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BOOK • Animal Farm动物庄园

(2011-11-08 22:33:00)
标签:

琼斯

英格兰

动物庄园

乔治·奥威尔

西班牙内战

杂谈

分类: 四.Passion之美文篇

【BOOK · Animal Farm By George Orwell】

动物庄园 By乔治·奥威尔

 

>>>>作者介绍Introduction of G.Orwell

 

乔治.奥威尔 (George Orwell)

原名埃里克.阿瑟.布莱尔(Eric Arthur Blair),1903年生于印度。1907年他举家迁回到英格兰。1917年,他进入伊顿公学。1921年后乔治.奥威尔来到缅甸加入Indian Imperial Police,1928年辞职。随后的日子里他贫病交加,此间他当过教师、书店店员,直到1940年,他成为New English Weekly的小说评论员, 他才有了稳定的收入养家糊口。1936年间,他访问了兰开夏郡和约克郡,1936年底,他来到西班牙参加西班牙内战,其间他受伤。二战期间(1940-1943),他为BBS Eastern Service工作,并在此间写了大量政治和文学评论。1945年起他成为Observer的战地记者和Manchester Evening News的固定撰稿人。1945年,他出版了 《动物农场》,1949年出版了《1984》。奥威尔患有肺结核,于1950年死去

 

 

>>>>作品简介Introduction of the novella

 

Animal Farm is an allegorical novella by George Orwell published in England on 17 August 1945. According to Orwell, the book reflects events leading up to and during the Stalin era before World War II.

The novel addresses not only the corruption of the revolution by its leaders but also how wickedness, indifference, ignorance, greed and myopia destroy any possibility of a Utopia. While this novel portrays corrupt leadership as the flaw in revolution (and not the act of revolution itself), it also shows how potential ignorance and indifference to problems within a revolution could allow horrors to happen if a smooth transition to a people's government is not achieved.

 

 

>>>>作品赏读 Digest of the novella

Now, comrades, what is the nature of this life of ours? Let us face it: our lives are miserable, laborious, and short. We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength; and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are slaughtered with hideous cruelty. No animal in England knows the meaning of happiness or leisure after he is a year old. No animal in England is free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth. "But is this simply part of the order of nature? Is it because this land of ours is so poor that it cannot afford a decent life to those who dwell upon it? No, comrades, a thousand times no! The soil of England is fertile, its climate is good, it is capable of affording food in abundance to an enormously greater number of animals than now inhabit it. This single farm of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of sheep-and all of them living in a comfort and a dignity that are now almost beyond our imagining. Why then do we continue in this miserable condition? Because nearly the whole of the produce of our labour is stolen from us by human beings. There, comrades, is the answer to all our problems. It is summed up in a single word-Man. Man is the only real enemy we have. Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished forever. "Man is the only creature that consumes without producing. He does not give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits. Yet he is lord of all the animals. He sets them to work, he gives back to them the bare minimum that will prevent them from starving, and the rest he keeps for himself. Our labour tills the soil, our dung fertilises it, and yet there is not one of us that owns more than his bare skin. You cows that I see before me, how many thousands of gallons of milk have you given during this last year? And what has happened to that milk which should have been breeding up sturdy calves? Every drop of it has gone down the throats of our enemies. And you hens, how many eggs have you laid in this last year, and how many of those eggs ever hatched into chickens? The rest have all gone to market to bring in money for Jones and his men. And you, Clover, where are those four foals you bore, who should have been the support and pleasure of your old age? Each was sold at a year old-you will never see one of them again. In return for your four confinements and all your labour in the fields, what have you ever had except your bare rations and a stall? "And even the miserable lives we lead are not allowed to reach their natural span. For myself I do not grumble, for I am one of the lucky ones. I am twelve years old and have had over four hundred children. Such is the natural life of a pig. But no animal escapes the cruel knife in the end. You young porkers who are sitting in front of me, every one of you will scream your lives out at the block within a year. To that horror we all must come-cows, pigs, hens, sheep, everyone. Even the horses and the dogs have no better fate. You, Boxer, the very day that those great muscles of yours lose their power, Jones will sell you to the knackers, who will cut your throat and boil you down for the foxhounds. As for the dogs, when they grow old and toothless, Jones ties a brick round their necks and drowns them in the nearest pond.”

“那么,同志们,我们又是怎么生活的呢?让我们来看一看吧:我们的一生是短暂的,却是凄惨而艰辛。一生下来,我们得到的食物不过仅仅使我们苟延残喘而已,但是,只要我们还能动一下,我们便会被驱赶着去干活,直到用尽最后一丝力气,一旦我们的油水被榨干,我们就会在难以置信的残忍下被宰杀。在英格兰的动物中,没有一个动物在一岁之后懂得什么是幸福或空闲的涵意。没有一个是自由的。显而易见,动物的一生是痛苦的、备受奴役的一生。     “但是,这真的是命中注定的吗?那些生长在这里的动物之所以不能过上舒适的生活,难道是因为我们这块土地太贫瘠了吗?不!同志们!一千个不!英格兰土地肥沃,气候适宜,它可以提供丰富的食物,可以养活为数比现在多得多的动物。拿我们这一个庄园来说,就足以养活十二匹马、二十头牛和数百只羊,而且我们甚至无法想象,他们会过得多么舒适,活得多么体面。那么,为什么我们的悲惨境况没有得到改变呢?这是因为,几乎我们的全部劳动所得都被人类窃取走了。同志们,有一个答案可以解答我们的所以问题,我可以把它总结为一个字——人,人就是我们唯一真正的仇敌。把人从我们的生活中消除掉,饥饿与过度劳累的根子就会永远拔掉。     “人是一种最可怜的家伙,什么都产不了,只会挥霍。那些家伙产不了奶,也下不了蛋,瘦弱得拉不动犁,跑起来也是慢吞吞的,连个兔子都逮不住。可那家伙却是所有动物的主宰,他驱使他们去干活,给他们报偿却只是一点少得不能再少的草料,仅够他们糊口而已。而他们劳动所得的其余的一切则都被他据为己有。是我们流血流汗在耕耘这块土地,是我们的粪便使它肥沃,可我们自己除了这一副空皮囊之外,又得到了什么呢!你们这些坐在我面前的牛,去年一年里,你们已产过多少加仑的奶呢!那些本来可以喂养出许多强壮的牛犊的奶又到哪儿去了呢?每一滴都流进了我们仇敌的喉咙里。还有你们这些鸡、这一年里你们已下了多少只蛋呢?可又有多少孵成了小鸡?那些没有孵化的鸡蛋都被拿到市场上为琼斯和他的伙计们换成了钞票!你呢,克拉弗,你的四匹小马驹到哪儿去了?他们本来是你晚年的安慰和寄托!而他们却都在一岁时给卖掉了,你永远也无法再见到他们了。补偿给你这四次坐月子和在地里劳作的,除了那点可怜的饲料和一间马厩外,还有什么呢?     “就是过着这样悲惨的生活,我们也不能被允许享尽天年。拿我自己来说,我无可抱怨,因为我算是幸运的。我十二岁了,已有四百多个孩子,这对一个猪来说就是应有的生活了。但是,到头来没有一个动物能逃过那残忍的一刀。你们这些坐在我面前的小肉猪们,不出一年,你们都将在刀架上嚎叫着断送性命。这恐怖就是我们——牛、猪、鸡、羊等等每一位都难逃的结局。就是马和狗的命运也好不了多少。你,鲍克瑟,有朝一日你那强健的肌肉失去了力气,琼斯就会把你卖给屠马商,屠马商会割断你的喉咙,把你煮了给猎狗吃。而狗呢,等他们老了,牙也掉光了,琼斯就会就近找个池塘,弄块砖头拴再他们的脖子上,把他们沉到水底。”

 

>>>>尾言 Postscript

 

    乔治·奥威尔是英国左翼作家,被称为“一代人的冷峻良知”。他坚信:“在一个语言堕落的时代,作家必须保持自己的独立性,在抵抗暴力和承担苦难的意义上做一个永远的抗议者。”《动物庄园》是一篇政治寓言小说,以隐喻的形式写革命的发生以及革命的被背叛,自然还有革命的残酷。另外还有《1984》也值得去读去评判去深思。

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