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新疆讲座内容之四

(2011-11-11 23:36:04)
标签:

教育

分类: 讲座报告

 英语高考新疆卷特点分析与教学建议(三)

四、阅读理解分析与教学建议

1)短文图式理解要求提高,五篇阅读短文的图式几乎都是学生不熟悉的:

 

09短文

图式

学生熟悉程度

2011

A

在突发山洪中,大象母亲奋力保护小象。

尽管主题母爱是学生非常熟悉的,但学生对于大象是否会游泳都不完全了解,更不可能了解和熟悉大象在洪水激流中如何用象鼻和身体奋勇与洪水搏斗保护小象。显然,学生对这一短文的图式的熟悉程度低于20%

温情怀念作者童年时全家与送奶工的友谊。赞美了温暖的人情。

 

B

英国计算机游戏设计高手的生活困难(16岁未成年,挣大钱却不能办信用卡、学校没有相应课程、担心这一领域未来发展趋势)。

该文看起来是介绍与考生年龄相当的英国学生的生活,可是对于计算机游戏设计、不到16岁无法申请信用卡(中国很多城市学生几乎都了解银行卡,但对于储蓄卡、信用卡的区别则大多不知,甚至很多家长都不清楚)以及由此带来的生活不便,学生不很熟悉。根据我们的访谈,学生对这篇短文的图式的熟悉程度低于50%

新闻,反映一个号召民众关注高个子群体的社会组织TPCGB的缘起和影响。

 

C

猴子天花传染导致人们担心,因此反对把野生动物当作宠物饲养。

这篇短文学生感到非常陌生,而且其关键词monkey-pox是一个没有注释的生词。文章介绍的饲养野生动物作为宠物的现象,中国不多见,学生也不熟悉。

学生对这篇短文的图式的熟悉程度低于20%

新闻,反映在经济下滑,生活成本日渐高涨的社会背景下一些美国人不得不靠后院种菜,缓解生活压力的状况。

D

就如何与青少年相处问题给父母的建议。

这篇短文看起来是青少年生活,可是文章却是写给父母的,其语气、说法,学生并不熟悉,甚至有学生表示反感,认为给父母的建议有误导。学生对这篇短文的图式的熟悉程度低于40%

E篇为广告类应用文,共4个招聘广告。NO.1:广播电台招聘音乐节目制作人;No.2:购物中心临时招聘人扮演圣诞老人搞促销;No3.税务局招聘财税会计助理;No4.计算机软件培训班招聘老师。

E

法国旅游日记。

这篇短文介绍的全部是学生陌生的地方、陌生的旅游方式和生活经历。学生对这篇短文的图式的熟悉程度低于20%

七选五

2)词汇理解要求提高

考查学生的阅读理解中通过上下文理解语词词义的能力。

试题中还出现了很多所学词汇词义转换的现象

3)语句理解要求依然较高

2011阅读理解

2011年阅读理解题遵循《英语科考试说明》,题型与往年保持了一致,难度亦基本相当。稍有点难度的单词都有汉语注释。阅读题目全面考查了细节题、推断题、主旨题、词义猜测题。在选材上覆盖面广,语言地道,文体特征鲜明。应用文、记叙文、说明文各一篇,新闻两篇;阅读题材反映时代主题。

五、书面表达分析与教学建议

写是非常真实的语言运用形态,我们在真实生活中会经常写,但由于我国高中学生英语能力有限,而且受到阅卷成本的制约,目前的高考中无法设计完全真实的写作活动,只能设计一种半写作活动,即书面表达。顾名思义,书面表达就是要求学生用书面语言完成对信息的表达,信息的获取不是考查重点

一)书面表达考查学生的基本表达能力

高考考纲对书面表达的能力规定是:考查学生是否能够“准确使用语法和词汇;使用一定的句型、词汇,清楚、连贯地表达自己的意思。”显然,这一题型要求学生具有准确使用一定句型、词汇进行表达。其最高分的要求为:完全完成了试题规定的任务;覆盖所有内容要点;应用了较多的语法结构和词汇;词法结构或词汇方面有些许错误,但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致;有效地使用了语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑;完全达到了预期的写作目的。

我们通过分析2008年全国I卷的作文范文,可以看出书面表达的能力要求:

Dear Sir/ Madam,

Greetings from China!

I’m Li Hua, a student in Sichuan. I’ve been a panda lover since I was a child. About three years ago I was delighted to learn that Baiyun gave birth to her daughter Sulin and I’ve been watching her grow on your website. Now she’s going to be there. I’d like to wish her a happy birthday and to express my thanks to you for your hard work, because of which Sulin and her parents are living a happy and healthy life in the US.

   By the way, could I have a photo of Sulin taken on her third birthday? Thank you very much in advance.

                                                        Yours truly,

                                                          Li Hua

  2008年高考英语I卷书面表达语言构成

 

项目

低难度

中等难度

高难度

词汇

I’m, a, student, in, I’ve, panda, lover, was, child, about, three, year, ago, to, gave, her, daughter, and, watching, grow, on, your, now, she’s, going, be, there, I’d, like, happy, birthday, express, my, thanks, you, for, hard, work, because, of, which, parents, are, living, life, the, US, by, way, could, have, photo, of, third, very, much

been, healthy, since, that(连词), birth, wish, taken, advance

delighted, learn(得知),

website

语句结构

4个简单句

1个状语从句、1个宾语从句

1个定语从句

时态

一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时

现在完成时

现在完成进行时

 

以上范文使用的词汇都是比较简单的、高一学生完全掌握的,语句结构也不复杂,主要使用的是简单句,语句结构和时态都是高中生可以运用的。

我们统计了1998-2008年全国I卷的高考英语书面表达范文的用词,发现所用词汇不仅数量只有374个词,而且全部都是比较简单的常用词汇。这些词汇为:

a/an, a.m., able, about, according, advance, after, against, ago, all, along, also, and, another, any, anything, appearance, around, as, ask, at, away, bathroom, be, beautiful, because, become, bed, bedroom, been, before, behind, believe, besides, better, big, birth, birthday, book, borrow, bring, building, bus, but, buy, by, can, car, care, center, chair, chance, change, charge, chess, child, Chinese, city, classroom, close, come, common, could, country, cover, crop, crossing, cry, dance, daughter, day, delighted, desk, different, discussion, divide, do, dog, doubt, drive, driver, during, each, early, east, elderly, end, English, enjoy, entrance, even, every, experience, express, fact, fall, far, farm, favor, February, fee, few, find, flat, food, for, foreigners, forward, free, Friday, friend, from, front, full, fun, game, garden, gate, get, girl, give, glad, go, good, goodbye, great, grow, hand, happy, hard, harm, have, he, head, healthy, hear, help, her, hit, hold, home, hope, hopefully, hospital, how, however, I, idea, if, improve, in, include, information, inside, interest, into, it, joke, July, June, just, keep, kind, kitchen, know, last, later, learn, lesson, let, letter, library, life, like, list, living, London, long, look, lot, lover, low, lunch, magazine, make, man, many, me, meet, meter, mind, mine, minute, moment, Monday, money, month, more, morning, much, my, near, necessary, need, new, newspaper, next, no, noon, not, notice, now, number, of, off, old, on, one, only, open, opinion, or, other, our, out, own, Oxford, p.m., panda, parent, park, pass, pay, pen, people, per, period, pet, photo, picnic, place, plant, plate, play, playground, pleased, prepare, price, public, question, quickly, quite, read, really, rent, rest, return, right, road, round, rule, say, schoo1, see, September, share, she, shelf, shopping, short, should, show, side, sign, similar, since, sing, small, so, sofa, some, someone, something, song, soon, special, speed, square, stand, station, stop, store, story, straight, street, student, subject, such, suggest, sunshine, swimming, table, take, talent, television/TV, tell, tennis, than, thank, that, the, them, themselves, then, there, they, think, third, this, three, time, to, today, together, tour, towards, traveling, trees, try, turn, twenty, two, university, up, us, US, used, vegetable, very, visit, walking, wall, want, warm, watch, way, we, website, weekend, welcome, well, west, what, whatever, when, where, whether, which, while, who, will, wish, with, woman, work, worker, would, write, year, yellow, you, young, your, yourself

其中最常用的10个词分别是(括号内为11年的使用词数):be (66)the (62)a/an (48+2)to (45)I (37)you (33)of (27)have (21)for (18)it (15)on (14)

这些词汇说明高考书面表达所考查的是运用基本词汇进行书面表达的能力,而不要求学生运用很难的词汇进行表达。

六、阅读填空题七选五的做题技巧

解题策略

(一)明确文章的文体

具体的有两种方法。第一种是根据文章的标题。例如:Muzak(2010 年北京卷)Money matters ( 2011 年新课标卷)Easy ways to keep your brain sharp (2011年辽宁卷)从这几个标题便可确定文章的文体是说明文。Public speaking and critical speaking2011年北京卷)根据这个标题便可确定文章的文体是议论文。

第二种方法是根据文章的首段或首句,例如:Are you suffering a lot from test anxietyFollow these tips to help you overcome it.2010 年东北师范大学附属中学高三年级第五次模拟考试)根据文章的第一段就明确地判断出该文章的文体是说明文。

There were times when it was only schoolchildren who felt sick before they got their grades . Many teachers thinks that their privacy has been disturbed .

Many teachers are opposed to it

The creators of the website say that …(东北三省三校高三第二次联合模拟考试)

综合第一段和每一段的开头,即可确定这篇文章的文体是议论文。随后根据不同篇章的类型,主动的获取能反映篇章大意的信息,建构篇章大致的结构。

 二) 根据段落的布局结构确定部分选项

1(2011年辽宁卷)Everyone is forgetful,read on for some techniques worth trying

1 72

2 Go for a walk

3 Learn something new

分析:根据 123格式便可确定出72 的选相应该是祈使句。提供的七个选项中只有A 选项符合这一特征。

2:2010年全国新课标卷)Q&A

Question

Answer

         73

         Buy time

         Suggest a private meeting

分析:这种段落的布局格式也就告诉学生73 的选项应该是祈使句。在选项中ab选项符合这一特征。这样推理后无形就缩小了选择的范围。

(三)根据一些表示句子与句子的指示词,段落与段落之间的衔接词确定选项。

文本中的指示词,如firstbesidesmoreoverhoweverfinallyon the other handbut 等有助于识别句子间的逻辑关系和前后信息的相关度。

这些指示词主要有以下几种。

(一)          结构衔接

1:(2007年宁夏海南卷)Summer is around the corner.

The first thing you need to come up with

Next you need some friends to be in your club

74  You should all sit down

分析:每一段的开头的“first\ next,F选项中有“then” 便可确定出选项。

2:(2008年的宁夏海南卷)Taking good notes is a time-saving skill71 Second,your notes are excellent.

分析:选项中的First 与材料中的Second 相呼应。

(东北师范大学附属中学高三年级第五次模拟考试)Pick out the key words on the main points.You will now have two sets of study notes.52 Use the second to review night before the test.

分析:文本中选项后面的“second ”已经给出了明确的提示,选项use the first detailed set to study the material中的“first”即给了明确的提示。

(二)逻辑衔接

1: (2010哈师大附中第三次联合模拟考试)Why is setting goals important? 71 instead of,goals allow you to make your life happen.

选项E  Beause goals can help you do ,be and experience everything you want in life.

分析:材料中的“Why”和选项中的“Because”相呼应。

2:(2009 年宁夏海南卷)Never allow your childern to study in front of Tv,73  When the homework is finished.

选项Instead, use Tv as a treat or a reward.

分析:材料中的“Never”和选项中的“instead

3: (东北三省三校高三第一次联合模拟考试)shop when you normally exercise. Feet usually get bigger throughout the day, sometimes swelling . 选项So dont shop first thing in the morning if you often work out in te evening .

分析:选项中的“so”是一个很好的提示。

4:(2010 年海口市高考调研测试)This kind of reading requires posting and answering questions such as75,Do you share the authors point of view?

分析:材料中的“such as”已经给了明确的提示。选项中 Does my own experience …; Do you know about the author?即符合条件。

 (三)词语的衔接

正确选项中的关键词一般会重复前一句的关键词,或者是关键词的同义或近义的释义。

1:(2011年的新课标卷)Parents should keep their children understand money. 71 So you may start talking about money when your chldren show an interest in buying things.

选项The best time to teach a child anything about money is when he show an interest

分析:根据材料和选项中的关键词“interest”便可以得到答案。

(四)代词的衔接

总的来说,英语忌重复。“一般来说,除非有意强调或出于修辞的需要,英语总的倾向是尽量避免重复……宜尽量的采取替代省略或变换等方法来避免重复无意图的重复。这样不仅能是行文简洁、有力,而且比较符合英语民族的语言心理习惯。”(转刘岩等;2011

根据英语的表达的习惯,正确选项中的代词一定在前一句中提到过,或者是前一句的关键词在第二句中为了避免重复而用代词替换了。代词一般包括人称代词和指示代词。

1:…What do you hear ? 71 Its similar to the music. You listen to

分析:选项C Music is playing in the playground.选项中的“music”也就是材料中的“it.

2:…75  They say its boring to hear the same songs all the time.

正确的选项Some people dont like Muzak.

分析:选项中的“some people”在材料中由“they”所替代。

3(2008 年的宁夏海南卷)

whenever or however you take notes, keep in mind that note-taking is a selective process,  73

F That means you must first decide what is important enough to include in your notes.

分析:正确选项中的“that”指代的材料中“selective process.

四、根据选项在段落中的位置进行选择。

1:(沈阳二中高三第五次模拟)How did the language begin?

What was the world first language?Do all languages come from one original language? 71

In the 4th century

Nowadays

正确的选项People have been trying to find the questions for more than 2,000 years

分析:纵观全文是以时间为线索。以及疑问的句式就可推理出71应该是全文的主旨句。

2:(2010年新课标卷)…Question-and-answer periods are a a great way to classify the message and strengthen key points. 从选项的位置判断,72选项应该是一个过渡句。过渡句一般是用在陈述、列举自己的观点之前或在换段处起承上启下的作用。例如:Here are some suggestions on \Opinions are divided \ The reasons are as follows.等等。

选项G Here are some ideas that can help you …就符合这一要求。

3:Are you suffering a lot from the test anxiety?

73 Some people read all the questions first and then began to work. Others start

分析:从而材料中的“someothers”就可以确定出73 应该是主题句。选项Learn to develop a study strategy for taking test.就是一个主题句。

最后剩下的个别选项,可以结合文章或所在段落的主题利用排除法选择。如果有时间,把选项放在文章中,整体去感知和检查。

(未完待续)

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