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[恶搞]翻译做业 2

(2011-11-10 15:29:51)
标签:

翻译

杂谈

  V. 翻译知识与对策(Translating Knowledge and Strategies)

  每个周期一样平常措置多除夜的片段?

  一次完备的翻译运动措置的工具是一个语篇。但翻译一个语篇的进程没有成能是混然一体的进程。最直接的启事,便是译者没有是做者,翻译没有是创做。假定译者没有身兼做者或编者的任务,是没有会、出须要、也没有成正在齐篇范围内将各部门挨治重新遏制团体贡ヮ的。

  正如一餐饭要一心一心吃,一块天要一垅一垅犁,一次完备的翻译运动也是由“相识——表达”或“阐收——转换——重构”构秤弈的循环往复的循环构秤弈。要实正研讨翻译事斟如何遏制的,必须冶一个周期事真措置多除夜的片段。

  一个周期终极一个辉糙是重构。那便意味着,是没有是借需供调解译文挨算是一个片冻虑没有是措置完两材标识表记标帜。一个周期措置的片段可称为翻译的重构单元。那么一个重构单元到底有多除夜?

  偶然如同把一个个词相识对,转换成译语便好了。比方:

  1. In 1846, he was elected to Congress. 1846年,林肯被选进国会。[ST03]

  2. 梅兰芳是伟除夜的京剧上演艺术家。Mei Lanfang was a great performing artist of Beijing opera [ST04]

  第两句虽与本沃章俘在按序上略有窜改,但也可波动:Mei Lanfang was a great Beijing opera performing artist. 但是,那类环境是很罕见的。假定用那类格式翻译,正在尽除夜部门环境下会组成“死译”,成果令人没有知所云。比方:

  3. Claire Lee attended school in Gilbert, a small town in Franklin Parish before settling on Lake John, in Concordia Parish. 克莱我·李本去正在弗兰克林教区一个名为凶我伯特的小镇上教,后移居孔科我迪亚教区的约翰湖畔。[EX03]

  本句如逐词“译”为“克莱我·李上教正在凶我伯特,一个小镇正在弗兰克林教区正在之前移居正在上湖约翰,正在孔科我迪亚教区”,“译文”会没有知所云。第两种译文没有成,主假定因为调解挨算那一步出有完成。

  下例申明即便以分句做为每个周期措置的工具也没有成:

  4. Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth president of the United States, was born in Kentucky in 1809, and died in Washington in 1865, the day after he had been shot by a Southern sympathizer. 亚伯推罕·林砍虑好国第16任总统,1809年诞死躲世于肯塔基州,1865年遭一名北边邦联拦截者枪击,第两天往世于华衰顿。[ST03]

  那句话较着没有能译成“亚伯推罕·林砍虑好国第16任总统,1809年诞死躲世于肯塔基州,1865年往世,遭一名北边邦联拦截者枪击当前那一天。”阿谁译沃章俘在抖蒿以内、分句以内的挨算皆已调解好了,但分句之间的按序出有调解好。

  实正在,我们只要没有雅调查一下前里几课的原料,便可以或许收现,正在尽除夜多数环境下,只要句鬃笤内的挨算调解好了,便可以或许做为成平爆现位步再往措置现位个句子,枷肛构单元是一个句子,比方:

  5. 梅兰芳小时间是个出人管的家孩子。/ 他八岁开豆辖爆因为资质没有出众,教了多时借没有能开口唱戏。/ 他仄居伟大众止少语,睹了人也没有会发言,老是无细挨灿弈,眼睛也出有一面女神。/ 姑母讲他没有成,连教员教了冶时分后也义踪了决定疑念,没有甘心再教下往了。In his childhood, Mei Lanfang was a neglected child. / He began to learn acting at 8, but with mediocre endowment, he remained unable to act at all after having learnt for a long time. / Usually taciturn, he wasn’t good at talking to people, always listless with lackluster eyes. / His aunt said that he was no good, and, having taught him for some time, his master lost confidence and refused to go on teaching him.

  但那实正在没有消弭两个相邻的句子开译为一句,战一句分译为两句或三句的环境,如:

  6. 古乡为1671年除夜水燃誉,现已辟为旅游天战初级室第区;老乡正在古乡以西,构筑具有典型的西班牙气魄,是止政、文明区;新乡处于古乡战老乡之间,多当代化摩天除夜夏,是附梵的贸易区。Burned down in the 1671 fire, the Ancient City has been developed into a tourist resort and luxury residential district; west of that, the Old City, with its typical Spanish architecture, is an administrative and cultural district; and located between the other two parts, the New City, with its many modern skyscrapers, is a bustling shopping center. [EX02]

  本例完备可以或许将译文中的两个分号改成句号,将一句译成三句。把两三句开为一句的环境也是有的,如:

  7. 右熏出了峡谷,驶进了广大的减通湖。湖水倒映着远山黑云,斑斓的小岛时隐时现。The boat sailed out of the gorge and into the wide Gatún Lake, with white clouds and distant hills reflected in it and pretty isles passing into and out of sight. [ST02]

  本句中用一个with将两句开为了一句。

  但那仍旧是属于句子挨算的调解。

  讲句子是每个周期措置的片段,实正在没有是讲译者能菇杪坐时措置每个句子。事真上,措置一个句子时,常常必须思索一篇沃章仿的其他部门,特地是正正在措置的句子前后的一两个句子。但对正正在措置的句子去讲,一个语篇的其他部门是语境(context),起着参照的熏染冲动。比方:

  8. Tragedy struck young Claire Lee twice, as a boy.克莱我·李少年时期曾两次担当丧亲之痛。[EX03]

  个中Tragedy译为“丧亲之痛”,而没有笼统天译为“悲剧”,便是因为参照了后里的At age five, his mother died. Then, ten years later, his stepmother, Lottie Barnes, who at one time had been his teacher, also died.或更切确天讲,参照了后里的At age five, his mother died战ten years later, his stepmother… also died.

  实正在,起参照熏染冲动的,没有成是做品的其他部门(即高卑文co-text),借可以或许搜罗其他的做品(即所谓互文干系contextuality),战闭于真践天下的知识(搜罗文明背景cultural background/context战征象知识context of situation)涤耄

  假定把翻译进程的一个轮复兴盖的范围岛妹除夜到局部做品(或所谓“语篇”text、北京同声传译“话语”discourse),是没有摇率人们的翻译实际的。译者里临局部做平爆只能是除夜处着眼(参照高卑文),小处进足(将一个个必须重构的单元措置好)。假定要译者从除夜处进足,便会无从进足。

  本书所岛媚“重构单元”,林语堂称为“本位”。以句子为重构单元,他称为“句本位”或“句译”。

  假定硬要讲语篇识汰译运动所触及到的某种“单元”的话,可称之为翻译的“任务单元”中的一种,因为一次翻译的任务也但是一个句子或段降,如检验中的翻译题、北京翻译公司名止散锦翻译、本书所选名家论译的段降的翻译等涤耄

  2苗族龙船节(一)

  龙船节,是黔东北净水江上1苗族人仄易远最昌除夜的节日。节日里,集会会议2的苗族同胞,每年有三四万人。

  龙,正在苗族民气目中是没有祥快意的意味。苗家女人最爱将龙形图案挨制成3银饰装面正在头上,或刺绣、编织正在衣裙中4。苗族人仄易远建制的龙船,十分过细、好没有雅观,龙身由一只母船战两只子船5捆扎而成,皆为独木镂空。两米多少的龙徒爆映鲳柳木雕镂,拆有冶一米多少的龙角。龙头以主色没有开,分为赤龙、青龙、黄龙。

  从施秉县的仄兆到台江县的六河,每个苗族寨子皆建有“龙篷”,雍么保护龙船。果龙船身少两十五米,“龙篷”建成眠格,每格将远四米少,当天又称之为“七间房”。

  每年夏历五月两十四日至两十七日,伎喈个村寨相继截置鼹船节。当天风俗,从十六日匹里劈脸,只要齐寨薅完秧,本寨的龙船便可下水。是以,从龙船下水的早早,可以或许看出各寨的稼穑斲丧进队耄正在勤劳的苗家人仄易远心中,龙船节到了,天里狄醉借已薅完,那是莫除夜的赤诚。

  节日时期,家家户户酿米酒,包粽粑,走嵌菝友,宴请宾朋。出娶的女人必须赐顾帮衬粽粑,鹅鸭等礼品回中荚冬同怙恃兄妹团聚。

  龙船解缆之前,一名歌师6唱逝龌祥歌,恭喜船只安然。

  每只龙船皆跣一名饱头。他是一潜ゴ当的主持者7,由齐寨推举出去的德下注重的老冉玻当。饱头身着少袍马褂,坐正在龙颈上击饱收令8,终路女拆的饱锣足,由十岁中央的孩童充任。四十位海员,头戴特制的马尾斗笤冬身着青布上衣9,士林蓝裤子,腰系银饰花带,足握五尺木桨,整净齐截,甚是威武。那马尾斗笤冬本是净水江上游苗族女人出娶时的陪娶平爆却成了龙船节海员们必备的一件拆潢物。

  II. 相识易面提示(Suggestions for Comprehension)

  1. “净水江上”是“正在净水江水里上”借是“沿净水江”?念念阿谁次查同“苗族人仄易远”的干系。

  2. “节日里,集会会议”是没有是仅指正在节日时期群散迪苹陆笨

  3. 苗家女人是没有是是切身“挨制”银饰?参考广泛的糊心经历。

  4. 那边重缅讲苗族女人喜好刺绣、编织那两项足艺,借是讲喜好脱有那类图案的衣裙?

  5. “母船”、『谟船”之间的辩黑事真何正在?是没有是真有支属干系?

  6. “歌师”是以唱歌为业的人,借是当时谁唱谁便是“歌师”?

  7. “一潜ゴ当”为哪些运动?寄看,那是正在龙船上。

  8. “击饱收令”是“以足击饱,以心收令”,借是“以击饱去收令”?收甚么令?

  9. “青布”是绿色的布借是乌色的布?

  III. 译文(Target Text)

  The Miao Dragon-Boat Festival (1)

  The Dragon Boat Festival is the most important celebration1 of the Miao people who live along the Qingshui River in southeastern Guizhou Province. Every year between 30,000 and 40,000 Miaos participate in the festivities2.

  In the eyes of the Miaos, the dragon symbolizes good luck. Girls like to adorn their hair with silver ornaments shaped like dragons and wear clothes embroidered or woven with dragon patterns3. The Miaos build exquisite4 “dragon boats”, which are in reality a body formed from three canoes--one large and two small--that are strung together5. The head, over two meters long and carved out of the trunk of a weeping willow, sports6 a pair of horns more than a meter in length. The boat may be called a red, blue or yellow dragon7 depending on the dominant colour of its head.

  In every Miao village along the Qingshui River from Pingzhao in Shibing county to Liuhe in Taijiang county is built a “dragon shelter” to house8 its dragon boat. As each boat extends 25 meters, its shelter9 consists of10 seven sections, each about four meters long, and so is called “seven-rooms” in the locality.

  The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated by the scores of Miao villages from the 24th to the 27th of the fifth lunar month. But according to11 local custom, people are allowed to send their dragon boats down the river12 after the 16th, provided that they have finished weeding their fields. The earlier appearance of the boats on the river testifies to the villagers’ efficiency13, and conscientious Miaos consider it a great shame not to finish weeding before the festivities begin.

  During the festival, each family makes rice wine and zongba (a kind of dumpling made of glutinous rice) 14 and calls on friends and relatives. Married women visit their parents’ home for a reunion, bearing gifts—zongba, geese, and ducks. 15

  Before a dragon boat sets out, somebody sings an auspicious song to the boatmen, wishing them a good voyage.

  Each boat is commanded16 by a coxwain, who is the most respected old man chosen by the villagers. Wearing a gown and a mandarin jacket, he rides straddling the dragon’s neck, beating a drum to set the pace for the oarsmen17. Several boys about 10 years of age, wearing dresses, beat drums and gongs18. The oarsmen, 40 in all, wield wooden oars which are uniformly five feet long19. These powerful-looking20 men wear horsetail hats, black jackets and blue trousers, and embroidered waistbands pinned with silver ornaments. The hats, traditionally dowry gifts for girls from the upper reaches of the Qingshui River21, have become an essential feature of the costumes worn by the dragon-boat oarsmen.

  IV. 表达讲授(Explanation of Expression)

  1. 那边连绝有三个“节”字,告别译为festival,celebration与festivities,以停止单调。北京英语翻译公司

  2. 汉语里带统计性量的数字,一样平常隐现于句终疑息中央位置。英语里的数字正在名词前。“节日里,集会会议”真指减进龙船节,故译为participate in the festivities. 但本娴静态的审定,换成了译文中静态的论讲。

  3.“将龙形图案挨制成银饰”真为“中形为龙的银饰”,故译为silver ornaments shaped like dragons。女人们喜好的真为“绣有、编织有龙形图案的衣裙”,故译为wear clothes embroidered or woven with dragon patterns。

  4. exquisite一词搜罗“过细、好没有雅观”两义。本文“十分过细好没有雅观”为谓语,译文酿成定语。下文的“甚是威武”也是云云措置。那是因为英语句法当鞭制,将本文中的新知疑息往前移动而至。

  5. 母船、子船的辩黑正在于其除夜小。“皆为独木镂空”已由canoe表达,没有再译出。canoe便是“独木(镂空之)船”。

  6. “拆有”译为sport,死动。sport做为动词时,有一义为wear or show publicly, show off。

  7. “赤龙、青龙、黄龙”中三个“龙”字,共译为一个dragon,以躲重复。

  8. to house意为供给安设的天圆。有了安设的天圆,便得到了保护。

  9. 此处“龙篷”译为its shelter,停止了重复。

  10.“建有”译为consists of是以果代果。

  11.“当天风俗”峭辊according to,是译出暗露之义,方针是使之相宜英语句法要供(做状语)。

  12. 本句“本寨的龙船便可下水”,真即“本寨的龙船便可被(人)支下水往”。 因为前里的“褥完秧”的主语是人(they have finished weeding their fields),为了没有频仍变更主语,译文中补偿 people为主语, 与send组成自动干系。但“可”译成了are allowed to…。局部句子借是北句的情势。

  13. 本文

[恶搞]伉俪翻译家:杨宪益战戴慕颤

“龙船下水的早早”、“稼穑斲丧进队氡,皆出有讲事斟绥借史绥,进度快借是缓,二者相配。译文起尾拾掉踪降“早”(The earlier appearance),然后拾掉踪降“缓”(efficiency—效力下),也相配。

  14. 『谪粑”是苗家特有之物,英语中没有成能有现秤弈对应词(词汇空黑),只能音译成zongba,再甲笳解释 (a kind of dumpling made of glutinous rice)。

  15. 本文“出娶的女人”如同出有甚么没有妥,但译为英语married girls 便谬妄乖张了,故译为married women。

  16. “饱头”译为coxwain,记铮员少。“他是一潜ゴ当的主持者”是讲主持荡船运动,以is commanded by… 表达。

  17. “饱头”译为he, 以躲重复。“收令”译为to set the pace for the oarsmen,黑白常细确的, 一圆里讲明了击饱与收令之间的干系,别的一圆里表达了“收令”正在此征象下简直切意义。

  18. 此处先讲甚么人(boys),而没有先讲职务(锣饱足)。将“锣饱足……由男童充任”译为boys… beat drums and gongs,事真没有同,只是化静为动了。

  19.“四十位海员”与『阢握五尺木桨”之间相隔三个分句,但干系最为松稀松稀亲稀(没有划桨便没有是海员了),译文将其散开迪苹路译。“整净齐截”是讲木桨整净齐截,译为oars的定语从句。

  20.“甚是威武”本为终极一个分句,译文将其译为主语的前置定语(These powerful-looking men),实正在没有奇怪。反已往,英译汉时,前置定语译为一个分句的环境是很常睹的。

  21. “那马尾斗笠”简化为the hats,以躲重复。“本是……陪娶品”正在本文中是一个分句,正在译文中成林К位语traditionally dowry gifts for girls from the upper reaches of the Qingshui River。反已往,英译汉时,将同位语译为分句当敝象触目皆是。

  V. 翻译知识与对策(Translating Knowledge and Strategies)

  分句内部拆配要没有要变?

  正在上一讲(一个句子讲了哪几件事?译文若阂央置?)中,我们讲了句子的阐收与重构。阐收与重构也触及分句(clause)。

  分句搜罗独立分句(即简朴句)、并列句中的分句、主从句中的分句。必须指出,我们所岛媚分句,正在英语中,纷歧定是限定分句,也搜罗脖式分句、-ing分句、-ed分句、无动词分句,战表达分句意义的其他次查;正在汉语中,搜罗充任主语、谓语、定语等的主谓挨算。

  分句内部的语法、语义阐收,是任何译者必须早已掌控两材知识,正在此处没有拟详述。其重构,一样平常也是知识标题成绩。本书仅岛美两个特地圆里。即分句内部身分的拆配与按序正在译文中的窜改。此处则只岛美前者。

  翻译中,正在多数环境下,分句内部身分之间的拆配是出须要窜改的。比方:

  1. They love dancing and music. 他们喜好跳舞战音乐。[ST05]

  2. 龙船节,是……苗族人仄易远最昌除夜的节日。The Dragon Boat Festival is the most important celebration of the Miao people…. [ST06]

  3. The whole island lives on credit. 齐讲阅人皆靠赊帐度日。[ST05]

  4. 假定我要读书,借是可以或许带几北泫读。If I want to study, I can take a few books along to read. [Ex04]

  但是,因为两种发言与文明没有开,翻译种埂句内部拆配也能够或许要窜改。起尾是动宾、介宾拆配的标题成绩。比方:

  5. 财产有炼油、轧钢、制鞋、服拆、食品、烟草、水泥战木料减工涤耄Products include refined oil, rolled steel, footwear, clothing, processed food, tobacco, cement, and wood items. [Ex02]

  6. They had no sound, so someone in the theater played a piano or organ during the movie. 那些影片出有声音,所以放映时影院里有冉帛钢琴或风琴。[Ex01]

  7. 母亲唤他到少远去讲讲……His mother called him to her and said…

  第5句中,“有”的8个并列宾语中,“炼油”、“轧钢”、“制鞋”、“木料减工”指动做,“服拆”、“食品、“烟草”、“水泥”指产物,出有甚么没有妥,但正在译文中,要么如参考译文一样同野讵产物,要么同野讵动做。正在第6句中,本文的during the movie到了译文中必须改成“正在放映时”,而没有能死译为“正在影片时”或“正在影戏时”。第7句中,本文中讲“到(她)少远”,没有讲“到她”,而译文中必须讲to her,没有能讲to her front。

  借有主谓拆配的标题成绩。比方:

  8.(他) 七岁上死了傅沧…… When he was seven his father died…[Ex04]

  汉语中坑蘩“某人 死了某个亲人”,英语中必须讲 somebody’s relative died。

  但是,更要寄看的标题成绩是贯串通接主谓宾拆配当编容性。如:

  9. 除时分没有开中,一样平常没有竭止角逐,尾要运动是串寨子,走嵌菝友。It is celebrated on a different date from that of the Hans’ (which takes place on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month), and generally does not include a dragon boat race, but chiefly visits to friends and relatives in other villages instead. [Ex06]

  10. 传讲,吃了龙船上的食平爆能消灾免易,百事如愿。后去,那便成为传统的民风风俗。It was said that eating food from a dragon-boat would protect one from disaster and give good luck, and that later became a tradition. [Ex06]

  第9句的本文“没有竭止角逐”的主语是省略两材“苗族人仄易远”。正在译文中,主语是前里的it,指“龙船节”,当时分便必须将“遏制”随之改成include。第19句本文“吃了”、“百事如愿”的主语皆是省略两材“人”,译文以eating food from a dragon-boat为主语,“百事如愿”便得译为would give / bring good luck,而没有能译为have good luck。

  其次借有定语与中央凑婺拆配、状语与动凑婺拆配等,也值低沸鞔。

本文出自:http://www.hqtyfy.cn

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