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[转载]高三英语大型考试考前必背材料汇总

(2015-04-13 22:45:02)
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分类: 英语教学


高三英语大型考试考前必背材料汇总

四川省新都一中  张世明 整理

第一类  高考英语单词陷阱

名人名言

No one can degrade us except ourselves; that if we are worthy, no influence can defeat us. (B.T.Washington, American educator)除了我们自己以外,没有人能贬低我们。如果我们坚强,就没有什么不良影响能够打败我们。

一、一个星期七天

1. Monday  2. Tuesday  3. Wednesday   4. Thursday   5. Friday  6. Saturday  7. Sunday

二、一年十二个月

1. January 2. February 3. March 4. April  5. May 6. June  7. July  8. August  9. September 10. October      11. November  12. December

三、一年四季

1. spring2.summer3.autumn4. winter

四、容易拼写错的数字

eighth第八   ninth第九

forty四十   twelfth第十二

twentieth第二十

四、亲属称呼

daughter (女儿) niece (女性晚辈)

nephew (男性晚辈) cousin (同辈兄弟姐妹)

aunt (女性长辈) uncle (男性长辈)

五、以下动词加-ed-ing要双写最后一个字母

regret (regretted, regretting) 后悔

control (controlled, controlling) 控制

admit (admitted, admitting) 承认      

occur (occurred, occurring) 出现

prefer (preferred, preferring) 宁愿      

refer (referred, referring) 提到

forget (forgetting ) 忘记   

permit (permitted, permitting)允许

equip (equipped, equipping) 装备

注意:quarrel, signal, travel中的l可双写(英国英语)也可不双写(美国英语)

六、部分过去式和过去分词不规则变化的动词

broadcast (broadcast, broadcast) 广播

flee (fled, fled) 逃跑

forbid (forbade, forbidden) 禁止

forgive (forgave, forgiven) 原谅

freeze (froze, frozen) 结冰

hang (作“绞死”讲,是规则的;作“悬挂”讲,其过去式过去分词都是hung)

lie (作“说谎”讲时,是规则的;作“位于”讲时,其过去式是lay,过去分词是lain)

seek (sought, sought) 寻求

shake (shook, shaken) 发抖

sing (sang, sung) 唱歌

sink (sank, sunk/sunken) 下沉

spread (spread, spread) 传播 

swim (swam, swum) 游泳

tear (tore, torn) 撕碎

weave (wove, woven) 编织

七、意思相近的词

check / examine/ test

receive / accept

destroy /damage

celebrate/ congratulate

wear / dress

八、注意形容词变名词时的拼写变化longlength 长度

widewidth 宽度

highheight 高度

strongstrength力量

九、以-ic结尾的动词,应先把-ic变为-ick,再加inged

picnic (picnicked, picnicking) 野餐

十、个别名词的复数拼写

German (Germans) 德国人

gulf (gulfs) 海湾

handkerchief (handkerchiefs) 手帕

hero (英雄)potato (土豆)tomato (西红柿) 等有生命的以-o结尾的名词变复数时要加-es

roof (roofs) 房顶

stomach (其复数是stomachs而不是加es)

十一、注意动词变名词时的拼写变化

succeedsuccess成功

pronouncepronunciation 发音

explainexplanation解释

decidedecision 决定

enterentrance进入

permitpermission 允许

refuserefusal 拒绝

considerconsideration 考虑

discoverdiscovery 发现     

buryburial 埋葬

concludeconclusion 得出结论

arrivearrival 到达

weighweight 重量

十二、注意形容词变副词时的拼写变化

beautifulbeautifully 美丽的

possiblepossibly 可能的

practicalpractically 实际的

particularparticularly 特别的

successfulsuccessfully 成功的

十三、其它必背单词

abroad 国外

absence n. 缺席 (absent adj.)

accepted (NMET1997)

accident事故 (accidental adj. 偶然的,accidentally adv. 偶然地)

achievement成就 (achieve v. 获得)

address地址

admire钦佩

admitting (2000北京春季卷)

agreement 协议

agriculture农业 (agricultural adj. 农业的)

altogether总共

ancient 古代的

announced(NMET1999)

anxiety 忧虑 (anxious adj. 焦急的,anxiously adv. 焦急地)

apologize v. 道歉 (apology n. 道歉apologetic adj. 道歉的,apologetically adv.道歉地)

apologize/apologise (2000全国卷)

appreciate感激/欣赏 (感激人用thank sb;谢谢某人做的事用appreciate sth.)

Asian(NMET1996)

assistant 助手      

astonish吃惊 (astonishment n. 吃惊,astonishingastonished)

astronaut 宇航员

atmosphere气氛

attempt尝试 (可作名词也可作动词)

attentively 专心地

attentively(NMET1996)

attitude 态度

attract 吸引 (attraction吸引力)

average 平均

average(NMET1999)

balance平衡

beauty (beautiful)

believe相信 (belief n. 信念,其复数是beliefs)

beyond超过

biology生物

birthday生日

bravery 勇敢

broadcast(NMET1996)

broadcast广播 (过去式、过去分词同原形)

carefully 小心 (carefully)

ceiling天花板

celebrated (2000北京春季卷)

celebration 庆祝 (celebrate n. 庆祝)

century 世纪

challenge 挑战

character 性格

charge收费

cinema电影院

comfort v. & n. 安慰 (comfortable adj. comfortably adv.舒适地)

comfortably(NMET1997)

comment 评论

communication 交流

competition 竞赛 (compete v. 竞赛competitor 竞赛者)

composition 作文

concert 音乐会

conclude v. conclusion n. 结论

condition情况 (conditions条件)

confessing (2000北京春季卷) confess.v.

承认, 坦白, 忏悔

congratulations 祝贺 (congratulate v.)

constantly 不断地

construction(NMET1996) n.建筑, 建筑物, 解释, 造句

continue继续

contribution 贡献 (contribute v.)

conveniently方便 (convenient adj.)

conversation 谈话

coughing(NMET1997)

cousin表兄弟

cruelty 残酷 (cruel adj. cruelly adv.)

curious 好奇 (curiosity n. 好奇)

curious(NMET1996)

customer 顾客

customers (2000北京春季卷)

custom习俗

damage损坏

declared(NMET1999)

delicious 美味

destroy毁灭 (其过去式是destroyed)

determined 有决心的

develop发展 (development n. developing 发展中的,developed发达的)

dialogue 对话

diary 日记 (dairy 奶制品)

difference 不同点 (有复数形式)

disappointed失望 (disappointing 让人失望的)

disappointment 失望

discovery 发现 (其复数是discoveries,其动词是discoverdiscoverer发现者)

disturb打扰

dollar美元 (其复数是dollars)

downstairs楼下

dream梦想 (其过去式是dreameddreamt)

electricity (electrical电的,electric 电的)

employ 雇用 (employment n. employer 雇主,employee雇员)

empty倒空 (可用动词,其过去式是emptied)

encourage鼓励 (encouraging, encouraged, encouragement n.)

energy能量

envelope 信封

envy n. 妒忌 (envious adj.)

equal(NMET1998)

equipment设备

especially 尤其是

essential(NMET1999)

European 欧洲人

event事件

excellent极好 (excellence n. excellently adv.)

exhibition(NMET1997)

exhibition展览

expense 耗费

experience 经验 (experienced 有经验的)

expert 专家

expression 表达

failure 失败 (fail v.)

familiar(NMET1999)

familiar熟悉的

favorite 最喜爱的 (即作形容词也作名词,作名词时有复数)

figure人物/数字

finger手指

flight飞行

forehead前额

foreign(NMET1998)

fortunately幸运地

forward向前

freezing 极冷的 (frozen 冷冻的)

frequently 经常地

furniture 家具

further进一步的

generally (2000全国卷)

geography地理

Germany德国

government(NMET1996)

gradually逐渐地

graduation毕业 (graduate)

grammar语法

habits (NMET1997)

handkerchiefs (2000北京春季卷)

honesty 诚实 (honest)

honor/honour 荣誉

imagination 想象力 (imagine v.)

immediate (2000北京春季卷)

immediately马上

impress 印象 (impression n.)

incident小事件

including包括 (include v.)

indispensable (NMET1999)

industry工业 (industrial adj. 工业的)

information 信息

inspire激励 (inspiration n. inspiring, inspired)

institute学院

instrument 仪器

interest 兴趣

interrupt 打断

interrupt打断

introduce介绍 (introduction n.)

irregular 不规则的

journey旅程

judge判断 (judgment)

kindergarten幼儿园

knowledge 知识

labor/labour劳动

late1y(NMET1999)

laughter笑声

lawyer律师

librarian图书馆理员

loss损失 (lose, lost 是其动词形式)

luckily幸运地

magazine杂志

majority (2000北京春季卷)

majority大多数

manage 设法 (manager, management)

market(2000全国卷)

marriage 结婚 (marry v. 结婚,married已婚的)

material(s)/cloth(NMET1996)

material物质/材料

mayor市长

mean (NMET1999)

measure测量 

medal 奖章 (比较:model 模型)

memory记忆力 (memorize v. 记住,remember 记得)

messages (2000全国卷)

metal 金属

modern现代的

modest谦虚的

monitor 班长/监控      

moustache 胡子

murder谋杀 (murderer 凶手)

musician 音乐家

mysterious 神秘的 (mystery 神秘)

nationality国籍 (nation 国家,national国家的)

naturally(NMET1998)

naughty 淘气的

necessary(NMET1999)

ninth(NMET1998)

normal 正常的

obey (NMET1997)

obviously明显的

offering (2000全国卷)

operation手术

opportunity 机会

ordinary 普通的

organized/organised(NMET1996)

particularly 特别是

passenger 旅客

passengers(NMET1999)

patience耐心 (patiently)

patient病人/耐心

perfect 完美 (perfectly)

performed(2000北京春季卷)

perhaps 或许

period 时期

permission许可

persuaded(NMET1996)

phenomena 现象

physicist 物理学家

pilots (2000全国卷)

poisonous 有毒的 (poison)

political 政治的 (politics)

popular受欢迎的

population人口

position 职位

possibility(-ies)可能性 (possible 可能的)

poverty 贫穷 (poor)

poverty贫穷  

practical (NMET1997)

preparing(NMET1998)

pressure(NMET1997)

pretend假装

professor 教授

profit 利润

progress进步

pronunciation (2000北京春季卷)

provide 提供 (比较:offer, supply)

public 公众

purpose目的

quality(NMET1996)

quantity数量

realistic(NMET1997)

receive 收到

recently(NMET1999)

recognised/recognized(NMET1999)

recognize 认出 (recognition 承认)

regards 问候

remind提醒

repeat (repetition)重复

respect尊敬

restaurant 餐馆

restaurants(NMET1999)

satisfaction满意 (satisfy, satisfied, satisfying)

satisfactory 满意的

Saturday(NMET1998)

scientific 科学的

scientific科学的

secretary秘书      

secretly (2000北京春季卷)

separately单独地

separates (NMET1998)

serious 严重的 (seriously)

service服务

shortcoming缺点   

silence 安静 (silent)

similar (2000北京春季卷)

similar 类似的 (similarity ies相似之处)

situation形势/情况

slightly(2000全国卷)

society 社会 (social adj. 社会的)

southern(2000全国卷)

special特别的

species 物种 (单复数同形)

spring(NMET1997)

square 平方

stolen(2000全国卷)

straight(NMET1997)

suitable合适的

support支持

surprise吃惊

surround 包围

swimming(NMET1998)

technique 技术 (technical adj.)

technology技术

temperature温度

theory 理论

thirsty口渴

thorough (NMET1997)

total合计

traffic 交通

translated(NMET1998)

translation 翻译 (translator翻译家,interpret 解说, interpreter 口语翻译)

umbrella(NMET1999)

umbrella

unusually不寻常 (unusual不寻常的)

unwilling 不愿意 (willing adj. 愿意 will n. 意志)

upstairs(2000全国卷)

upstairs楼上

vacation假期

various各种各样的 (variety n. 种类)

victim受害者

victory胜利

vocabulary词汇

voyage航行

waste (NMET1999)

wealth财富

weather(NMET1998)

whisper 低语

worship崇拜

youth年轻人 (复数加-s)

zero

第二类  高考英语经典十口诀

名人名言

I might say that success is won by three things: first, effort; second,  more effort; third, still more effort.  Thomas Hardy, British poet and novelist  可以说成功要靠三件事才能赢得:努力、努力、再努力。英国诗人、小说家哈代.T.

口诀1要求跟不定式的动词 “要想干,同意办,愿意不愿意,决定尽量干。”

a要求,想要,希望(want, wish, hope, expect, intend, mean)

b同意(agree, promise)

c意愿(care, hate, refuse)

d决定,企图(determine, decide, offer, attempt, try, manage)

口诀2 要求跟随动名词的动词

 (1)megafeps(霉咖啡不吃),

mind, miss, enjoy, give up, admit, avoid, finish, escape, practise.

 (2)“makes (a) fit speech”

mind,avoid,keep,enjoy,suggest/finish,imagine,thinkabout,spend,practise,excuse,escape,can't help

口诀3 有些动词跟不定式作宾语补足语时省去了to

其口诀是:一觉二听三让四看,五观察。

一觉:feel

二听:hearlisten to

三让:lethavemake

四看:noticeseewatchlook at

五观察: observe倒装口诀

口诀 i drop caps

在某些表示请求、命令、建议等动词后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词要用动词原形或should+动词原形。

i—insist, d—demand, r—request/require/recommend, o—order, p—propose, c—command, a—advise, p—preqersic, s—suggest.

口诀5有些动词用过去完成时,常表示“想做而未做”的意思。可巧记其首字为组成的“withspem”,代表:wish,intend,think,hipe,suppose,plan,expect,mean

口诀6例装

副词开头要例装,人称代词则如常。

only修饰副介状,位于句首半倒装。

否定意义副连词,“既不…也不”须倒装。

表语前置主语长,衔接自然常倒装。

such代词做表语,引起主谓要倒装。

Not only开头句,前一分句须倒装。

hadwereshould虚拟句,省略if半倒装。

口诀7当名词有多个形容词修饰时,下面的口诀可帮你记住这一先后顺序。

  限定描绘大长高,

  形状年龄和新老;

  颜色国籍跟材料,

   作用类别往后靠;

口诀8

lie lay lain躺/lay laid laid放下;产蛋/lie lied lied撒谎,这几个词在拼写上很容易混淆,有人编了这样的口诀:

规则的“撒谎”,不规则的“躺”,“躺”过就“下蛋”,“下蛋”不规则。

 “规则”指规则变化,“不规则”即不规则变化,如lie作“撒谎”解时,是规则变化,即其过去式和过去分词直接加-d;“躺过”的“过”指的是过去式,即lie的过去式lay是“下蛋”的原形;“下蛋”是不规则变化。

口诀9

分开“一段时间”, some time表示“一段时间”;

相聚“在某一时”,sometime表示“在某一时”;

 “有时”相聚加ssometimes表示“有时,不时”;

 “几次”分开带ssome times表示“几次,次数”。

口诀10短文改错

(一) 见到谓语找主语,主谓一致找状语

见到名词想多数,可不可数要记牢

见到平行看结构,形式功能要对称

见到代词找指代,指代通常不合理

小小of常抓的点,of前名词adj最高级

(二) 谓与非谓经常混

谓语句中就一个

其余动词非谓语常见形式有三种

ving ved to do

主宾通常ving

现在分词表主动

过去分词表被动

目的要用不定式

改错要想拿高分

语法口诀要记牢

第三类  高考英语作文模版

名人名言

To choose time is to save time .( Francis Bacon , British philosopher )

合理安排时间就是节约时间 ( 英国哲学家 培根. F.)

★★★对比观点题型

1    要求论述两个对立的观点并给出自己的看法。

1    有一些人认为。。。

2    另一些人认为。。。

3    我的看法。。。

    The topic of -----------------(主题)is becoming more and more popular recently. There are two sides of opinions about it. Some people say A is their favorite. They hold their view for the reason of -----------------(支持A的理由一)What is more, -------------理由二). Moreover, ---------------(理由三).

 

    While others think that B is a better choice in the following three reasons. Firstly,-----------------(支持B的理由一). Secondly (besides),------------------(理由二). Thirdly (finally),------------------(理由三).

    From my point of view, I think ----------------(我的观点). The reason is that --------------------(原因). As a matter of fact, there are some other reasons to explain my choice. For me, the former is surely a wise choice .

2    给出一个观点,要求考生反对这一观点

Some people believe that ----------------(观点一). For example, they think -----------------(举例说明).And it will bring them ---------------(为他们带来的好处).

In my opinion, I never think this reason can be the point. For one thing,-------------(我不同意该看法的理由一). For another thing, ---------(反对的理由之二)

Form all what I have said, I agree to the thought that -----(我对文章所讨论主题的看法)

★★★阐述主题题型

要求从一句话或一个主题出发,按照提纲的要求进行论述.

1.    阐述名言或主题所蕴涵的意义.

2.    分析并举例使其更充实.

    The good old proverb ----------------(名言或谚语)reminds us that ----------------(释义). Indeed, we can learn many things form it.

First of all,-----------------(理由一). For example, -------------------(举例说明).        Secondly,----------------(理由二). Another case is that ---------------(举例说明). Furthermore , ------------------(理由三)

    In my opinion, ----------------(我的观点). In short, whatever you do, please remember the say------A. If you understand it and apply it to your study or work, youll necessarily benefit a lot from it.

★★★解决方法题型

要求考生列举出解决问题的多种途径

1.    问题现状

2.    怎样解决(解决方案的优缺点)    In recent days, we have to face I problem-----A, which is becoming more and more serious. First, ------------(说明A的现状)Second, ----------(举例进一步说明现状)

   Confronted with A, we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing, ---------------(解决方法一). For another -------------(解决方法二). Finally, --------------(解决方法三).

      Personally, I believe that -------------(我的解决方法). Consequently, Im confident that a bright future is awaiting us because --------------(带来的好处).

★★★说明利弊题型

这种题型往往要求先说明一下现状,再对比事物本身的利弊,有时也会单从一个角度(利或弊)出发,最后往往要求考生表明自己的态度(或对事物前景提出预测)

1.    说明事物现状

2.    事物本身的优缺点(或一方面)

3.   你对现状(或前景)的看法

     Nowadays many people prefer A because it has a significant role in our daily life. Generally, its advantages can be seen as follows. First ----------------(A的优点之一). Besides -------------------(A的优点之二)   But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent. One of the important disadvantages is that ----------------(A的第一个缺点)To make matters worse,------------------(A的第二个缺点)

    Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones. Therefore, I would like to ---------------(我的看法)

 (From the comparison between these positive and negative effects of A, we should take it reasonably and do it according to the circumstances we are in. Only by this way, ---------------(对前景的预测))

★★★议论文的框架

  (1) 不同观点列举型( 选择型

 There is a widespread concern over the issue that __作文题目. But it is well known that the opinion concerning this hot topic varies from person to person. A majority of people think that _ 观点一________. In their views there are 2 factors contributing to this attitude as follows: in the first place, ___原因一_______.Furthermore, in the second place, ___原因二_____. So it goes without saying that ___观点一_____.

  People, however, differ in their opinions on this matter. Some peoplehold the idea that_观二_____. In their point of view, on the one hand ___原因一_______.  On the other hand, ____原因二_____. Therefore, there is no doubt that ___观点二______. 

 

   As far as I am concerned, I firmly support the view that __观点一或二_. Itis not only because ________, but also because _________. The more _______, the more ________.

  2)利弊型的议论文

    Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)___作文题目______. In fact, there are both advantages and disadvantages in __题目议题_____. Generally speaking, it is widely believed there are several positive aspects as follows. Firstly, ___优点一______.  And secondly ___优点二_____.

   Just As a popular saying goes, "every coin has two sides", __讨论议题______ is no exception, and in another word, it still has negative aspects. To begin with, ___缺点一______. In addition,  ____缺点二______.

   To sum up, we should try to bring the advantages of __讨论议题____ into full play, and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same time. In that case, we will definitely make a better use of the ____讨论议题___.

 ( 3 ) 答题性议论文

     Currently, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)__作文题目_______ .It is really an important concern to every one of us. As a result, we must spare no efforts to take some measures to solve this problem.

     As we know that there are many steps which can be taken to undo this problem. First of all, __途径一______. In addition, another way contributing to success of the solving problem is ___途径二_____.

   Above all, to solve the problem of ___作文题目______, we should find a number of various ways. But as far as I am concerned, I would prefer to solve the problem in this way, that is to say, ____方法_____.

 ( 4 ) 谚语警句性议论文

   It is well known to us that the proverb: " ___谚语 has a profound significance and value not only in our job but also in our study. It means ____谚语的含义______. The saying can be illustrated through a series of examples as follows. ( also theoretically )

     A case in point is ___例子一______. Therefore, it is goes without saying that it is of great of importance to practice the proverb ____谚语_____.

     With the rapid development of science and technology in China, an increasing number of people come to realize that it is also of practical use to stick to the saying: ____谚语_____. The more we are aware of the significance of this famous saying, the more benefits we will get in our daily study and job..

★★★图表作文的框架

    as is shown/indicated/illustrated by the figure/percentage in the table(graph/picture/pie/chart), ___作文题目的议题_____ has been on rise/ decrease (goesup/increases/drops/decreases),significantly/dramatically/steadily rising/decreasing from______ in _______ to ______ in _____. From the sharp/marked decline/ rise in the chart, it goes without saying that ________.

  There are at least two good reasons accounting for ______. On the one hand, ________. On the other hand, _______ is due to the fact that ________. In addition, ________ is responsible for _______. Maybe there are some other reasons to show ________. But it is generally believed that the above mentioned reasons are commonly convincing.

  As far as I am concerned, I hold the point of view that _______. I am sure my opinion is both sound and well-grounded.

第四类  高考英语作文经典范文

名人名言

No one can degrade us except ourselves; that if we are worthy, no influence can defeat us. (B.T.Washington, American educator)除了我们自己以外,没有人能贬低我们。如果我们坚强,就没有什么不良影响能够打败我们。

为了大家能更多的得到写作部分的25分,

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