"

 

第一,从“大爆炸”的“产品”来看。“物质”可以“湮灭”为“光”:“物质变光”,“光”也可以“出现”为“物质”:“光变物质”,“湮灭”与“出现”是“可逆的”。而我们的宇宙:所有的“宇宙物质(粒子)”又都是由“一个点”(“奇点”)通过“大爆炸”产生。所以,我们有理由认为,“奇点”内有“光子能量”,或者说,“光子能量”是“奇点物质”。

First, from the "big bang" and "product" look. "Substance" may "annihilation" for the "light": "material change of light", "light" can "appear" as "material": "optical variable substances", "Oblivion" and "appears" is "reversible." Our universe: all the "cosmic matter (particles)" and both are from the "one point" ("singularity") "big bang" produced by. Therefore, we have reason to believe that there is "photon energy" inside "singularity", or "photon energy" is the "singularity substance."

 

第二,从“奇点”的“特性“来看。由于“奇点”的体积无限小,而在已知的“物质”中,只有“光子” 可以“波长缩短”,比如发生“蓝移”,能够被“无限压缩”。因此,“奇点物质” 可能是“光子能量”。“奇点”应该称为“能量奇点”。

Second, from the "singularity" of the "Features" look. Due to the volume of "singularity" of the infinitely small, and in the known "substance", only the "photon" may "wavelength shortening", such as "blue shift" that can be "infinitely compressed." Therefore, the "singularity substance" may be "the photon energy." "Singularity" should be called "Energy singularity."

因此,“奇点”可以以光速运动。

Therefore, the "singularity" may be the speed of light.

 

6.2.“同点同时”

6.2. "The same point at the same time."

 

我们的“宇宙”起源于一次“奇点”“大爆炸”。

Our "universe" originated in a "singularity" "big bang."

 

在100-200亿年之前,宇宙生之于一次“大爆炸”,物质都由爆炸中创生。[3]

所以我们的“宇宙”的所有“物质”都是“同点同时”开始运动的,即“同点”:“奇点”,“同时”:“大爆炸”。

100-200 million years ago, students of the universe in a "big bang", the material creation by the explosion. [3]

 So our "universe" of all "material" are "the same point at the same time," began the movement, that is, "with points": "singularity", "while": "Big Bang."

6.3.“同向同速”

6.3."in the same direction at the same speed."

 

球面上的“子午线”都是“测地线”。“三维球面”上的“子午线”也是“测地线”。

如图9,“三维球面”上的平行线(红色)、子午线(蓝色)。

Sphere "Meridian" are "geodesic." "Meridian", "three-dimensional sphere" is also on the "geodesic."

As shown in Figure 9, Parallel lines (red) as shown, "the three-dimensional sphere" on the meridian (blue).

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 9

图9

整个“奇点”原来以光速运动,其“大爆炸”后产生的所有物质,将仍然保留在“同一方向”(“子午线”)上的“光速分量”。

All material throughout the "singularity" of the original to the speed of light, after its "big bang" produced, will remain in the "same direction" ("Meridian") on the "speed of light weight."

 

运动是相对的。如果组成第四维度的“质量中心”P0的“物质”是“光子能量”(根据“质能公式”呈现相应“质量”),绕“三维球面”内的所有物质都是以光速运动的,那么也会产生“三维球面”在“P0视界”中的效果。

Motion is relative. If the composition of the fourth dimension "center of mass" P0 "material" is all substance "photon energies" (based on "mass-energy equation," showing the appropriate "quality"), about the "three-dimensional sphere" is the speed of light within the movement, it will have a "three-dimensional sphere" in "P0 event horizon" in effect.

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 10

图10

如果把“三维球面”看成“一个点O1”,那么“点O1”与“点P0”的“相对速度就是光速C”。“点O1”与“点P0”,可以说是“互为‘能量奇点’”、“互为‘视界’”。因此,“我们在‘视界’之中”,才有了“理论上的说法和意义”。

If the "three-dimensional sphere" as "a point O1", then the "point O1" and "point P0" "relative speed is the speed of light C". "Point O1" and "point P0", can be said to be "mutually 'energy singularity'"  "each other 'horizon'." Therefore, "we in the 'event horizon' into ', only the" theoretical argument and meaning. "

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 11

图11

 “点O1”与“点P0”的“运动轨迹”,在平面上的投影就是“一个圆”——互为“圆心”与“圆周”。

"Point O1" and "Point P0" of the "trajectory", onto the plane is "a circle" - each other "center" and "circumference."

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 12

图12

所以,我们是可以在“视界”(“相对的”)之中的。

So, we are in the "event horizon" ("relative") among.

 

这样一来,所谓的“第四维的P0点”就具有了“量子化”的特点:“P0点”每时每刻都与我们所在的“三维空间里”的“每一个点”——任何一个“普通物质(天体)”保持“同距”——“P0点的史瓦西半径RS”。

As a result, the so-called "fourth dimension P0 point" on having a "quantum" features: "P0 point" all the time and where we are, "the three-dimensional space" and "every point" - any one of the "ordinary Substance (celestial)" Hold "with the distance" - "P0 point Schwarzschild radius RS".

 

在“第四维度”上有“固定的物理量”——“第四维度物理量”:速度为光速c,质量为P0点的质量m,能量为mc2,动量为mc。是否可以说,“相对论”就是“‘视界’上的牛顿经典物理”——必须考虑纳入“第四维度物理量的影响”。

In the "fourth dimension," there are "fixed physical" - "the fourth dimension physical": speed is the speed of light c, the quality of the quality points P0 m, energy mc2, momentum mc. Can it be said, "Theory of Relativity" is "Newton's classical physics'event horizon 'on' - must be considered for inclusion in the" fourth dimension of physical effects. "

 

有的理论认为,是物质周围的“空间”以光速运动,因此,“物质”本身相对于“空间”也是以“光速运动的”:“任何物体(包括我们观察者人)周围空间都以光速辐射式的离开运动。”

Some theory that is the material around the "space" to the speed of light, so the "substance" itself relative to the "space" is to "speed of light": "any object (including our human observer) space around the speed of light radiant left movement. "

6.4.“三维球面”上的“哈勃常数”

6.4."Hubble constant" in  "the three-dimensional sphere"

 

由上述可知,我们现在所在的“空间”:“三维空间”亦即“三维球面”,满足了“同点同时、同向同速”的条件,所以天体之间的运动符合“哈勃定律”,产生了“哈勃常数效应”。

From the foregoing, we are now where the "Space": "three-dimensional space," that is, "a three-dimensional sphere" to meet the "same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law" produced a "Hubble constant effect."

7.“暗能量”

7. "dark energy"

7.1.“不见”“暗能量”

7.1. "no See" "dark energy"

 

“高维度”可以对“低维空间”进行“封闭”。但是,“低维空间”对于“高维度”来说,只能感觉到“高维度”的“影响”,却不能“看到”“高维度里的物质”。

"High-dimensional" can be "low-dimensional space" were "closed." However, the "low-dimensional space" for the "high-dimensional", can only feel "high-dimensional" and "influence" but can not "see" the "high dimension in the matter."

 

比如,生活在“三维球面”上的人们来说,由于“高维度”——“第四维度”的“质量”“封闭”了这个“三维球面”,使得“三维球面”上的所有“物质”都具有了“同向同速”——都向同一个方向(沿“测地线”)、都以“光速”运动,因此就认为是一种“充溢空间的、增加宇宙膨胀速度”的“能量形式”,并且是“各向同性,密度非常小,不与通常物质发生任何除引力之外的已知的相互作用(即电磁、强、弱相互作用)”。但是,我们在这个“三维球面”里却无法看到、摸到、测到“第四维度里的物质”:谓之“暗能量”!

For example, people living in a "three-dimensional sphere" on it, as "high-dimensional" - "fourth dimension" of the "quality" of "closed" this "three-dimensional sphere", the "" all on "material three-dimensional sphere "have the" same direction at the same speed "- all in the same direction (along the" geodesic "), are" speed of light "movement, and therefore considered to be a" full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe, "the "energy form", and is "isotropic, density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (i.e. electromagnetic, strong, weak interaction) does not react with ordinary matter." However, we can not see in this "three-dimensional sphere," actually, touched, measured, "the fourth dimension in the matter": that of "dark energy"!

 

因此,可以认为:“暗能量”只是“第四维度的引力效应”,并不是我们在“三维球面”内,可以“找到”的“实体物质”——是“不可见的”。

Therefore, said: "dark energy" only "fourth dimension gravitational effects", not what we in the "three-dimensional sphere", you can "find" and "physical reality" - is "invisible."

 

7.2.“可见”“暗能量”

7.2."no See" "dark energy"

 

由于“光速物质”形成的“能量球面”或“球状能量”对球面或球外的作用力,与其集中于球心一点的作用力是“等效的”。即“能量球面” 或“球状能量” 对球面或球外的相互作用是以一个“整体”呈现的——相当于全部集中在球心(另文讨论——笔者注)。

As the "energy sphere" or "sphere of energy," "speed of light substance" force for the formation of spherical or ball outside, with its focus on the center of the sphere that the force was "equivalent." Ie "energy sphere" or "energy sphere" interaction on the outside of the sphere or ball is a "whole" presentation - the equivalent of all concentrated in the center of the sphere (discussed in another paper - the author note).

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 13

图13

如果上述中的“第四维度”的“能量物质”,全部均匀分布于“三维球面”——“三维空间”之中,那么这些“能量物质”对“三维球面”——“三维空间”中“物质的作用”,与全部集中于“第四维度”—— P0点的“作用”是“等效的”。因此,“三维球面”——“三维空间”上“特殊的”“光速物质”,也可以产生“暗能量效应”。

If the above in the "fourth dimension" and "energy substances", all evenly distributed in the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional", it then these "energy substances" on the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional space" "The role of substance", with all the focus on the "fourth dimension" - P0 point "action" is "equivalent." Therefore, the "three-dimensional sphere" - the "three-dimensional space," "special" "speed of light substances", you can also have a "dark energy effect."

 

所以,也可以认为:上述中的“第四维度”的“能量物质”,实际上就在“三维球面”——“三维空间”之中,它可以使得“三维球面”上的所有“物质”都具有了“同向同速”——都向同一个方向(沿“测地线”)、都以“光速”运动,是一种“充溢空间的、增加宇宙膨胀速度”的“能量形式”,并且是“各向同性,密度非常小,不与通常物质发生任何除引力之外的已知的相互作用(即电磁、强、弱相互作用)”。由此,“暗能量”作为“特殊的”“光速物质”,在我们的“三维空间”中,是可以“存在的”。

So, too, can be considered: the above in the "fourth dimension" and "energy substances", in fact, in the "three-sphere" - "three-dimensional", it it can make all the "substance", "three-dimensional sphere" on have the "same direction at the same speed" - all in the same direction (along the "geodesic"), are "speed of light" campaign, is a "full of space, increase the speed of expansion of the universe" and "forms of energy" and is "isotropic density is very small, in addition to any of the known gravitational interactions (ie, electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions) does not react with ordinary matter." Thus, the "dark energy" as a "special" "speed of light material" in our "three-dimensional space", it can "exist."

 

8.“有限无界”

8. "limited unbounded"

 

我们的“宇宙空间”是“固定”的:“形状固定”,是一个“球柱体”;“体积固定”,为V=2π2Rs3。我们的“三维空间”又是一个“三维球面”,所以“有限无界”。

Our "space" is "fixed": "shape fix", is a "ball cylinder"; "fixed volume", as V = 2π2Rs3. Our "three-dimensional space" is a "three-dimensional sphere", so "limited unbounded."

 

9. 不是“宇宙膨胀”,而是“物质扩散”

9. Not "cosmic expansion", but "mass diffusion"

 

我们所在的“空间”——“三维空间”——“三维球面”,满足“同点同时、同向同速”的条件,所以天体之间的运动符合“哈勃定律”,产生了“哈勃常数效应”。

Where we are, "space" - "three-dimensional" - "three-dimensional sphere" to meet "the same point at the same time, in the same direction at the same speed" conditions, so the movement of celestial bodies in line between "Hubble's Law", resulting in "Hubble constant effect. "

 

不过,这只是暂时的。由于宇宙是“有限无界”的“球柱体”,当宇宙年龄“超越‘三维球面’的‘赤道’”之后,就会越来越显现:“蓝移现象”。

However, this is only temporary. Because the universe is "limited unbounded" and "ball cylinder", when age of the universe, "beyond the 'three-dimensional sphere' of the 'Equator' ', it will become increasingly apparent:" blue shift. "

因此,不是宇宙“膨胀”或“收缩”,而是物质(天体)在这个“固定的空间”(“三维球面”)内的“扩散”或“聚集”。

So instead of the Universe "expansion" or "shrink", but the Substance (celestial) in this "fixed space" ("Three-dimensional sphere") within the "proliferation" or "gathering."

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 14

图14

 

需要指出的是,在这种“扩散”或“聚集”的过程中,随着时间的延续,由于从“一点出发”“物质”所“划过”的“空间”,一直都在“逐渐扩大”——所以这个“普通物质划过的空间”会“一直膨胀”。并且,由于“速度分量的大小不变”,随着时间的延续,参考点P与“极点”的距离r越来越大,那么“哈勃常数”H0=v/r将会“越来越小”,还将变为“负值”——发生“蓝移”。

It should be noted that, in this "diffusion" or "gathering" in the process, with the continuation of the time due to the "point of departure", "substance" of the "across" and "space", has been in "gradually expanding "- so this" ordinary matter across space "would" have been swell. "Also, due to the "velocity component of the same size," as time reference point P and the "pole" of the distance r increases, then the "Hubble constant" H0 = v / r will be "more small ", will be changed to" negative "-" blue shift. "

 

10.“各向同性”

10. "isotropic"

 

“三维球面”里,在大尺度上是“均匀”和“各向同性”的。由于“第四维度质量的史瓦西半径Rs的值足够大,致使P0的“视界”曲率很小几乎为0,所以“三维球面”还具有“高度平坦性”。

"Three-dimensional sphere" where, on a large scale is the "uniform" and "isotropic" in. As the "value of the Schwarzschild radius Rs of the fourth dimension is large enough mass, resulting in P0"event horizon"is almost zero curvature is small, so the" three-dimensional sphere "also has a" high degree of flatness. "

 

11.“洛伦兹因子”

11. "Lorentz factor"

 

在“三维球面”上,产生“洛伦兹因子”。由于光速c是最大速度,而“大爆炸”中产生“物质”的“同向同速”的“速度分量”就是“光速”,因此“视向速度”v1应该是光速c的一个分量,同时在“横向”(与“视向”垂直)上也有一个“分量”,其大小为v0=√c2-v12。这一点可能是洛伦兹因子1/√1-(v1/c)2 产生的“根源”。

In the "three-dimensional sphere" on a "Lorentz factor." Because of the speed of light c is the maximum speed, and the "big bang" in a "substance" and "in the same direction at the same speed" and "velocity component" is the "speed of light", so "radial velocity" v1 should be a component of the speed of light c, and at the same time on the "horizontal" (and "as the" vertical) also has a "weight", and its size is v0 =√c2-v12. This may be Lorentz factor 1 /√1- (v1/c) 2 resulting "root causes."

 

“哈勃常数”与“空间封闭”讨论
Figure 15

图15

12.“静止能量”

12. "rest energy"

 

在“三维球面”上,有“静止能量”。“静止质量”为m的物体具有“静止能量”E=mc2。可以解释“质能公式”。因为我们在“视界”上,所以质量为m的物体总能量E=mgh+mc2/2。又有h为中心质量M的史瓦西半径R即h=R,c为光速,R=2GM/c2,g=GM/R2,因此有:E=mgh+mc2/2=mc2即E=mc2

In the "three-dimensional sphere", and the "rest energy." "Rest mass" of m objects with the "rest energy" E=mc2. Can explain "mass-energy equation." Because we are in the "event horizon" on, so the quality of the object m of the total energy E=mgh+mc2/2. There h as the center of mass M that Schwarzschild radius R,h=R, c is the speed of light, R=2GM/c2, g=GM/R2, and therefore there is: E=mgh+mc2/2=mc2 that E=mc2 .

 

13.“静止动量”

13. "stationary momentum"

 

在“三维球面”上有“静止动量”。“静止质量”为m的质点,拥有“静止动量”mc(c为光速)。动量是矢量。

In the "three-dimensional sphere," there are "still momentum." "Rest mass" for m particle, with "static momentum" mc (c is the speed of light). Momentum is a vector.

 

在“视向”v1上,动量为p1=mv1,其对时间t的一阶导数为dp1/dt=d(mv1)/dt=mdv1/dt+v1dm/dt,由于在非相对论情形下,dm/dt近乎零,所以,常将动量对时间t的一阶导数简写作:dp1/dt=mdv1/dt,这正是“牛顿第二定律”的微分形式:F=dp/dt=mdv1/dt=ma,其中a=dv1/dt为加速度。

In the "radial" v1, momentum p1=mv1 to time t, the first order derivative of dp1/dt=d (mv1) /dt=mdv1/dt+v1dm/dt, as in the non relativistic case, dm/dt is almost zero, so often the momentum of a t of a derivative Jane writing: dp1/dt=mdv1/dt, this is "the differential form of Newton's second law": F=dp/dt=mdv1/dt=ma, where a=dv1/dt is the acceleration.

 

在“横向”上v0=√c2-v12,动量为p0=mv0,其对时间t的一阶导数为dp0/dt=d(mv0)/dt=mdv0/dt+v0dm/dt=md(√c2-v12)/dt+(√c2-v12)dm/dt。若记F0=md(√c2-v12)/dt,则有F0=-m(dv1/dt)/(√(c/ v12-1)。由F=mdv1/dt=ma,可得F0=-F/(√(c/ v12-1)。可见,在“切线”方向上存在“力”的作用。并且,随着速度v1的增大,这种“切线”方向上存在“力”的作用就会越“明显”,这也贡献了一部分“暗物质效应”。[4]

In the "horizontal", v0=√c2-v12, momentum p0=mv0 to time t, the first order derivative of dp0/dt=d (mv0) /dt=mdv0/dt+v0dm/dt=md(√c2-v12)/dt+(√c2-v12) dm/dt. If F0=md(√c2-v12)/dt, then F0=-m(dv1/dt)/(√(c/v1)2-1). By F=mdv1/dt=ma, available F0=-F/ (√(c/v1)2-1). Visible, in the "tangent" direction on existence "force" role. And, with the increasing speed of v1, the "tangent" direction on existence "force" role will be more "obvious", which also contributes a part of "dark matter effect".[4]

 

参考文献

References

[1]于尔根·奈佛 .爱因斯坦传:中央编译出版社 ,2013 :153-157 .

[2]Ray d'Inverno (1992), Introducing Einstein's Relativity, Clarendon Press, chp. 22.8 Geometry of 3-spaces of constant curvature, p.319ff, ISBN 0-19-859653-7

[3]罗先汉 .天体演化 .山西 :山西科学技术出版社,2001-01 :102-106 .

[4]动量 .维基百科 [引用日期2015-02-12] .

 

 

 

 

 

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