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新疆讲座内容之五

(2011-11-11 23:41:58)
标签:

教育

分类: 讲座报告

英语高考新疆卷特点分析与教学建议(四)

 

书面表达考查学生进行真实表达的能力

 

2008年全国I卷书面表达试题语用特征:

语用目的:喜爱熊猫的中国学生李华三年前开始关注在美国圣迭哥动物园出生的大熊猫苏琳和她的母亲白云,“苏琳”三岁生日快到了,李华给美国动物园工作人员写信祝贺苏琳三岁生日,并索取“苏琳”的照片。这是一个非常真实的国际交流活动。

语用对象:美国动物园的工作人员。

显然,本篇作文的语用目的是很合理的,语境和语用都是很真实的。

2007年全国I卷书面表达试题语用特征:

语用目的:中国学生李华希望通过外籍教师Peter找一个英语笔友,因此要写一封短信,描述自己理想中笔友的条件(年龄、性别、爱好),并说明为什么选这样的笔友。

语用对象:外国教师Peter
2006
年全国I卷书面表达试题语用特征:

语用目的:中国学生李华应英国朋友Bob的要求,写一封短信介绍所在学校图书馆的基本情况。内容须包括下面两幅图中的相关信息。

语用对象:英国朋友Bob

2005年全国I卷书面表达试题语用特征:

语用目的:中国学生李华正在英国牛津参加短期语言培训,计划星期天去伦敦旅游。互联网上一则广告引起了李华的注意,但一些具体信息不明确(箭头所指内容)。李华给该旅行社发一封电子邮件,询问有关情况。

 

语用对象:英国旅行社

2004年全国I卷书面表达试题语用特征:

语用目的:中国学生李华在报上看到北京电视台今年七月将举办外国人学中文,唱中文歌才艺大赛,给自己的正在北京一所大学学习中文的美国朋友Peter写信,建议他去参加比赛,并表示可以为Peter提供帮助。 比赛时间为718日;报名时间截止到 630日;报名地点为北京电视台。

语用对象:美国朋友Peter

以上分析告诉我们,高考英语书面表达的试题都是考查学生在真实语境下,为了真实的语用目的,使用英语进行书面表达的能力。

综合而言,高考英语书面表达的能力要求是:学生应具有在真实语境下,为了真实的语用目的,运用所学的基本英语词汇和语句结构,根据所给材料,进行英文书面表达的能力。

 

由此我们可知,我们的英语写作教学应该注意以下两个方面:

1.我们应该重点培养学生运用常用词汇、常用结构进行准确、全面表达的能力,这是高考的要求,也是我们的学生在高中毕业阶段运用英语进行真实写作的基本能力要求。我们的高中学生不是没有话要写,而是没有能力用英语表达自己的观点和想法。所以我们应该重点培养学生运用所学词汇进行表达的能力。

2.写作应该有层次要求,我们关注基础学生的书面表达能力,更应该鼓励优秀学生写出非常有文采、非常得体的文章。

 

时间

书面表达

要求

2011

假定你是李华,正在一所英国学校学习暑期课程,遇到一些困难,希望得到学校辅导中心(Learning Center)的帮助。根据学校规定,你须书面预约,请按下列要点写一封信:

1.   本人简介; 2.求助内容; 3.约定时间;4.你的联系方式(Email:lihua@126.com;Phone:12345678

 

注意:1.词数100左右;2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3.结束语以为你写好

 

2010

假设你是育才中学学生会主席,你校将举办一次英语演讲比赛(speech contest,想要邀请附近某大学外籍教授Smith女士来做评委,参考以下通知,给她写一封信:主题《人与自然》。时间:615号下午2点至五点。地点:501教室。参赛选手:10名学生。联系人李华电话:44876655。欢迎大家光临。

注意:1.词数100左右;2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

3.结束语以为你写好

 

2009

假定你叫李华,正在英国接受英语培训,住在一户英国人家。今天你的房东Mrs Milson不在家,你要外出,给Mrs Wilson写一张留言条,内容包括:

1.外出购物 2. 替房东还书 3.Tracy来电留言:

1)咖啡屋(Bohon Coffee)见面取消

2)此事已告知Susan

3)尽快回电

 

2005

假定你是李华,正在英国牛津参加短期语言培训,计划星期天去伦敦旅游。互联网上一则广告引起了你的注意,但一些具体信息不明确(箭头所指内容)。请给该旅行社发一封电子邮件,询问有关情况。



注意:1. 词数100左右,信的格式已为你写好。
2. 可根据内容要点适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。

1.   参考词汇:牛津—Oxford

2.   费用—fee

 

2011山东

假设你是李华,你的美国朋友Tom上个月来到北京学习。七月份你将去北京参加暑期中学生英语演讲比赛(speech contest),你在资料搜集、语言运用等方面遇到了困难。请根据以下要点给Tom写一封电子邮件:

1.询问Tom的生活和学习情况;2.谈谈你的困难并请Tom帮忙;3.告诉Tom你打算赛后去看他。

注意:1.词数120-150

2.可适当增加细节。

2010山东

假设你是新华中学的学生李华,你和在上海上学的英国朋友Tom约好下周末去北京旅游,但你因故不能赴约。请根据以下要点用英语给他写一封电子邮件:

1.表示歉意;

2.解释原因:

3.另约时间。

注意:

1.词数120-150    

2.可适当增加细节。

2009山东

假设你是李华,曾在美国学习半年,现已回国。你想联系你的美国老师Mr.Smith,但没有其联系方式。请根据以下要点给你的美国同学Tom 写一封信:
1
.感谢Tom对你英语学习的帮助;
2
.询问Mr,smith 的近况并索要其联系方式;
3
.邀请Tom在春节期间来中国感受中国文化。

注意:1.词数120-150   

2.可适当增加细节。

 

2008山东

假设你是新华中学的学生张华,班里从外地转来一名同学李明,他一时无法融入新的班集体中,感到很苦恼。请根据下列要点用英语给他写一封信:
*
帮他分析原因
*
给他提出建议
*
陈述你帮助他的
具体打算

注意:词数120-150

因此,我们的教学建议是:

1)进行语义真实、语境真实、语用真实的书面表达训练,要有明确的、真实的写作目的。

2)加强常用词的真实写作运用训练。

 

  试题预测练习:

1.假设你是新华中学的学生李华,父母答应你今年高三毕业后去英国作10天观光旅游。请你给英国网友TOM写封电子邮件,咨询以下事情:

1、不随旅游团的食宿、交通等问题。

2、必看景点与时间安排。

3、邀请他到中国观光。

格式如下:

Dear Tom,

  How's everything going? _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

  I'm looking forward to your early reply.

                                                Yours,

                                                 Li Hua

学生作品:

Dear Tom,

How's everything going? I'm allowed to go out for a 10-day visit to England after my college entrance examination by my parents. Now, I'm writing to ask you to do me a favor by telling me something of vital use in advance.

Here are several questions related to my journey. For one thing, could you tell me, if I don't attend the local touristry, the information about my board and lodging and the traffic situation of England? For another, I can't wait to be acquainted with the must-see tourist attraction? Meanwhile, if it doesn't trouble you, could you please help me arrange the time properly so that I can completely enjoy myself then? I shall thank you if you will kindly let me have one or two letters of introduction to England as I'm an entire stranger there.

In return, it would be my great honor and pleasure if you could come to China as my guest. I believe I could be a distinguished guide!

I'm looking forward to your early reply.

                                                                                                     Yours,

                                                                                                                    Li Hua

 

李辉老师修改意见:(红色部分是修改的地方,紫色是删掉的地方,括号内为批语,大家一定要耐心地一个字一个字地读完啊!)

Dear Tom,

(1)How's everything going? (2) I'm allowed to go out for (这三个词不如改成 enjoy) a 10-day visit to England after my college entrance examination by my parents. (3) Now, I'm writing to ask you to do me a favor by telling me something of vital use in advance. (首段“咔咔咔”三句话,表达了礼貌的问候,并清晰地交代了写信的背景和目的,看上去相当的老练!完全没什么地方可改嘛!)

(4) Here are several key(关键) questions related to my journey. (鲜明的主题句中,使用了“Here are…”的倒装结构,还用了“过去分词作后置定语表被动”这一神话中的英语语法) (5)For one thing, could you offer me, if I don't attend the local touristry (按照高中水平,“参加旅行团”是没有办法直译的吧!所以这样翻译出来往往也是不对的喽!那么怎样才能解决这个问题呢?当然是用课上讲的那句话:“换一种方式来表达”—— 如果我不找旅行社 if I dont turn to any tourist agency,或者把逻辑时态都升级一下,写成:since Im not turning to any tourist agency,由于我不打算找任何旅行社,也行。大家都想想还有别的方式可以把这个意思“表达”出来吗?这可是个小小的挑战哦!) , the information about my board and lodging and the traffic situation of England (这里赠送一个简单的升级表达: 一些自助的在英国的食宿及交通信息some self-help accommodation and transportation information in England? (6) For another, I can't wait to be acquainted with (这里就是阅卷评分标准里所谓的“少许语言错误但因尽力使用复杂结构所致,不扣分”的情况,be acquainted with这个词组的确很“高档”,但是搭配上有个习惯,就是后面一定要加“人”,表示“认识某人”。所以不如改成visit 甚至 look aroundsome must-see tourist attractions. (7) Meanwhile, if it doesn't trouble you much, could you please help me arrange the time properly so that I can completely enjoy myself then? (这句太好了…ifso that两大“尾巴句型”如此熟练地掌握,天衣无缝,鬼斧神工,看得我眼泪都快下来了) (8) I shall thank you if you will kindly let me have one or two letters of introduction to England (这块儿有点乱啊,改成introduce me one or two websites on your local culture and custom 绝对就厉害了,值得一提的是,小状语位置的kindly堪称神来之笔!)as I'm an entire stranger there. (漂亮的“表原因的尾巴句型”)

In return, it would be my great honor and pleasure if you could come to China as my guest. I believe I could be a distinguished guide! (完美的高级词汇!)

I'm looking forward to your early reply.

                                                                                                     Yours,

                                                                                                                    Li Hua

完整的修改背诵版:

Dear Tom,

(1)How's everything going? (2) I'm allowed to enjoy a 10-day visit to England after my college entrance examination by my parents. (3) Now, I'm writing to ask you to do me a favor by telling me something of vital use in advance.

(4) Here are several key questions related to my journey.  (5)For one thing, could you offer me, since Im not turning to any tourist agency, some self-help accommodation and transportation information in England? (6) For another, I can't wait to visitsome must-see tourist attractions. (7) Meanwhile, if it doesn't trouble you much, could you please help me arrange the time properly so that I can completely enjoy myself then? (8) I shall thank you if you will kindly introduce me one or two websites on your local culture and custom as I'm an entire stranger there.

In return, it would be my great honor and pleasure if you could come to China as my guest. I believe I could be a distinguished guide!

I'm looking forward to your early reply.

                                                                                                     Yours,

                                                                                                                    Li Hua

老师的总结:

1、物称主语(宾语做主语)

避免用I \ we做主语,体现客观性。

I love English.

English is loved by me.(被动语态)(烂)

English attracts/ fascinates/ interests me a lot.

(换谓语动词)(佳)

A heated discussion was held...

2、非谓语动词;

1)做修饰;

l 主动用ing,被动用ed,要做去做用to do;

l 一个人做两件事,用分词短语;两个人分别做两件事,用  独立主格结构;(非谓语动词做状语)

l 当汉语中用动词+修饰名词时,英语中用定语从句或非谓语动词;(非谓语动词做定语)

a man riding a bike

an unfolded book

an old man (taking a book)

a young lady (using a laptop)

The tree growing toward the sun is brave and optimistic.

He is the proper person to do the job.

Crying, he walked in.

Beaten, he walked in.

He walked in, beaten.

The earthquake happening, Oldfish cried.

Tom beaten badly, Oldfish cried.

 Tom Walking in the street, a brick fell on his head.

独立主格结构:“分词短语有独立的逻辑主语;

Crying, Oldfish walked in.

太阳当空照,花儿对我笑,我背上书包上学校。

The sun shining in the sky, the flowers smiling to me, I , carrying my school bag, go to school.

看完这个句子,我们再看另外一个句子。

Finishing reading this sentence, let's take a look at another one.

This sentence finished reading, let's take a look at another one.

第一个句子够好了,第二个句子就更好了。

The first sentence being good enough, the second one is better.

学完这个方法之后,同学们造的句子会非常高级,得高分很容易。

(The method mastered), the sentences (made by the students) would be splendid and a high grade would be easily

acquired.

2)替换从句

The man who is driving a car is my uncle.

The man driving a car is my uncle.

When he heard the news, he cried.

Hearing the news, he cried.

The news coming, tears filled his eyes.

3)构词;

动宾构词法

Climb a mountain=

I love mountain-climbing.

I am a mountain-climber.

I am a mountain-climbing fan.

Drive a car--------------

Car-driving

Car-driver

Car-driving rules

A tool which can be used to draw a circle.

Draw a circle

Circle-drawing

A circle-drawer.

A circle-drawing tool

3、倒装句;

1)否定;

Little/seldom/not/never/

at no time/ by no means/

Nothing

Eg:

Nothing can we find in the room.

2)唯一;

Only in this way....

Only then...

Only when we have mastered English, can we chat with foreigners freely.=

We should master English. Only in this way can we chat with foreigners freely.

Only when we all protect the environment, can our country be flooded with harmony and happiness.

3)修饰;

English is easy.

So easy is English that anyone who can speak Chinese have the chance to master English.

It is a fine day today.

So fine is it today that we can't hide our passion to go out and play.

Never lose my passion.

Never should I lose my passion.

4、强调句;

(1)强调谓语动词;

I love you.

I do love you.

让我证明我曾真心爱过你。

Let me prove that I once did love you.

(2)强调其他成分;

It is/was+被强调部分+that/who +句子剩余部分

I read English loudly in the open air every morning.

It is we Chinese young generation who are undertaking the future of our motherland.

 5、省略句;

1)并列;and\but\or\as well as \than

I got up early today and had my breakfast on the way.

2)状语从句;

"当从句主语跟主句相同,且从句中有be动词时,从句的主语和be动词同时省略。"

When visiting Xi'an, we enjoyed YRPM.

6It家族(逻辑主语 逻辑宾语)

(1)It is clear +that从句

  It is a pity +that从句

  It is a painstaking task to do sth.(客观评价句型)

(2)I believe/ regard /insist/ consider it+adj/n/ +that从句(主观评价句型)

It is a painstaking task to prepare for the NMET.

I consider it a painstaking task to prepare for the NMET.

(3)make it句型(6123句型)

良好的环境使我们更加容易集中注意力。

A nice environment makes it easier for us to concentrate on our study.

A nice environment makes it easier that we concentrate on our study.

安能摧眉折腰事权贵,使我不得开心颜。

How can I unwillingly serve the noble, which makes it hard for me to gain/pursuit/obtain a happy smile?

7、尾巴家族:

1)原因

,because... 

,for...

,considering that...

You, a good boy, are supposed to deeply understand your mom, considering that she gave birth to you, has brought

you up and expects your success in the future.

2)结果

,so,

,as a result,

,therefore,

,consequently,

,accordingly,

3)目的

,so that

,in order that

so as to do

in order to do

We have to protect our environment so that the next generation will develop continuously.

We have to protect our environment so as to save resource and energy for our next generation.

4)程度

so...that (通常用倒装结构)

such...that

8、插入;

(1)with sth+补语(形容词 介词短语 从句 非谓语动词)

(2)together with + sb +补语(形容词 介词短语 从句 非谓语动词)

As we can see from the picture, a young lady (with a laptop on her )is surfing the Internet.

(3),I think,...

(4),namely,(也就是说)

(5)in fact

(6)同位语:A=B

You , a good boy, should understand your mom.

We teenagers...

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