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红掸一面要求设邦一面成立武装

(2016-01-25 15:35:58)

按:1)继佤、德昂、帕欧要求在掸邦分设民族邦之后,红掸也提出了在克钦邦和实皆省割土成邦的要求,少数民族之间的矛盾在加深。2)重视掸邦统一的掸族和强求缅甸统一的缅族找到了共同立场。

【掸邦先驱新闻社125日《“Red Shan” form army in northern Burma after demand for new state》】在议会提出设邦的要求之后,上周缅北“红掸”又在社交媒体上宣布成立自己的武装组织——红掸民族军(SNA)。

红掸民族军自称是一个“不隶属于任何其他组织的”独立组织,代表缅北掸族人民的利益。红掸(缅语称Shan-ni;掸语称Tai-leng )人口估计为30万,主要居住在南克钦邦(特别是莫宁和八莫附近)和实皆省。

“猛虎若无利齿,百兽岂会畏惧。”一位克钦邦的退役红掸老兵说:“没枪就没安全,我们就无法保卫家乡。”

他说他相信成立武装组织将会加重红掸在缅甸政治协商中的分量,政治协商已从本月内比都五天会议开始启动了。普遍的看法是,武装会加重在谈判桌上的分量。

红掸民族发展党(TNDP)在11月大选中获得了一个邦议席,它要求政府从克钦邦和实皆省划分出一个红掸邦来。

帕欧和佤族也在今年1月的联邦和会上要求成立自治民族邦。这些提议中的邦都在掸邦现行边界内。

这类分立的要求让其他民族的领导人担忧,如掸民族民主联盟(SNLD)主席坤吞吴。

“如果我们同意这些民族组织设邦,那么我国就将面临南斯拉夫的问题。”他115日发表在掸邦先去新闻上的一篇文章说:“缅甸联邦就会消失。”

有关红掸民族军的情况少有披露,罕为人知,如他们的人数、政治立场、活动和领导层等。

“现在还不是告知谁是我们司令的时候。”上述红掸退役老兵对本社说。

红掸民族军官方将自己的成立日期追溯到19897月,但这个组织并未被列入缅甸现有武装组织名单之内。有人认为,今年一个武装组织可能会成立或承认红掸分支。

缅甸1988年民主起义后,许多红掸人便加入了全缅学生民主阵线(ABSDF)这个主要活动于边疆地区的政治和武装反对派组织。这些红掸士兵后来于1990年代并入掸邦复兴委员会/南掸邦军。

掸邦复兴委员会/南掸邦军的一个红掸旅活动于北掸邦,由具有争议的前全缅学生民主阵线领导人Than Chaung(又名Than GyaungKhun KyawMyint Soe)统帅。

红掸民族军的纲领之一是“保护本地人民不受其他武装组织欺凌”。自1960年代以来,红掸社区就处在两大军事力量之间——克钦独立军/组织和缅军。他们报告说在冲突中遭受了这两方的欺压。

红掸民族军本月报告与政府发生了一次冲突:111日在缅印边界爆发战斗。他们说,驻实皆省Homelin镇的缅军第369营派兵将红掸军四面包围,包括借道印度领土。红掸军一名军士战死,三人被俘。

“Red Shan” form army in northern Burma after demand for new state

Jan 25, 2016

The “Red Shan” of northern Burma announced the formation of their armed group, the Shanni Nationalities Army (SNA), on social media last week, amidst calls for their own state in parliament.

Described as an independent organization “not under any other group,” the SNA claims to represent the Shan peoples of northern Burma. With a population estimated at 300,000, the Red Shan—translated toShan-ni in Burmese and Tai-leng in Shan—largely live in southern Kachin State, particularly near Mohnyin and Bhamo, and in Sagaing Division.

“If the tiger has no fangs, the animals will not be afraid of it,” said a retired Shan-ni soldier from Kachin State, who asked not to be named. “If the people have no guns, we will not be safe. We cannot protect our area.”

He said he believes that the establishment of an armed group will give the Red Shan a more prominent role in Burma’s political dialogue, which was initiated this month with a five-day conference in Naypyidaw; a commonly held perception is that arms allow for demands to be taken more seriously at Burma’s negotiating table.

The Tai-leng Nationalities Development Party (TNDP), which won one state seat in November’s parliamentary election, asked the government to demarcate a Shan-ni State made up of territory within Kachin State and Sagaing Division.

The Pa-O and Wa also voiced demands for self-administrated ethnic states at January’s Union Peace Conference. These proposed states would lie within Shan State’s current boundaries.

Such calls for separation have been met with concern by other ethnic leaders, including Khun Htun Oo, chairman of the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy (SNLD).

“If we give states to [these] ethnic groups, our country will face problems like Yugoslavia,” he said in a SHAN article published in Burmese on January 15, referring to the eastern European federation which broke up along ethnic lines following a violent civil war in the 1990s. “The Union of Myanmar will disappear,” he added.

Little else is known or was revealed about the SNA, their numbers, political positions, activities or their leadership.

“Now is not the time to tell who our commander is,” the Shan-ni ex-soldier told SHAN.

Officially, the SNA dates its formation back to July 1989, but the group is not included on lists of Burma’s active armed organizations. Some suggest that the year could correspond to the formation or recognition of a Red Shan faction within one of the other armed struggles in which they were involved.

After Burma’s 1988 pro-democracy uprising, it is known that many Shan-ni served in the All-Burma Students Democratic Front (ABSDF), a political and armed opposition group that was particularly active in the country’s borderlands. These Shan-ni soldiers later formed affiliations with the Restoration Council of Shan State/Shan State Army-South (RCSS/SSA-S) in the 1990s.

A Red Shan brigade within the RCSS/SSA-S was active in northern Shan State and was commanded by the controversial former ABSDF leader Than Chaung—also known as Than Gyaung, Khun Kyaw or Myint Soe—who, since 2006, has been serving a life sentence in Tharrawaddy Prison, according to documents released by the Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (AAPP).

One of the SNA’s promises is to “protect local people bullied by other armed groups.” Since the 1960s, Red Shan communities have been situated between two powerful militaries—the Kachin Independence Army/Organization (KIA/O) and the Burma Army. They report having suffered abuses from both sides in the conflict, which has reportedly contributed to the organization of informal Shan-ni militias over the years.

The SNA has reported one clash with the government this month: an outbreak of fighting on January 11 on the Burma-India border. They claimed that Burmese troops from ground force Battalion 369 in Sagaing’s Homelin Township surrounded them on all sides, including from within Indian territory. Three SNA soldiers were allegedly arrested by the Burma Army and one SNA sergeant was killed.

By Staff / Shan Herald Agency for News (S.H.A.N)

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